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Empirical Ethical Decision Making Literature

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Question:

Discuss about the Empirical Ethical Decision Making Literature
 
 

Answer:

Introduction

In this report, ethical dilemma associated with an organization is analyzed. The president of the software company published the software in the market with bugs. The users who use the software for calculating the tax return were penalized by the ATO of the organization, as the calculation done by the software is incorrect. As a result, both the organization as well as customers of the company faces challenges due to the ethical dilemma.

 The report discusses the ethical dilemma response from various perspectives and implications of ACS Code of Professional Conduct. Various recommendations are also provided for resolving the ethical issue.

Ethical dilemma that is confronted by the president of the software development company

The software development company has recently created a new software package, which is utilized by both the small businesses as well as individuals for incorporating new tax laws and figures. The new software, which was developed, has numerous disadvantages and therefore the organization wants to resolve them. The organization publishes a CD, which contains disclaimer of various responsibilities for errors. The software was published in the market and it has capture largest number of market share.

The organization expects that from the users of the software they will receive numerous complaints, queries and suggestions for modifying the features of the software but due to the presence of bugs within the software, numerous ethical dilemma cases arise. Many employees or users who have used the software in order to calculate the tax return of their organization were penalized by the ATO as they have calculated incorrect tax return (Schwartz, 2013).  The president of the organization is confronted with the ethical dilemma as the users of the software were penalized and therefore the sales of the software will be automatically reduced in the market. The president of the organization will also not receive any scope or proper suggestion from the users in order to remove the bugs from the software.

 

Ethical response to the dilemma according to the consequences

The scenario is ethically challenging as the users of the software were penalized due to incorrect calculation of tax return.   The organization must be careful before using the software and they must follow all the disclaimers properly in order to minimize the ethical dilemma. The tax return, which is calculated using the software, must be rechecked before it is provided to the organization.  The rechecking of calculations avoids mistakes and problems. The ATO of the organization must investigate the case before penalizing the members of the organization.

The organization must follow some of the specific rules and regulations before adopting or using software for organizational purpose (Ruiz-Palomino, Martínez-Canas & Fontrodona 2013).  The organization that develops the software also faces number of challenges due to publishing the software with the bugs.   Due to the several disadvantages, the users stop preferring the software and as a result the sales of the software rapidly decrease in the market.  In order to resolve the issue the organization must remove the bugs from the software and update it properly so that it does not have a negative impact on the organization (Certo, 2015).  The customers of the software must be aware of its various negative impacts and must check the licensing period as well as features of the software properly before utilizing it.

Ethical response to the dilemma according to a consistent application of principles

In this scenario, the users of the organization have adopted the use of the software, which has numerous bugs, and the software calculated wrong result, which is the most important ethical issue that needs to be considered.  As per the consistent application of principles, the organization must adopt the accounting software that they will follow consistently in the future. Only change in accounting software can occur if the new version is quite beneficial to the organization as compared to the older version of accounting software (Dzuranin, Shortridge & Smith, 2013).  

If any change occurs in the use of the software then it will affect the entire document of the organization so the company must avoid frequent change of software (Kuntz et al., 2013).  The accountants of the organization must be consistent in using the accounting principles, various methods as well as practices and procedures. It is recommended by the Financial accounting standards board, which is very much significant to utilize consistency as one of the important characteristics, which helps in using making the operation little bit easy.

 

Duties of company president

 It is the responsibility of the organization to check the software before it is published in the market.  The organization must not publish software full of bugs as it will not only effect the operations of the organizations that use the software but also the effect the market demands of the software. The sales of the software will decrease in the market if the users are unsatisfied with the features (Doherty & Purtilo, 2015).  Therefore, the president of the organization must implement some rules and regulations according to which disclaimers must be provided for the customers so that they are aware of any negative impact of the software they are using.

Ethical response to the dilemma according to the typical response of a caring person

In this scenario, both the organizations as well as the customers of the software were confronted with the ethical dilemma. From the perspective of a caring person, the organization must not publish the software knowing the fact that it contains bugs. The organization must publish the software by making the fact clear that is quite advantageous for the organizations, which uses it (Jackson et al., 2013). The users of the software must be aware of its features so that they can handle it properly.

The workers or the accountants of the organization must recheck the tax return using some other software clarifying the fact that the calculation that is made by them is correct (Craft, 2013).  The workers of the organization must use licensed software so that the organization does not have to confront with some ethical challenges. It is also quite important for the users of the software that they must follow the disclaimers of responsibility for errors in order to avoid mistakes while handling the software.

 

The ACS Code of Professional Conduct:

Primacy of Public Interest: The interest of the public in the software will reduce as it contains number of bugs, which further have some devastating impact on the organizations that are utilizing it (Neubert & Roberts, 2013). Therefore, the organization must publish the software after it is clear that it is advantageous for various operational functions of the organization.

Enhancement of Quality of Life: The workers of the organization are penalized due to the incorrect tax return calculation. The employees are penalized although they have no idea about the software bugs. Therefore, it is very much important for the organization to identify the victim of the case before penalizing the users.

Honesty: The organization knows that fact that the software contains bugs. In spite of this, they published the software. Therefore, it is very much important to have honest in order to minimize situations that are associated with ethical issue.

Competence: The workers calculate the tax return on the software, which have number of bugs as they are unaware of it (Crossan,  Mazutis & Seijts, 2013).  Therefore, it is very much important to have competency among them so that they became aware of the various situations.

Professional Development: The organization does not follow proper techniques of professional development and as a result, it confronts with such ethical dilemma. Therefore, professional development must be enhanced within the organization.

Professionalism: The worker of the organization does not maintain professionalism and as a result, the organizations have used improper software (Shafer, 2015).  Therefore, enhancement of both integrity as well as professionalism is required in the organization.

Defence on the ethical grounds for the president of the software company

 The president of the software company publishes the software while knowing the fact that it contains a number of bugs. This is because the president wants to improve the software. The president knows that the software will capture the largest market share and as a result, they can receive number of complaints, queries as well as suggestions for modifying the software. The organization wants to improve the software eventually by resolving the issues associated with the software and as a result, the software was shipped into the market along with the bugs (Cianci et al., 2014).

 

Advice to the president of the company

 The president of the company must be aware of the impact of the bugs in order to handle the software properly. They must remove the bugs by analyzing the problems associated with the software. The software must be updated properly before publishing it in the market. The president must enhance professionalism, honesty as well as quality of life in order to minimize the problems associated with ethical dilemma. The president must implement some rules and regulation so that challenges that arise due to ethical dilemma will be minimized or avoided in the future.

Conclusion

It can be concluded that the organization must remove the bugs before publishing it in the market. This is helpful for both the customers as well as organization to handle the software properly. It is analyzed that the president of the organization publishes the software with bugs in the market in order to receive number of complaints, queries as well as suggestions for modifying the software. The assignment provides number of recommendations as well as responses from various perspectives in order to avoid or minimize the problems that are associated with ethical dilemma.

 

References

Certo, S. (2015). Supervision: Concepts and skill-building. McGraw-Hill Higher Education.

Cianci, A. M., Hannah, S. T., Roberts, R. P., & Tsakumis, G. T. (2014). The effects of authentic leadership on followers' ethical decision-making in the face of temptation: An experimental study. The Leadership Quarterly, 25(3), 581-594.

Craft, J. L. (2013). A review of the empirical ethical decision-making literature: 2004–2011. Journal of Business Ethics, 117(2), 221-259.

Crossan, M., Mazutis, D., & Seijts, G. (2013). In search of virtue: The role of virtues, values and character strengths in ethical decision making. Journal of Business Ethics, 113(4), 567-581.

Doherty, R. F., & Purtilo, R. B. (2015). Ethical dimensions in the health professions. Elsevier Health Sciences.

Dzuranin, A. C., Shortridge, R. T., & Smith, P. A. (2013). Building ethical leaders: A way to integrate and assess ethics education. Journal of Business Ethics, 115(1), 101-114.

Jackson, R. W., Wood, C. M., & Zboja, J. J. (2013). The dissolution of ethical decision-making in organizations: A comprehensive review and model. Journal of Business Ethics, 116(2), 233-250.

Kuntz, J. R. C., Kuntz, J. R., Elenkov, D., & Nabirukhina, A. (2013). Characterizing ethical cases: A cross-cultural investigation of individual differences, organisational climate, and leadership on ethical decision-making. Journal of Business Ethics, 113(2), 317-331.

Neubert, M. J., Wu, C., & Roberts, J. A. (2013). The influence of ethical leadership and regulatory focus on employee outcomes. Business Ethics Quarterly, 23(2), 269-296.

Ruiz-Palomino, P., Martínez-Cañas, R., & Fontrodona, J. (2013). Ethical culture and employee outcomes: The mediating role of person-organization fit. Journal of Business Ethics, 116(1), 173-188.

Schwartz, M. S. (2013). Developing and sustaining an ethical corporate culture: The core elements. Business Horizons, 56(1), 39-50.

Shafer, W. E. (2015). Ethical climate, social responsibility, and earnings management. Journal of Business Ethics, 126(1), 43-60.

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