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ENG436 Communication Systems

tag 0 Download 0 Pages / 0 Words tag 21-06-2022
  • Course Code: ENG436
  • University: University Of Tasmania
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  • Country: Australia



Multimedia plays a very important part in every aspect of human life. Various health applications have emerged which make the effective use of multimedia communication technology. Health is the evolving sector adopting various technologies for proper evolvement. The sector makes proper use of telecommunications and multimedia technologies for health care delivery to the patients. There are various factors which have motivated the sector to join the revolution (Pang et al. 2015). The first factor is the high growth of population all across the world, huge burden of disease prevalence and the second leading factor is the speedy growth of technology in all the sectors.

The assignment deals with the various factors affecting the use of multimedia communication in the e-health sector. An application of the multimedia communication in e-health has been described. This portion is followed by the multimedia techniques and technologies being adopted in the application described. After that, the communication technology and techniques used in the application has been described. The e-health application has been described in the assignment along with the techniques and technologies used in it. The report has been described in different sections in order to make the contents of the report clear to the reader.

Patient Monitoring and Home Care Application

Description of Application:

The multimedia communication application in e-health chosen here is the Patient Monitoring and Healthcare. Internet has provided lot of opportunities in the improvement of patient health potentially. This application deals with the potential provision of in-home care of the patients through the care providers with video based consultants. The control of the equipment related to medicine is deployed at the residence of the patient. The major goal of this application is to detect the early symptoms of certain illness that the patient may be suffering from. The illness which is detected through the application is heart attacks, diabetes and congestive heart failures. This application is useful as it helps in the detection of the illness in its early stage (Martinez et al. 2014). The remote consultant to the patient’s home is helpful as it is an effective procedure for the monitoring of health of patient. This application is beneficial for the patient as well because it reduces the cost of clinical intervention and also helps to cut out the cost that might emerge in hospitals. The remote consultations to the residence if the patient results in an useful procedure for the patient who have sudden tendency of heart attack and other severe illness The former phase of the consultancy does not requires video imagery. The initial phase is carried out by simply listening t the heart beat of the patient and the sound produced by the lungs just to check if they are working properly and accordingly. This way, the significant signs and pulse oximetry is taken into context. The trend of this application was initiated in the early 1975 and today the number of home agencies has risen to a number of 2,300 to an estimate of 8,500. The number of hospital beds according to those 1000 persons who get enrolled has reduced from 51 to 28. The number of patient who get home treatment through the application has increased rapidly (Peddi et al. 2017). The health insurance and health management agencies are making efforts to make more efforts to bring these application is trend because of the various benefits they get from these.

The attempts which are made to monitor the patient through the application mainly focus on the chronic condition of the patient. The chronic condition of the patient indulge the diseases such as asthma, congestive failure if heart and diabetes. The devices which are used for the monitoring of such diseases are same as those used in the hospitals and there is no lack in proper investigation and treatment of the patient.

The advancements which have emerged in the Microelectromechanical system devices (MEMS) are combined with the forecasts in the sector of microelectronics, biomaterials and biosensors. This can lead to huger changes in the therapies being used to cure the patient and delivery of medication to the patient (Ferreira et al. 2015).

There are many essential factors which are responsible for the proper functioning of the application. The internet connection matters a lot in the proper functioning of the application. Bandwidth is a significant issue which rises during the implementation of the applications. The data needs to be monitored on a regular basis so that the patient is given proper treatment. The monitoring procedure needs to be done properly (Raaff, Glazebrook and Wharrad 2014). The data needs to be protected from security breaches. The network used must be protected from the denial of service attacks. High level of authentication is needed on both the ends of the network for proper surveillance of the patients.

Multimedia Techniques and Technology Used in the Application:

Text: The most common method or technique for communicating still now is the text or written formats. The texts can be considered as the most basic medium of communication (Takacs, Swart and Bus 2015). The healthcare application make use of the texts in the emails, social networking communication and many other reasons. It was initially characterized by printed media, for example, books and daily papers that utilized different typefaces to show the letters in order, numbers, and exceptional characters. In spite of the fact that media items incorporate pictures, sound and video, content might be the most widely recognized information sort found in mixed media applications. As stated above, through the use of the texts in the social media or any other communication medium the strength of the communication can be increased.

The static texts are referred to the multimedia technology that fits well with the graphical adjacent. Taken as an example, the healthcare application is sharing a poster in the social media sites for promoting something (Hu et al. 2014). The poster will have pictures or graphs and texts around that image for making the audience understand the meaning of the poster.

On the other hand, nodes are the main component of the hypertext system. It contains the content and connections between the hubs, which characterize the ways the client can take after to get to the content in non-successive ways (Robbins et al. 2015). The connections speak to relationship of importance and can be considered as cross-references. The framework is created by the administrator and if any other user crates the hypertext, then the administrator must approve it before the system uses it. The system provide the hypertexts to the users so that they can easily navigate to the desired section. Content ought to be utilized to pass on basic data and ought to be situated at proper place in an interactive media item. Very much organized sentences and passages are imperative components, separating and accentuation likewise influences the comprehensibility of the content (Hu et al. 2014). Textual styles and styles ought to be utilized to enhance the correspondence of the message all the more properly.

Image: Among the various multimedia technologies, the Images are one of the most significant one. The healthcare application make use of the images for sharing the reports, photo proofs and many more reasons (Pun 2014). These are produced by the PC in two courses, as bitmap or raster pictures and as vector pictures. The most widely recognized and complete type of capacity for pictures on a PC is a raster or bitmap picture. Bitmap is a basic lattice of the little specks called pixel that structures a raster or bitmap picture. Every pixel comprises of at least two hues. The shading profundity is controlled by how much information, in bits is utilized to decide the quantity of hues e.g. one piece is two hues, four bits implies sixteen hues, eight bits shows 256 hues, 16 bits yields 65,536 hues et cetera (James and Dasarathy 2014). Contingent upon the equipment abilities, each point can show from two to a huge number of hues. Thorough picture implies that a picture looks however much as could be expected like the genuine word or unique item. This implies the extent, size, shading, and surface must be as exact as could be expected under the circumstances. Bitmap organizations are Windows Bitmap (BMP), Device Independent Bitmap (DIB), and Windows Run Length Encoded (RLE) (Pun 2014).

Vector pictures base on drawing components or protests, for example, lines, rectangles, circles et cetera to make a picture. The upside of vector picture is the generally little measure of information required to speak to the picture and in this way, it doesn't requires a ton of memory to store. The picture comprises of an arrangement of charges that are drawn when required. A bitmap picture requires the quantity of pixels to create suitable tallness, width and shading profundity, the vector picture depends on a generally predetermined number of drawing orders (Zhou et al. 2014). The falls drop of vector pictures is the constrained level of detail that can be displayed in a picture. Generally utilized vector organization is Windows metfile in windows working framework.

Sound: This multimedia technology in the healthcare application can be considered as the most sensuous one. It is important discourse in any dialect, from a whisper to a shout. It can give the listening joy of music, the startling accent of enhancements, or the feeling of a temperament setting foundation (Takacs, Swart and Bus 2015). It can advance a craftsman, add enthusiasm to a content site by adapting the creator, or to educate articulating words in another dialect. Sound weight level (volume) is measured in decibels, which is really the proportion between a picked reference point on a logarithmic scale and the level that is really experienced (Hermes and King 2013).

Digital sound is inspected sound. The each nth portion of a moment, a specimen of sound is taken and put away as advanced data in bits and bytes. The nature of this advanced recording relies on how regularly the specimens are taken  and what number of numbers are utilized to speak to the estimation of each example (Arevalo et al. 2015). The all the more regularly the specimen is taken and the more information is put away about that example, the better the determination and 85 nature of the caught sound when it is played back. The nature of computerized sound additionally depends on the nature of the first sound source, catch gadgets, supporting programming and the capacity of playback condition. The fundamental advantage of sound is that it gives a channel that is separate from that of the show (Davis and MacKenzie 2014). Sound assumes a noteworthy part in sight and sound applications, however there is a fine harmony between taking care of business and trying too hard. Media items advantage from computerized sound as instructive substance, for example, a discourse or voice-over and as embellishments to demonstrate that a program is executing different activities, for example, hopping to new screens. The three inspecting frequencies utilized as a part of sight and sound are CDquality 44.1 kHz, 11.025 kHz and22.05 kHz. Computerized sound assumes a key part in advanced video (Ross 2015).

Video: Video is characterized as the show of recorded genuine occasions on a TV sort screen. The inserting of video in sight and sound applications is an effective approach to pass on data. It can fuse an individual component, which other media need (Militano et al. 2015). The identity of the moderator can be shown in a video. The video might be classified in two sorts, simple video and advanced video.

Simple video is the video information that is put away in any non-PC media like tape, laserdisc, film and so on. It is additionally isolated in two sorts, composite and part simple video. Composite Analog Video has all the video segments including brilliance, shading, and synchronization, consolidated into one flag. Because of the organization or consolidating of the video segments, the nature of the composite video is come about as shading dying, low clearness and high generational misfortune (Pan, Zhang and Kwong 2015). Generational misfortune implies the loss of value 86 when the ace is duplicated to alter or for other reason. This recording configuration was utilized for client simple video recording tape organizations, (for example, Betamax and VHS) and was never sufficient for most sight and sound introductions. Composite video is additionally vulnerable to quality misfortune from one era to other. Segment simple video is viewed as more progressed than composite video. It takes distinctive parts of video, for example, shading, brilliance and synchronization and breaks them into partitioned signals (Tu et al. 2014).

To give the presence of movement, picture ought to be supplanted by no less than thirty times each second and the capacity memory required is no less than thirty megabyte for one moment of video. The more circumstances the photo is supplanted, the better is the nature of video. Video requires high transmission capacity to convey information in arranged condition (Pan, Zhang and Kwong 2015). This mind-boggling innovative bottleneck is beat utilizing computerized video pressure plans. There are video pressure measures as MPEG, JPEG, Cinepak and Sorenson. Notwithstanding compacting video information, spilling advances, for example, Adobe Flash, Microsoft Windows Media, QuickTime and Real Player are being executed to give sensible quality low data transmission video on the web. Advanced video organizations can be partitioned into two classes, composite video and segment video. It holds some of shortcoming of simple composite video like shading and picture determination and the era misfortune when duplicates are made (Militano et al. 2015). Part advanced is the uncompressed organize having high picture quality.

Communication Techniques and Technology Used in the Application:

Social Media: Social media provides a broad range of paths to the healthcare through which it can communicate with internal and external stakeholders. In addition to that, the healthcare center is being using the social media as a platform for sharing knowledge. Now, the social media has the characteristics called instant chat (Grajales et al. 2014). Through this feature, the stakeholders can  easily communicate with each other. This marvel has been alluded as social proprioception, named after the physical nature of proprioception that tells an animal where its furthest points are by the gathering of boosts delivered inside the life form. Social proprioception reveals to us where the hubs of our group are and gives a feeling of connectedness to and attention to others without direct correspondence. Web is the third place where individuals interface with companions, manufacture a feeling of harmony (Antheunis, Tates and Nieboer 2013). In order to use the social networking sites, the stakeholders only need to have a interconnection enable device that can connect to the site. The most of the social networking sites are not concern of the healthcare application. The application focuses on mainly Facebook, Twitter and MySpace.

The process of sharing knowledge occurs mainly through the Twitter website. The Faceook site is mainly for connecting with the people more conveniently. They offer an approach to stay in contact with existing groups that clients have a place with disconnected, for example, social and expert gatherings (Verhoef et al. 2014). They likewise make it feasible for individuals who might not regularly convey over and over a year to stay in contact—associates met at gatherings, for example, or companions met through the online group itself. Destinations like YouTube and Flickr speak to another discussion for online correspondence that is fixated on sharing, inclination, and pop culture. The users comment on the posts or tweets. The professionals often reply to some of the queries or some other posts or Tweets are created for a particular important concern. This way the communication becomes very effective and efficient (Grajales et al. 2014).

Email:  Email or electronic mail are the most effective way of communicating and sending files to one or multiple people. The extensive use of the email in the healthcare application can be seen. The receptionists, management, doctors and other stakeholders uses this communication technology for sending files and inform others of something important (Newhouse et al. 2015). The copy of receipts, salary slip and many other important documents are shared with the use of this technology.   

Video Conferencing: The video conferencing can be referred to a meeting between two or more individuals that takes place over the internet. The special kind of communication technique that allows the partisans to visualize each other. The components required for video conferencing are a microphone, display, a software application that collects the video and audio input, a software program that setup bridge between the participant applications and an optional management tool (Flodgren et al. 2015). The video conferencing in the healthcare application is used both point-to-point and multi-point conferencing. In point-to-point communication, the patient is only communicating with the doctor. There is no other person in that conference.

The physical segments (such as camera and microphone) that empower the meeting to occur are frequently coordinated into desktop figuring arrangements like a portable workstation or tablet, or can be consolidated into devoted, room-based equipment arrangements. In terms of a multiport communication, various doctors communicate with each other in a single session. People can take an interest in a meeting in a "sound just" mode, or consolidate sound with video pictures of the meeting on screen (Rocha et al. 2013). Contingent on the specialized ability of the video conferencing framework being utilized, pictures seen by members are either delegated dynamic speaker or constant nearness.


Hence, from the above discussion, it can be concluded that there are various factors that have motivated the sector to join the revolution. The first factor is the high growth of population all across the world, huge burden of disease prevalence and the second leading factor is the speedy growth of technology in all the sectors. Internet has provided lot of opportunities in the improvement of patient health potentially. This application deals with the potential provision of in-home care of the patients through the care providers with video based consultants. The advancements which have emerged in the Microelectromechanical system devices (MEMS) are combined with the forecasts in the sector of microelectronics, biomaterials and biosensors. This can lead to huger changes in the therapies being used to cure the patient and delivery of medication to the patient. The use of these technologies must be encouraged.

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