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Describe about the Engineering Research Project Planning.

Challenges of Unmanaged Storm Water Overflow in Urban Areas

Australia urban communities like most ultra-urban territories, encounters expanded storm water overflow that outcomes from advancement. This spillover puts a weight on sewer frameworks and corrupts oceanic assets when it isn't overseen enough. Unmanaged storm water spillover over-burdens the limit of streams and tempest sewers and is in charge of expanded joined sewer flood occasions and unfriendly downstream effects, for example, streak flooding, channel disintegration, surface and groundwater contamination, and territory debasement.

Cost estimation for design of ARR1987 and ARR2016  Storm water pipeline

SYDNEY AND CANBERRA CITY STORMWATER DESIGN

Length: 1 km

Estimated Width: 25 m

Engineer’s Cost Estimate

Item Number

Item Description

Quantity Units

Unit Price

Amount

1

Mobilization

1 ls

$ 9, 300.00

$ 9, 300.00

2

Removal of the storm piping if the exists

935 lf.

$ 11.00

$ 10, 285.00

3

Removal of the surface material, this includes the gutter, curb and the asphalt

935 lf.

$ 8. 75

$ 8, 181. 25

4

Construction of the single grate inlet as a catching box of basin

3 ea.

$ 2, 725. 00

$ 8, 175. 00

5

Construction of approximately 48 inch diameter of RCP for the storm drain pipe

935 lf.

$ 67. 25

$ 62, 878. 75

6

Construction of the manhole for storm water approx 6 inches

2 ea.

$ 3, 240. 00

$ 6, 480. 00

7

Installation of the structure of the outlet storm water and the river which is connected to the impervious zone called the rip rap

1 ea.

$ 8, 300. 00

$ 8, 300. 00

8

Construction of approx 20 inches RCP pipe for the draining of the storm

155 lf.

$ 39. 25

$ 6, 083. 75

9

Make the furnish of the backfill material of the trench

350 ton

$ 4. 50

$ 1, 575. 00

10

Make the furnish to the materials of the bedding

1, 050 ton

$ 10. 50

$ 11, 025. 00

11

Construction of the gutter and curb which is made of the concrete

60 lf.

$ 19. 50

$ 1, 170. 00

12

Making the connection to the system which is already existing

1 ea.

$ 4, 800. 00

$ 4, 800. 00

13

Making the patching to the roadway

920 sy.

$ 19. 50

$ 17, 940. 00

14

Controlling the traffic and flagging

1 month

$ 150. 00

$ 4, 500. 00

15

Restoring the land and making the landscape

2 ls.

$ 3, 000. 00

$ 6, 000. 00

Sub total

$ 163, 694.0

Engineering contingencies

$ 32, 700. 0

Grand total

$ 196, 400. 00

The cost estimation above is similar in both ARR1987 and ARR2016 since the two ARR cannot affect the layout and design of the storm water rather it affects the after effects of the design. This is because the implementation process is similar.

The estimation of the cost of designing the storm water is only estimated for one city pipeline of the stormwater, this does not show the accurate cost of the design and implementation , the cost of the design might be above or below the estimated cost due to some reasons which in this case includes the following;

  1. The region in which the pipeline might be designed to pass might have some impervious and hard rocks which will need other means of excavations.
  2. Once the infrastructure has been destroyed of affected, once the pipeline development has been done, it will be forced to reconstruct the infrastructure within the set budget.
  • There might exists some delay in the number of days at which the process was estimated to take hence extra days attracts extra costs.

Incase the existing infrastructure is demolished or destroyed in the process of construction of the storm water pipeline, then set out cost of the will affect the infrastructure in the following ways;

  1. The budget of restoring the structures are not set out in the budget therefore, this will delay the restoration of the structures and infrastructures which are destroyed due to the process of implementing the design.
  2. Destroyed infrastructure like roads and tunnels might take long to be restored , maybe after the completion of the implementation hence this might led to hampered movement and processes which were dependant to the infrastructure.

Steps which are involved in the design of the stormwater for ARR 1987

  1. Launching  the xpswmm application

After the application has been successfully launched, navigation is done  to .xp then the contours’  DTM is opened  which is located in the Layer Control Panel. The mode to the Runoff is the set out. Using the Panel from the layers control, toogle the CAD file display and adjust the  run off node display view, connections of the catchment as shown below.

  1. Activation of the hydrology rational method

In order to activate the rational technique in the application, select the job control in the menu assigned for configuration and then the run off. The rational formula is then clicked in order to make the settings for the rational formula open. The return period to analyze is the set back to 5 for the settings to be complete then the edit button is clicked.

After this has been done, then type inside IFD table after which , click the button named Add. Immediately this is done, a table which is named IFD will be added. Once this is added, select the table added then edit the table by clicking the edit button. In order to enter the data for the IFD, this can be done either by use of the formula or the tabular manner. Hence select the IFD/IDF table to edit it.

In the left panel, highlight the IFD table after the ARR1987  then click edit and review the IFD table as shown below.

Since the return period is makes the range of between 1 and 100 years back, then the range of the duration is between 5 minutes and 5 days. Using the data which is obtained from the ABM site, by following the simple instructions given in the site, the excel table will be located of which you need to just copy and paste the data in the Table which is shown below. Though, this is not the only solution for the same, on this case of the design, the ARR1987  methods was used instead of the table data in the ABM. The co efficient from the ARR 1987 was obtained  from there manual .

Cost Estimation for Design and Implementation

Once the data is imported successfully, click the OK button for that you can return back to the previous dialog box. On the left pane, select the direct method of run off co-efficient then click the OK button.

Once one, clock OK button in order to close the dialog for the  Rational formula settings , then again close the dialog for the Runoff Job Control.

  1. Entering data of the node.

In order to enter the data for the node, simply double click the node 5/4 in order to open the dialog for the run off.

In the Imp field box, enter 20 for the sub catchment 1 then click the button for the  sub catchment to open its dialog.

Note that the data of the infiltration and the rainfall are ignored  during the invocation of the rational method hydrology.

After that, use button for the rational formula  to close the dialog.

Since the area is pervious, the following data is selected and entered;

In the dialog box for rational Formula Hydrology, enter 0.75 for the pervious run off then select kinematic wave direct from the  field of Time of concentration method. For the pervious additional travel time, use 2 ,  pervious flow path length use 280, pervious flow path slope use 1.35 and lastly for the pervious catchment roughness use 0.045.

Select the kinematic wave for the impervious area from the time of concentration method list.

For the remaining run off nodes, data can be entered as shown above in the first node used as a sample node.

  1. Setting out time control

Select the job control then the run off on the configuration menu, after which click the time control. Make the simulated control to 2018, day 25, month 9, hour 0 and the end of the simulation to be 2018, month 9, day 25, hour 4

  1. Calculating the runoff

In order to calculate the runoff, select solve in the analyze menu, then right click the node named 5.4 and the select the review results from the menu.  The runoff graph called the hydrograph runs from 0 to 0.078m3/s in approx 17 minutes to the simulation. The flow will remain constant for approx 1 hr and then it will drop back to 0.

  1. Saving the file

After this has been done, the file was then saved in its normal form of .xp files.

Steps which are involved in the design of the stormwater for ARR 2016

  1. Launching  the xpswmm application

After the application has been successfully launched, navigation is done  to .xp then the contours’  DTM is opened  which is located in the Layer Control Panel. The mode to the Runoff is the set out. Using the Panel from the layers control, toogle the CAD file display and adjust the  run off node display view, connections of the catchment as shown below.

  1. Activation of the hydrology rational method

In order to activate the rational technique in the application, select the job control in the menu assigned for configuration and then the run off. The rational formula is then clicked in order to make the settings for the rational formula open. The return period to analyze is the set back to 5 for the settings to be complete then the edit button is clicked.

Steps Involved in Designing the Pipeline Using Rational Formula

After this has been done, then type inside IFD table after which , click the button named Add. Immediately this is done, a table which is named IFD will be added. Once this is added, select the table added then edit the table by clicking the edit button. In order to enter the data for the IFD, this can be done either by use of the formula or the tabular manner. Hence select the IFD/IDF table to edit it.

In the left panel, highlight the IFD table after the ARR2016  then click edit and review the IFD table as shown below.

On the introduction of ARR2016, this was also incorporated into the system and incase you need to use ARR2016, in the left panel, you need to highlight the IFD table after the ARR2016 and then click the edit button then review the table as shown below.

Since the return period is makes the range of between 1 and 100 years back, then the range of the duration is between 5 minutes and 5 days. Using the data which is obtained from the ABM site, by following the simple instructions given in the site, the excel table will be located of which you need to just copy and paste the data in the Table which is shown below. Though, this is not the only solution for the same, on this case of the design, the ARR2016 methods was used instead of the table data in the ABM. The co efficient from the ARR2016 was obtained  from there manual .

Once the data is imported successfully, click the OK button for that you can return back to the previous dialog box. On the left pane, select the direct method of run off co-efficient then click the OK button.

The same process also takes place in the event that ARR2016 is being used. Though in this situation, the ARR2016 is chosen.

Once one, clock OK button in order to close the dialog for the  Rational formula settings , then again close the dialog for the Runoff Job Control.

  1. Entering data of the node.

In order to enter the data for the node, simply double click the node 5/4 in order to open the dialog for the run off.

In the Imp field box, enter 20 for the sub catchment 1 then click the button for the  sub catchment to open its dialog.

Note that the data of the infiltration and the rainfall are ignored  during the invocation of the rational method hydrology.

After that, use button for the rational formula  to close the dialog.

Since the area is pervious, the following data is selected and entered;

In the dialog box for rational Formula Hydrology, enter 0.75 for the pervious run off then select kinematic wave direct from the  field of Time of concentration method. For the pervious additional travel time, use 2 ,  pervious flow path length use 280, pervious flow path slope use 1.35 and lastly for the pervious catchment roughness use 0.045.

Select the kinematic wave for the impervious area from the time of concentration method list.

For the remaining run off nodes, data can be entered as shown above in the first node used as a sample node.

  1. Setting out time control

Select the job control then the run off on the configuration menu, after which click the time control. Make the simulated control to 2018, day 25, month 9, hour 0 and the end of the simulation to be 2018, month 9, day 25, hour 4

  1. Calculating the runoff

In order to calculate the runoff, select solve in the analyze menu, then right click the node named 5.4 and the select the review results from the menu.  The runoff graph called the hydrograph runs from 0 to 0.078m3/s in approx 17 minutes to the simulation. The flow will remain constant for approx 1 hr and then it will drop back to 0.

  1. Saving the file

After this has been done, the file was then saved in its normal form of .xp files.

Calculations

Peak discharge

In order to calculate the peak discharge of the design, thisis given by the following equation;

Q = 0.28 * C* I* A

Where Q= the peak discharge measusre in m3 / s

C is the runoff coefficient which does not have any dimensions

I is the rainfall intensity which is measured in mm / hr

 Then  A is the catchment areas which is measured in square km

From the above curve, the Frequency duration which obtains the intensity of the rainfall is given at 7.8 mm / hr

The catchment area is 1 km long from two cities of Australia, therefore , this will be;

1km length and width which is assumed to be 100m.

Hence A will be 1000*100 = 100000m2.

The coefficient of the runoff is given by 5

 Q therefore = 0.28*5*(7.8/1000)m / hr * 100000 m2

= 218.40m3 /hr

Converting hr to second;

Then;

1hr = 3600 seconds

Q = 218.40/3600

    =0.061 m3/s

Australian cities

From the research taken out on the design and implementation of the storm water discharge project, the following are the two australian cities which were choosen for the implementation of the discharge of storm water project;

  1. Canberra, Australian Capital Territory
  2. Sydney city

The main reasons as to why the two cities are choosen includes the following;

  1. The two cities are located close to the shore of the ocean hence they receive a lot of rainfall annual. This is hence the reason as to why run off water in these two cities in Australia is very high.
  2. The grounds of the two cities have impervious grounds due to the improved infrastructure like housing and roads hence most of the areas is impervious to hence very minimum infiltration rate hence maximum run off water after even a single rainfall.

From the map of Canberra show below, it is clearly seen that the city is located in the in the shore of the water body hence the city receives more rainfall than cities which are locked by the land.

Impact of Storm water discharge design on infrastructure

Impact on Bridges

The design and development of the can easily pose a lot of negative effects to the bridges which are constructed across the water bodies like rivers. When the storm water is designed in these cities, all the waters will be directed to the water bodies available hence the water bodies will be filled with water above the sea level. This will cause the bridges to be covered and filled with water hence might cause then to collapse or become useless since it will not be used by the public for the purpose it was meant for.

The tunnels are underground passageways of either water or land transport which are dug within the soils. When the storm water pipeline is designed in these cities which contain the tunnels for transportation purposes, this might interfere with the project since during construction, the pipeline might be designed in such a way that its passage is within the regions where the tunnels are also constructed. This might force the tunnels to be destroyed in order to pave way for the development and construction of the pipeline.

The construction of pipeline can also cause the destruction of roads and other pathways in order to pave way for the construction and development of the pipeline.

Conclusion

Despite the fact that the storm water design at Canberra and Sydney cities are more important activity or project which can be done using the employment of ARR 1987 and ARR 2016, is beneficial to the wellbeing of the city, also it has impacts which might terribly affect the infrastructure of the city. Though despite of all these, the design of the 1km storm water pipeline can make the city clean and also drain water which could otherwise be stagnant in the city centers and road which are around the city.

Ashley, R., Lundy, L., Ward, S., Shaffer, P., Walker, A.L., Morgan, C., Saul, A., Wong, T. and Moore, S., 2013. Water-sensitive urban design: opportunities for the UK. In Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers: Municipal Engineer (Vol. 166, No. ME2, pp. 65-76). ICE Publishing.

Bratieres, K., Fletcher, T.D., Deletic, A. and Zinger, Y.A.R.O.N., 2008. Nutrient and sediment removal by stormwater biofilters: A large-scale design optimisation study. Water research, 42(14), pp.3930-3940.

Burns, M.J., Fletcher, T.D., Walsh, C.J., Ladson, A.R. and Hatt, B.E., 2012. Hydrologic shortcomings of conventional urban stormwater management and opportunities for reform. Landscape and urban planning, 105(3), pp.230-240.

Elliott, A.H., Trowsdale, S.A. and Wadhwa, S., 2009. Effect of aggregation of on-site storm-water control devices in an urban catchment model. Journal of Hydrologic Engineering, 14(9), pp.975-983.

Francey, M., Fletcher, T.D., Deletic, A. and Duncan, H., 2010. New insights into the quality of urban storm water in South Eastern Australia. Journal of Environmental Engineering, 136(4), pp.381-390.

Hatt, B.E., Fletcher, T.D. and Deletic, A., 2009. Hydrologic and pollutant removal performance of stormwater biofiltration systems at the field scale. Journal of Hydrology, 365(3-4), pp.310-321.

Hatt, B.E., Fletcher, T.D. and Deletic, A., 2008. Hydraulic and pollutant removal performance of fine media stormwater filtration systems. Environmental science & technology, 42(7), pp.2535-2541.

Roy, A.H., Wenger, S.J., Fletcher, T.D., Walsh, C.J., Ladson, A.R., Shuster, W.D., Thurston, H.W. and Brown, R.R., 2008. Impediments and solutions to sustainable, watershed-scale urban stormwater management: lessons from Australia and the United States. Environmental management, 42(2), pp.344-359.

Wong, T.H.F. and Brown, R.R., 2009. The water sensitive city: principles for practice. Water Science & Technology, 60(3).

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My Assignment Help. (2021). Cost Estimation And Design Of ARR1987 And ARR2016 Storm Water Pipeline. Retrieved from https://myassignmenthelp.com/free-samples/enrp20001-engineering-research-project/storm-water.html.

"Cost Estimation And Design Of ARR1987 And ARR2016 Storm Water Pipeline." My Assignment Help, 2021, https://myassignmenthelp.com/free-samples/enrp20001-engineering-research-project/storm-water.html.

My Assignment Help (2021) Cost Estimation And Design Of ARR1987 And ARR2016 Storm Water Pipeline [Online]. Available from: https://myassignmenthelp.com/free-samples/enrp20001-engineering-research-project/storm-water.html
[Accessed 21 July 2024].

My Assignment Help. 'Cost Estimation And Design Of ARR1987 And ARR2016 Storm Water Pipeline' (My Assignment Help, 2021) <https://myassignmenthelp.com/free-samples/enrp20001-engineering-research-project/storm-water.html> accessed 21 July 2024.

My Assignment Help. Cost Estimation And Design Of ARR1987 And ARR2016 Storm Water Pipeline [Internet]. My Assignment Help. 2021 [cited 21 July 2024]. Available from: https://myassignmenthelp.com/free-samples/enrp20001-engineering-research-project/storm-water.html.

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