Securing Higher Grades Costing Your Pocket? Book Your Assignment at The Lowest Price Now!

English Language And Linguistics: Management Add in library

335 Download28 Pages 6,993 Words


Compare and contrast two related texts one spoken one written, using relative techniques of description and analysis. identify language choices that construe the the particular communicative purposesof the texts and social meanings they make., whats the contex where the texts are situated and the broader socio/cultural context?



There is no introduction can be given to the English language. It is popular in most of the countries around the world as the simplest way to communicate and describe the feeling or convey a message to the other person. It is how you understand the meaning of a particular word or text properly and effectively. This is the way how extravagantly using your skills in the modern age and coping with the situation you are confronted. A comprehensive knowledge of the language makes you handle the typical situation. In this part there is a concern of the modern day English study comprehensively from every angle that is in both descriptive and theoretical. Also there is comparing and contrasting of two related texts one spoken and one written using the relative techniques of description and analysis. Identifying the language choices that construe the particular communicative purposes of the texts and social meanings they make. What type of clauses, registers, lexical chains are present in spoken and written texts. What context where the texts are situated and the broader socio/cultural context,   Hallidayan SFL framework regarding Tokens, Mode and Field in each text, Pragmatics is missing (Grice’s maxims) in both texts, CDA (critical discourse analysis) framework for spoken language and a brief comment on the implication of the analysis of the texts for a pedagogic related context that is being experienced. Understanding the word formation and how it is being used at several place while communicating, raise the level of being a linguistic.    

Comparison and contrasting

The comparison and contrasting between the written and the spoken English is quite difficult. But with the difference in the use of a particular word according to the area where it is being speaked and written can make a comprehensive comparison between them. As we talking about the today world there is no difference between it. The English language is more popular with the European people and it being used as the major source to communication while in the administrative work , conversation with each other and showing up the sentiments and the feeling of the inside of a man. The study on the English is always being an exciting topic to discuss because with the changing ages there is a drastic change in the verbal and communicative languages of the people. There are various kinds of challenges and controversies which were being faced and is still be facing. The challenges is being faced due to some phonological construction of the spoken language resist analysis. And it is controversial because there are number of linguistics which are researching on certain project they do not recorganize the study of the spoken language as accredited.

While contrasting between the written and spoken language there are certain aspects which were being analyzed and is an interesting part of the language mostly for the people who have a second language which is being used in their country is English. The characteristics and function of the spoken and written language an analyzed by the teachers as they see the difficulty being faced by the students while pronouncing the words properly, while writing them and understanding the meaning of the words properly. The students are somewhat enabled to speak the language as fluently as their native language. Understanding the gap which created the difference make them to reach the result. With the time change, now there are certain ways people can get into the knowledge of a particular language which they want to speak. Like the radios are available, television, internet, mobiles etc. which make people understand the correct pronunciation of the words and there while communication. The strong desire of understand the things will increase the efficiency of written and verbal English.


Relative techniques of description and analyses

It is interesting to know that the people with second language as English has researched more in understanding the language. Most of the analyzers are non- standard analyzers. Linguistics have done certain advancement with the time in the language as they have changed some of the grammatical portion of the written texts. Now to make analyses of anything it should be clear that kind of text which is being analyzed and what kind of technics will be used to shows its characteristics. The most fundamental fact of this is that the boundaries are not known under which can divide the spoken language from that of written language. There are certain relative techniques which has been used to provide description and analyses of the spoken and written language. These techniques and genres are: - conversation, news, radio, broadcasts of different things and different kind of academic texts that are being used. But now these are not use to analyze the facts, with the changing time and exposure to the new technologies and different understandings of the people who are analyzing the facts about it, the techniques are changed.  There are two corpuses which classify academic text in a different manner that are: - The International corpus of English (ICE) and The British national corpus (BNC)

  • ICE: - writing the texts → informational →printed →informational →learned (human social science and natural human science technology).

  • BNC: - written texts →academic prose →(humanities/arts, medicines, natural sciences, politics/ laws/ education/ social and behavioral sciences, technology/ engineering.

According to these above mentioned corpus the written texts is being explained. There are certain registers and sub registers are there in which the spoken and written texts are explained. The analyses by the linguistics done for the languages are now a day’s explained according to these registers and sub registers. As ICE has much more effective way to express the written conversation. This corpus takes consideration of the natural and human social context. The explanation of certain facts and articles is much clearer because at every step the psychology of the person always taken into account.

Spoken and written registers

The spoken and written registers are basically different in their nature and characteristics. Let’s talk about spoken registers, while the verbal communication is going on there is no pre-planned and pre-selective set words for particular kind of situation that occur at certain point of time. The words get into shape in the way that strikes into the mind of the speaker. This is the situation when face-to face conversation between the people is going on. With the change in the era, the spoken words selections have taken different shapes. But sometimes what happens is that the speaker unable to clarify his/ her perspective about particular thing or situation about which he wants to tell, this happens due to the lack of certain communication skills and the confidence level of what he will going to explain will be right or wrong. Under this condition the listener want more clarification about the facts. The expressional way of telling the things will make your point of view clearer to the listener; this shows your effectiveness in the communication. On the other hand the written registers have different perspective.  While writing you cannot show your emotions facially but the art of written communication make your point clear to the reader. But sometimes the reader unable to understand the things what the writer want to convey the message. So these perspectives are analyzed under different dimensions, which come to existence after effective research of linguistics about spoken and written language. Since there is difference in the feature so spoken and written registers, there are certain written registers like fiction have many similar features as the spoken registers. In the fiction genre, the literature which is being shown and discussed fully based on the imagination of the writer. While taking into account of the imagination in spoken registers, the words chosen for speaking for certain imaginative thing or situation have the same impact as the fiction. Similarly some of the spoken registers have their features similar to the written registers. The spoken register like group discussion has some of the features similar to the written registers. This analysis was done by Biber (1988) which reach to the conclusion by using different tests and factors analysis to understand which of the linguistic construction incline to occur in two corpora are the London- Lund corpus of British English and the london-oslo-berga (LOB) corpus of written British English. The biber has analyzed the spoken and written registers and have found that there are six textual dimensions in which they are discussed:

  • Dimension 1:- Informational production vs. involved.
  • Dimension 3: - Situation vs. Explicit dependent reference.
  • Dimension 5: -Non- Abstract vs. Abstract information.

The dimension 1 discussed about the involment of the speaker in face to face conversation with the other person and the information which he/she wants to convey to the listener should be clear and precise whether it is written or spoken. Dimension 3 shows the explicit vs. situation dependent reference that mean the writer will describe things clearly so that there should be no space for confusion and setting out the entire situation in detail to the reader or listener. And dimension 5 will show the abstract vs. non- abstract information that is about the thoughts which the writer have in his find and showing that thought in a clearer way to the listener or the reader. The registers which are associated with the texts used to show the illustrative information about any letters which are professional, press reviews, documents which are official and any other academic text.

Comparing and contrasting spoken and written texts

After discussing the difference between the written and the spoken registers, there is an important function to compare and contrast the two texts that are spoken texts and written texts. This is the comparison of spoken texts and written texts from different point of view like on the basis of genre or registers, lexicon chains etc. The spoken texts is about  the interview conversation between the Princess of Whales and Martin Bashir which is regarding her experience to get married in a royal family  and the written texts  about lady Diana’s adultery relationship with her riding instructor James Hewitt in 1995. The analyses of these texts are done from different perspectives.

  • Clauses: - There are different kinds of clauses that are present in the language. These are as follows:-

Spoken language 

The Panorama Interview
This is a transcript of the BBC1 Panorama interview with the Princess of Wales, broadcast in November 1995 

MARTIN BASHIR: Your Royal Highness, how prepared were you for the pressures that came with marrying into the Royal Family? (Interrogative clause)

How prepared were you -  is the interrogative clause(dependent clause) which is further connected to the independent clause “pressures that came with marrying into the royal family” it consists of ‘Pressures’ is adjective clause, ‘came’ is the verb, ‘marrying’ is the subject & ‘royal family’ is the object.

DIANA: At the age of 19, you always think you're prepared for everything, and you think you have the knowledge of what's coming ahead. But although I was daunted at the prospect at the time, I felt I had the support of my husband-to-be. ( standard declarative sv- clause, verb clause)

 ‘you always think  you’re prepared for everything, in this ‘you’ is a adverb clause, ’always’ is adjective, ‘prepared’ is the verb modified by the adjective clause, ‘you think you have the knowledge’ this is the independent clause consists of ‘think’ as verb, ‘knowledge’ is object, modified with adjective clause ‘what’ to verb ‘coming ahead’. ‘But although’ is the subordinate clause, ‘daunted’ is the verb, ‘prospect’ is the subject. ‘ I felt I had the support of my husband’ is the independent clause consists of ‘felt’ as verb, ‘support is the subject and husband is the object.

Lexical chains:-

Prepared – knowledge – prospect – support               

Lexical density:-

Lexical density = the no. of lexical items×100    or the no. of lexical items

The total word  no. of clauses

Lexical density = 40% or 0.66

BASHIR: What were the expectations that you had for married life? (interrogative clause)
‘what were the expectation is the interrogative cause which with the help of ‘that’ adjective clause connected with independent clause “ you had for married life”.

Lexical chains:-

No lexical chain is present in this sentence.

DIANA: I think like any marriage, specially when you've had divorced parents like myself, you'd want to try even harder to make it work and you don't want to fall back into a pattern that you've seen happen in your own family. (standard declarative sv- clause)

‘when you've had divorced parents like myself’ it consist of ‘when’ which is the adverb clause ‘you’ve had’ is the verb clause modify the text.  After this the text is the independent clause “you'd want to try even harder to make it work and you don't want to fall back into a pattern that you've seen happen in your own family.”

Lexical chains:-

Marriage - divorced

"I want to reassure all those people who have loved me and supported me throughout the last 15 years that I'd never let them down." ( relative clause)

‘I want to reassure all those people who loved me’ it is a independent clause consist of ‘who’ as a relative clause and the other portion “ and supported throughout the last 15 years that I'd never let them down” is the independent clause consist of ‘that’ as the adjective clause, that means the dependent clause is present in the text.


Lexical chain:-

Reassure –love - support.

I desperately wanted it to work, I desperately loved my husband and I wanted to share everything together, and I thought that we were a very good team.( standard declarative sv- clause)

Lexical chains:-

Wanted – loved – share – together – team.

BASHIR: How aware were you of the significance of what had happened to you? After all, you'd become Princess of Wales, ultimately with a view to becoming Queen.( interrogative clause, standard declarative sv- clause)

DIANA: I wasn't daunted, and am not daunted by the responsibilities that that role creates. It was a challenge, it is a challenge.  (standard declarative sv- clause)

Lexical chains:-

Daunted – responsibilities – challenge

As for becoming Queen, it's, it was never at the forefront of my mind when I married my husband: it was a long way off that thought. 

The most daunting aspect was the media attention, because my husband and I, we were told when we got engaged that the media would go quietly, and it didn't; and then when we were married they said it would go quietly and it didn't; and then it started to focus very much on me, and I seemed to be on the front of a newspaper every single day, which is an isolating experience, and the higher the media put you, place you, is the bigger the drop.

And I was very aware of that.

written1995: Diana admits adultery in TV interview 

Diana, Princess of Wales, has spoken openly for the first time about her separation from the Prince of Wales in a frank interview for the BBC's Panorama programme. ( dependent clause)

During her hour-long conversation with BBC reporter Martin Bashir, she admitted to an adulterous affair with her riding instructor, James Hewitt. ( dependent clause)
In this text the line “ she admitted to an adulterous affair with her riding instructor” is a dependent clause. In this text the word admitted is a verb clause and affair is a noun and riding instructor is subject. This means that the sentence consists of verb. Noun and subject but still is not independent clause.
She also described her hurt at her husband's relationship with long-term friend Camilla Parker-Bowles, but said she did not want to divorce. (verb clause)
In this text these is sense of declarative clause because the text “She also described her hurt at her husband's relationship with long-term friend Camilla Parker-Bowles” showing the proofs that she is quite sure of it. And the other part “but said she did not want to divorce” is a dependent clause on the first part. The use of verb clause “described”, “relationship” is the subject and friend is the object.

The Princess spoke freely about her depression and bulimia, her children, the media and the future of the monarchy. ( independent clause) in this text there is no use of any subject and noun, she was talking freely about the things that happened to her and her children, so it is an independent clause according to the rules.

When Mr Bashir asked her about her relationship with Mr Hewitt, who had claimed to have had an affair with her, she admitted her relationship did go beyond a close friendship.( dependent clause, relative clause) 

In this text,” asked her about her relationship” giving the sense of interrogative clause and “who” is the adjective clause “had claimed” is the verb clause and the part “she admitted her relationship did go beyond a close friendship” is the declarative clause.

Lexical chains:-

Asked – claimed – admitted.

"Were you unfaithful?" asked Mr Bashir. ( interrogative clause)

"Yes," answered the Princess. "I was in love with him. But I was very let down." 

The word ‘yes’ give full proof of declarative clause and  "I was in love with him. But I was very let down." This shows the confirmative clause and dependent clause because the relative sense of the word ‘but’ makes the other part dependent.

In June last year, Prince Charles admitted he had also had an affair with Mrs Parker-Bowles in a similarly frank interview with the BBC's Jonathan Dimbleby. (verb clause)

In this text, “Prince Charles admitted he had also had an affair with Mrs Parker-Bowles” is declarative clause and verbs are used in the sentence.

The Princess spoke of her hurt over the affair, saying, "There were three of us in this marriage, so it was a bit crowded. (declarative clause)

In this written communication text, there is sense of declaration of the situation in which ‘There were three of us in this marriage, so it was a bit crowded.’ Is the declarative clause.

Lexical chains:-

  • Affair - marriage – crowded.

"Friends of my husband's were indicating that I was unstable, sick and should be put in a home of some sort to get better so I wouldn't be an embarrassment."

Lexical chains:-

Unstable – sick – better.

'Queen of hearts' 

She also said she did not think she would ever be Queen. 

"I'd like to be a queen of people's hearts, in people's hearts, but I don't see myself being Queen of this country," she said. "I don't think many people will want me to be Queen." 

The one-hour interview was watched by an estimated 15 million people, a record for the programme and one of the BBC's highest-ever audience figures. 

Lexical chains:-

Watched – programme – audience.

The Princess's decision to go public has been highly controversial. 

Lexical chains:-

Decision – controversial.

The BBC chairman, Marmaduke Hussey, is reported to be extremely unhappy that senior executives did not tell him about the programme in advance. 

Lord Wakeham, chairman of the Press Complaints Commission, has also warned that the princess would only have herself to blame if she triggered a tabloid onslaught on her private life. 

Buckingham Palace has confirmed Geoff Crawford, the Princess's press adviser, is to step down in the wake of her decision to speak to the BBC without informing him or the Queen. 

  • Registers: - The registers in the texts are formal and informal words that are being pronounced while speaking. This is the variation in the language while speaking and writing. Like if we take the example of formal words like dad, girl, friend etc. and informal words like didn’t, ain’t, shouldn’t etc. Now comparing these registers on the basis of spoken communication between lady Diana and Martin Bashir we have seen various formal and informal words that are being used that are showed with the help of some dialogues below:-



Formal registers

Informal registers


1st martin bashir

Royal, pressures, marrying & family



Age, everything, knowledge, prospect, daunted & husband

You’re, what’s

2nd martin bashir

Expectations, life



Marriage, myself, work, pattern, happen, reassure, everything, team

You’ve, you’d, don’t, I’d

3rd martin bashir

Aware, princess, wales, becoming, queen



Challenge, becoming, forefront, attention, focus, isolating, aware

Wasn’t, it’s, didn’t

CDA (critical discourse analysis) framework for spoken language

The critical discourse analysis is used to make understand and interest of the social issues that is discussed in the texts. It increases the understanding of the used language, its interdisciplinary work that is constituted and transmitted through texts. Like as we take the example of the above said conversations between Martin Bashir and the lady Diana, in the spoken texts, the questions were asked about being married in a royal family and how is feeling. In respect to that lady Diana answered the questions accordingly. We have analyzed the clauses, registers and the lexical chains present in the texts. The analyses of the texts using critical discourse analysis we get to know about the complexity of the sentences that is being used to question and answered it. Lady Diana was showing her feelings to get married in a royal family and her love towards the prince. This shows the social effect on the media which is covering it and the main thing was, the way people are grasping that conversation. This is the analysis done with the help of CDA.

Hallidayan’s systematic functional linguistics (SFL) framework

The analysis of the two texts on the basis of hallidyan’s systematic function linguistics (SFL) is a linguistic theory that concerned with the effect of culture and society in which the language is being used. According to the linguistics, it is the multidimensional semiotic system.  The semiotic system consists of three interrelated metafunction, these are:-

  • The textual
  • The interpersonal
  • The ideational

Analysis of the spoken texts:-

While analysis the spoken texts there always the consideration of the interpersonal metafunction as it is used when there is a medium of interaction or expressing attitudes. Like in the above given spoken text, the communication between lady Diana and martin Bashir is the interpersonal metafunction as they verbally interacting with each other for the interview. The words exchanged where on the experiences which lady Diana has when she is about to getting married in a royal family, her attitudes towards the situation and the life changing events  and the circumstances which she faced while getting involved in relationship which the prince of whales. This is the use of ideational metafunction in the spoken language.

Analysis of the written texts:-

In the analysis of the written texts the hallidayan SFL semiotic system says that the metafunction which is applicable in this context is the textual metafunction because it is dealing with the written texts about the interview of Lady Diana and martin Bashir about her adulterated relationship with her riding instructor. This texts consists of all the three metafunction because the it is the interpersonal interaction of an anchor with a prestigious clink on TV and it is shown in the written text which brings the textual metafunction and the last but not the least the use of ideation metafunction because in this written text it is shown that how the life of lady Diana and prince whales takes different outturns which caused them to lose their relationship with each other. The effect of the conversation of media person with the royal people makes them show, what were the drastic changes in their lives that were experienced by them during certain relationships with the other affected people according to the contexts.  

Pragmatics (Grice’s maxims) in both texts

According to the maxims introduced by Paul Grice, it is the analysis of both texts on the basis of how the words have uttered and used to show the reactions according to the situation. This analysis is compiled up in the four principles of the Grice maxim’s which is known as the “maxims of conversation”.  These four maxims are:-

  • Maxims of quality
  • Maxims of quantity
  • Maxims of relation
  • Maxims of manner

 In all of the above grice’s maxims, the main notion is the ‘maxims of manner’ as it shows the way that how orderly the words have been used while communicating with the other people. It shows the speaker’s state of mind that what he or she wants to convey the message to the listener. This maxim is the cornerstone of the Grice’s approach to linguistic pragmatics.

Analysis of spoken texts: -

During the conversation between martin Bashir and Lady Diana, there was certain questions have been asked what lady Diana have answered those questions in much mannered way that it conveys the proper message to the listener with evidence and there was no utterance of any non relevant information. And after studying and listening all the information which she shared it shows that all the 4 maxims are present in the contexts. This can be shown as the Martin Bashir have used the words “your royal highness” in the conversation and the answered given by lady Diana was much specific according to the questions. If we take the example of the first question that was “Royal Highness, how prepared were you for the pressures that came with marrying into the Royal Family?” and in return the answer of lady Diana was “At the age of 19, you always think you're prepared for everything, and you think you have the knowledge of what's coming ahead. But although I was daunted at the prospect at the time, I felt I had the support of my husband-to-be this answer shows that how specific the answer was and how effective it was for the listeners to get the right message of the text.

Analysis of written texts:-

After analyzing the above texts it can be understandable that all the four maxims where not followed because of some very personal communication was going on and some hesitations were there to answer those questions. But the message which conversation want to give was very clear to the people like if we take the example of the confession of lady Diana about her adulterous relationship with her instructor ‘James Hewitt’ and what were effects which force her to do this like the shock of knowing that her husband was having relationship with the other women ‘Camilla parker Bowles’. There were certain contexts like using the words “ I don’t want to be the princess of people, I just want to be the princess of hearts” this text make no sense in this contexts hence it is the violation of Grice’s Maxim (Maxim of relation) and rest of the three maxims of quality, quantity and manner is followed up in this text.


Pedagogical implications in TESOL

The spoken and written texts have the main purpose to convey the exact message what the speaker or the writer want to give to the listener or the reader. TESOL stands for Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages, it the way of teaching by using the right principles and methods of instruction so that the learner will should get the things what is being said by the speaker. In the present condition, it is the TV interview of Lady Diana and Martin Bashir which have different impact on the people who were listening it. According to the teacher’s point of view, the student of different language speaker should have their own understanding about the facts which is to be represented. The pedagogical implications according to this can be done by assuming the following assumptions (Dὄrnyei(2001)):-

  • There is needed to be developing reasonable criteria which will help in developing the informed understanding about the exact nature of the language gaining of second language.

  • By using the different strategies the student should be made aware of the facts of the second or the foreign language basics that it can be understandable in many different ways.

  • It is very important for the learner to develop his own methods and techniques which will make him understand the language which is needed to be learned.

These implications sound like the pedagogical implication of the teacher to make the people understand the language. This how we get to know what is the exact message which the speaker wants to give to the speakers. It is the understanding of the written and the spoken texts comprehensively. Without this there should no basic understanding what is the exact meaning of the text. This is quite important to understand the pedagogic implication of the text in TESOL.

Language choices and their social meanings

The choice of the language by the speaker should be so proper to convey the actual message to the listener so that he could understand the things what the speaker wants to say. As there are different ethnic origins of people are living around the world. The technology has bring them closer with just a click of button of mouse which means that you get in touch with anyone in the world by simple means of internet. The barrier in the communication occur when the message the speaker want to describe to the listener is not clear and to make the message more clear you need the proper skills to speak and write in a proper way and the language in which the listener understand. This is quite a difficult thing because in the situation when the listener do not understand the language of the speaker i.e the speaker and listener both belong to different origins and do not know about the mother tongue or native language then the most effective tool to convey the message is to use the language which is understandable to both of them. The linguistics at their work places, with the effort and analysis from years come to the compilation of different word dictionaries and in every language. With the help of these dictionaries people are now able to communicate with the people of any origin.

Linguistics are the people who understand the native language, it means to say is by using proper skills they try to understand and analyze what kind of words which are being used for conveying the information, how it is being pronounced and understood by the people who are listening and reading it. The proper level of words usage according to the situation will show that the speaker have the right communication skills. The spoken and the written words usage depend on the language which is being used that means whether it’s a native language or any other language which can be easily understood. Like if we take the example of a married man and his wife want to go out with him for movie but this all depend on the kind of history they have as a married couple, what kind of chemistry they have and how they understand the spoken words and sentiments proper so they can award themselves with each other companionship.

The social understanding of things which are being said can be done by analyzing and getting the proper meaning of each and every word properly (i.e the lexical semantics). Knowing the proper meaning of the words will make it use for the external entities in the world properly. There is need to understand the whole social context in which the texts is being uttered and also getting practical knowledge of various level of interpretation. The pragmatics of the fundamental of the written and spoken English can be done by using it at different situation where ever need. The exploring of different kind of things will get to know about the linguistics research about the subject that how far we could able to understand the concept of the written and verbal or spoken language. The social impact of the words which are used while communication shows how effective you are in the conversation and how clearly you show your ideas to the other person in written and spoken language. Like we take the example of the social context “can you please give a cup of water?” This question shows the social context that how polite and elegant way you ask for something. This proper reply for thins question will be in the form of yes/no. likewise there is no place for confusion in the social context as the message should clear to the listener and speaker.

In the social context there is a large space for the unplanned spoken words that are the word which can be presumed by the person who is interacting with the particular situation. The utterance of the unplanned words changes with the situation that is confronted. Selection of the words also depends on the situation, the effective use of the skills to convey the message is effectively judged by facing these kinds of situations. The grammatical aspect of the context used under social condition is the most important aspect because this makes us to convey the proper message to the listener or the reader who are interacting. Linguistics always stress upon these kind of situations that is because the people in the whole social interact with each mostly no because they want to share their feelings but to get the companionship of people. The people need your presence around them that someone is there with me. Pedagogic things can be understood by deep understanding of these kinds of practical situations. The proper selection of the words by concerning the social environment around the person will make him a person with perfection. The social interaction in not only when you meet someone face to face but it can be written conversations like email messages, text messages etc. in the verbal communication the people can show there feeling by using the facial expressions but in the written communication there is always a need to use the proper word and the expressive way of writing the things. The written communication is not the face to face communication where the people have less time to think about the proper word usage but while writing the writer has much more time to write bout and can make effective selection of words to show the confusion less text.

Broader social/ cultural context

The broader view of the socio cultural context which provides the knowledge of the kind o0f language that is being used while doing conversation which is further very deeply linked with society and culture. Other way it means that using of the particular kind of language which is being used in a particular kind of socio/cultural context will need to be taken into consideration. As there are different kind of socio/cultural context which is being experienced it is explained with the help of an example that is given below: -

It contains the aspiration, confidence and permission etc in the environment of the enterprises. There is a woman in an organization that has the strong ability, skills and experience. She is living in a socio/cultural environment and has the idea with the market have proper resources to lead an organization. She understands every aspects of each and every step that will need to be taken to make the organization and one of the leading organizations of the country. Every single thing is available to her to make the organization better. The main motive of showing this example is that a person who has every single thing which is needed to be a perfectly socio/cultural balanced person can change the things in a positive way. The language which is being used to communicate should be every clear so that it may not have any sense of negativity or confusion in it. The grammatical aspects always are concerned while spoken and written contexts.



While considering all of the above said facts, I come to the conclusion that the written and spoken English language should be used very properly. The linguistics being the analyzers of the socio/cultural aspects, even the grammatical portion and the proper selection of the words should be suggested. Conceptual and deep understanding of the phenomenon of the written and spoken language will encourage the people who are not native to English language will start speaking it as their native language. As the small children always adopt the spoken language quickly from the basic because they keep on hearing it from their parents and when they grow up then start reading and practice it by writing.  So from all this we get to know that linguistics play an important to understand the basic of any language from the base.  They show the proper context of the language that how it is being used at a particular situation and particular selection of words with the situation. They are the core teacher which tells us how to pronounce the word properly. Understanding the proper use of a word by understanding the exact meaning of the word from every aspect will make the person a good user of the language whether it is English or any other language. The other important aspect is the pedagogic implementation in TESOL which is very important to make understand the listener what the speaker wants to say. This is the basic for the speakers of the non- native language to understand the other foreign language.



1) Beaman, K. (1984) Coordination and subordination revisited: syntactic complexity in spoken and written narrative discourse. In D. Tannen (ed.), Coherence in spoken and written discourse. Norwood, NJ: Ablex, 45–80.

2) Biber, D. (1986) Spoken and written textual dimensions in English: resolving the contradictory findings. Language 62, 384–414.

3) Biber, D. (1988) Variation across speech and writing. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
4) Biber, D., Johansson, S., Leech, G., Conrad, S., and Finegan, E. (1999) Longman grammar of spoken and written English. London: Longman

5) Aarts, B. and L. Haegeman (2006). English word classes and phrases. In B. Aarts and A. McMahon (eds.), the Handbook of English Linguistics (pp. 117–45). Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishers.

6) Aitchison, J. (1991). Language Change: Progress or Decay? 2nd edn. New York: Cambridge University Press.

7) Altenberg, B. (1990). Predicting text segmentation into tone units. In J. Svartvik (ed.), The London-Lund Corpus of Spoken English: Description and Research (pp. 275–86). Lund: Lund University Press.

8) Andersen, G. (2001). Pragmatic Markers and Sociolinguistic Variation. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

9) Ashby, M. and J. Maidment (2005). Introducing Phonetic Science. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

10) Austin, J. L. (1962). How to do Things with Words. Oxford: Clarendon.

11) Bailyn, J. F. (2003). Does Russian scrambling exist? In S. Karimi (ed.), Word Order and Scrambling

(pp. 156–76). Malden, MA: Blackwell.

12) Baldi, P. (1990). Indo-European languages. In B.Comrie (ed.), The World’s Major Languages (pp. 31–67).New York: Oxford.

13) Béjoint, H. (2000). Modern Lexicography: An Introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

14) Bell, A. (1984). Language style as audience design. Language in Society, 13: 145–204.

15) Biber, D., S. Johansson, G. Leech, S. Conrad, and E. Finegan (1999). Longman Grammar of Spoken and Written English. Harlow, England: Pearson Education Limited.

16) Blake, N. (1992). The literary language. In N. Blake (ed.), The English Language, VoI. II: 1066–1476 (pp. 500–41). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

17) Bolinger, D. (1977). Meaning and Form. London: Longman.

18) Brown, P. and S. C. Levinson (1987). Politeness: Some Universals in Language Usage. Cambridge: CambridgeUniversity Press.

19) Cameron, D. (1995). Verbal Hygiene. London: Routledge.

20) Carter, R. and S. Cornbleet (2001). The Language of Speech and Writing. London: Routledge.

21) Chambers, J. K. (2003). Sociolinguistic Theory, 2nd edn. Oxford and Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishers.

22) Chomsky, N. (1957). Syntactic Structures. The Hague: Mouton. (Reprinted in 2002 by Walter de Gruyter, Inc.)

23) (1959). A review of B. F. Skinner’s verbal behavior. Language, 35: 26–58.

24) Clemetson, L. (2007). The racial politics of speaking well. New York Times. February 4. Section 4, pp. 1 and 4.

25) Comrie, B. (1989). Language Typology and Language Universals, 2nd edn. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

26) (1990). Russian. In B. Comrie (ed.), The World’s Major Languages (pp. 329–47). New York: Oxford.

27) Croft, W. (2000). Explaining Language Change: An Evolutionary Approach. Harlow, England: Longman.

28) Croft, W. and D. Cruse (2004). Cognitive Linguistics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

29) Cruse, D. (1986). Lexical Semantics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

30) (2004). Meaning in Language: An Introduction to Semantics and Pragmatics, 2nd edn. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

31) Crystal, D. (2000). Language Death. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

32) (2003). English as a Global Language, 2nd edn. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

At, we are committed to deliver quality assignment assistance in the fastest way possible. To make our service delivery fast, we have hired subject matter experts to work on different subject specific assignments. We have hired experts who owe in-depth knowledge in their respective subjects. As per their expertise, they provide geography assignment help, Physics assignment help, Strategic assignment help, history assignment help, art architecture assignment help and assistance with other subjects as well.

Most Downloaded Sample of Management

274 Download1 Pages 48 Words

Toulin Method Of Argumentation

You are required to write a researched argument essay that convinces persuades the reader of your position / stance. This is an academic, researched and referenced do...

Read More Tags: Australia Arlington Management Management University of New South Wales Management 
202 Download9 Pages 2,237 Words

Consumer Behavior Assignment

Executive Summary The purpose of this report is to elaborate the factors which are considered by individuals before selecting an occupation. Choosing an occupati...

Read More Tags: Australia Arlington Management Management University of New South Wales Management 
367 Download13 Pages 3,112 Words

Internet Marketing Plan For River Island

Introduction With the increase enhancement in the field of technology, it has been considered essential by the businesses to implement such technology in their b...

Read More Tags: Australia Arlington Management Management University of New South Wales Management 
328 Download9 Pages 2,203 Words

Strategic Role Of HR In Mergers & Acquisitions

Executive Summary In a merger & acquisition, role of an HR has emerged as a very critical function. At each stage of merger and acquisition process, HR plays a s...

Read More Tags: Australia Arlington Management Management University of New South Wales Management 
355 Download7 Pages 1,521 Words

Relationship Between Knowledge Management, Organization Learning And HRM

Introduction In this competitive business environment where every business organization is trying to attract the customers of each other, it becomes essential for ...

Read More Tags: Australia Arlington Management Management University of New South Wales Management 
Free plagiarismFree plagiarism check online on mobile
Have any Query?