• Demonstrate the ability to evaluate management practice using Organisational Behaviour theories and research and make practical recommendations (Evidence Based Management).
• Demonstrate the ability to conduct literature search and review.
• Demonstrate the ability to write in an academic style?
The economic conditions of the present day market scenario are tough to deal with for any organization, along with the tough economic conditions; the competition in any market scenario on a global basis has increased exponentially in the past few years. It has been noted by top officials in the field of management that there is a need for the employees of various organizations to understand the goals of the organization. The individuals are working in the organization first needs to achieve the goals that have been set for them individually or on a group basis to achieve the higher order goals of an organization (Abston and Kupritz, 2011). This method increases the chances of achieving the organizational goals and in the process also increases the working efficiencies of the individuals, who are a part of the organization. This method of goal setting has been considered by many as a method of motivation for the employees of an organization. This essay sheds lights on the various processes of goal settings and the different types of goals that can be assigned to an individual or a group of individuals in the organization (Knies and Leisink, 2013). The goals shall also be determined based on the type of work that the individuals are involved in within the organization. The essay shall also highlight the various levels of goals that a person can achieve. The goals can be considered to be just basic goals or can also be some challenging goals, which acts as a source of motivation for the individuals in the organization. The essay shall also discuss the effects of feedbacks and how they are to impact the individuals in the organization. It should be noted that the feedback system is only for persons who are involved in the managerial processes of the organization (Schultz, 2006).
Goal Setting Process
The theory that is related to the process of Goal Setting is a well-known and established theory of motivation. This fact is evident from the various researches and application of the principles related to the process of goal setting in various organizations. The main point of interest of the theory is that it encourages individuals in pursuing a specific goal that shall be challenging and helps the individuals in performing better in their field of interest. It is as opposed to the idea of setting an easy goal for an individual and just asking them to do the best possible on their part. There have been various researches on the process of goal setting and their effects on the individuals (Krishnan, 2009). It has given rise to the various mechanisms that are involved in the process and the conditions that act as the boundary conditions for the goal setting process. It has been seen from previous researches that a concrete and challenging goals enhance the performance of an individual, as it focuses their attention on a fixed result of their persistence and effort. Their focus on a single objective enables then to develop themselves and their usage of the various strategies that are required for the completion of their goals (MA, 2015). It has been noted from previous researches that goal setting depends on the complexity of the task, the commitment towards the goal and the feedback that the individual receives for their work (Li and Wang, 2015).
The researches that have been conducted on the process of goal setting also states that the process has not yet been made to be aligned with the policies and the practices of the organization. It is because, in an organization, the work that an individual is frequently responsible for is now being shared by a group (Kleingeld, van Mierlo and Arends, 2011). This development in an organization has led to further research on the process of setting goals. Till date, the only published report is a meta-analysis that had been conducted by Frink, O’Leary-Kelly and Martocchio in the year of 1994. Their research stated that there is a positive effect of the setting of group goals on the performance of the group (Shahin and Mahbod, 2007). This result was concluded after they compared the impact on the group performance due to the setting of low goals or no goals at all.
Thus from the various researches and previous works that have been done in the field of goal setting, it is being advised that the individuals and the groups that are working in the organization be assigned with specific and challenging goals (Chowdhry, 2012). It shall help the organization in improving its quality of service because the performance of the individuals and the groups that are working within the organization shall improve due to the process of goal setting (Matsui, Kakuyama and Onglatco, 1987). It is being advised that the goals that shall be set for the various individuals or group working within the organization be set depending on the plans which the company makes for the upcoming annual year.
Types of Goals
It is being proposed based on the theories of goal setting that the goals that are set for the individuals who are working at the managerial posts, be individualistic in nature, whereas, the goals that are being set for the non-managerial individuals in the organization be group goals (Tosti, 2006).
From researches that have been conducted in the past by Matsui in the year of 1987, it has been observed that more than individual goals, people in the Japanese culture set more importance to the achievement of the group goals (Locke et al., 1989). It led to the conclusion of the fact that the productivity that an organization got when they set group goals was much more in comparison to the productivity that an organization go by setting individual goals only. Further research conducted by Kleingeld in the year of 2011 supported the fact that was put forth by Matsui (Kleingeld, van Mierlo and Arends, 2011). The term “egocentric” was introduced by Kleingeld to describe individual goals and stated that the performance level based on individualistic goals was less compared to the performance due to group-centric goals (Zetik and Stuhlmacher, 2002). The research indicated that there is a need for a both individual as well as group goals to maximise the level of performance in an individual. The conclusion of the study that was conducted by Kleingeld stated that the group’s goals had a more positive effect on the performance of an organization rather than individual goals (Nguyen, Hoang and JeÌ¨drzejowicz, 2012). It also states that the effectiveness of the various individual goals can be increased and improved if they are to be made more group-centric instead of making them egocentric in nature.
Thus based on the various studies and researches in the past, it is being advised to maximise the performance level of the various individuals (Johnson, Dickinson and Huitema, 2008). The individuals who are working in the organization, group-centric and individual goals should be set for the managerial staffs for achieving a higher performance level and the same should be applicable even for the individuals who are working in the non-managerial posts within the organization (Van Soelen, 2013).
Level of Goals
There have been a number studies and researches in the past that states that higher level and specific goals evoke the maximum level of effort from an individual working in the organization. The performance level of an individual improves and increases while trying to achieve a higher level and specific goals (Nicklin and Williams, 2011). Whereas, studies indicate that the effectiveness of achieving a goal that is vague or lower in nature i.e. not challenging for the individual does not improve the performance of an individual. Researches that has been conducted in the past by Mento, Steel and Karren in the year of 1987 or Tubbs in the year of 1986 all support the above-stated fact. There has been confusion regarding the terms goal level and goal difficulty. Goal difficulty is stating the probability in achieving a particular goal. A goal that only 10% of the organizational workforce can achieve is considered to be a more difficult goal than a goal that the rest 90% of the organizational workforce can achieve. Whereas, goal level is often correlated with the term goal difficulty but is considered to be the performance level that needs to be achieved while achieving a particular goal (Pidd, 2012).
The study that has been conducted by Locke in the year of 1967 and 1982 simply states that the level of performance is directly related to the level of the goal that needs to be achieved. The study indicates that higher the level of the goal the higher the level of the performance, but the condition remains that the ability of the individual or the group who is trying to achieve the said goal is adequate to achieve the set goal (Cur eu, Janssen and Meeus, 2013). Thus, from the studies that have been done in the past, it is being advised that there should be a mix of higher level and basic level goals for the individuals in the organization (Palomares, 2009). The higher level goals shall act as a motivating factor for the individuals and shall encourage them to improve their level of performance and, as a result, improve the performance and level of quality of the organization (Gómez-Izquierdo et al., 2015). The basic goals can be considered to confidence booster and shall also be used for improving the performance of the individuals who are not adept at achieving higher level goals.
Interim Review and Feedback
Review and Feedback is an important part of the process of goal setting. It is considered to be a major aspect of improving the performance of an individual or a group. The concept of Review and Feedback is based on the process of investigation of the actions of the individuals or groups in the task of achieving a set goal and providing them with the information based on their performance (Shahin and Mahbod, 2007). There are two types of feedback that one can receive. It can be individual feedback or it can also be a group feedback. But studies indicate that while working in a group a mixture of individual and group feedback is the best method of feedback. Studies conducted by Zander and Wolfe in 1964 and Zanjoc in the year of 1962 states that the feedback that consists of the group and individual performance reports tends to be more effective over a feedback that contained information regarding the performance of either the group of the individuals only. In the year of 1982 Campbell and Lord devised a method of establishing a relation between goals and feedback and the work that is put in by an individual in achieving the goals (Davis, 2005). This relation was devised from the theory of control theory. Thus, it is evident from the studies that the feedback and review system is necessary to motivate the individuals working to improve on their present state of performance in order to achieve their set goals (Wright, 2012).
It has been quite evident from all the researches that have been done in the past on the process of goal setting and the related theories. The organization can make use of the various processes that are involved in the goal setting process in so as to enhance the work quality, by improving the performance of the individuals who are working within the organization (Pekrun et al., 2014). The four factors that have been highlighted and mentioned in the paragraphs as mentioned above are of utmost necessity for the organization to achieve a higher order organizational service level and performance.
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