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Entity Relationship Diagram (ERD) From Relational Database Schema

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Discuss about the Entity Relationship Diagram (ERD) from relational database schema.

 

Answer:

Entity Relationship Diagram:

Figure 1: The Entity Relationship Diagram of School Database

(Source: Created by Author)

The entity relationship diagram designed in Figure 2 illustrates that many teachers can teach only in one school. Similarly, the students can get admission to a single school only. One or more teachers will be teaching different subjects. This implies that the relation between teacher and subject is many-to-many. As real life database does not support many-to-many, a bridge table has been introduced. This table will hold the time of teaching a subject and the date. The teacher will have one-to-many relation with Teacher_Subject and the subject table will have one-to-many relation with Teacher_Subject. The student and subject also has many-to-many relation among them. At a time one teacher will assigned to manage the school. As many teacher can manage school in long period of time, the manage table has been introduced. This table holds the start and end of managing the school.

Data Dictionary:

Table: School

Attribute

Description

Data Type

Constraint

Example

School_code

This attribute is used for uniquely identifying the rows of the school entity

Varchar (40)

Primary Key

Sch111

Name

This attribute holds the name of the school

Varchar (40)

 

St. Thomas

Town

The name of the town in which the school is located

Varchar (40)

 

Brisbane

Street

The street name

Varchar (40)

 

Camac Strett

Postcode

The postcode of the area where the school is located

Varchar (40)

 

1234

Phone

The contact number of the school

INT (10)

 

1234567890

 

Table: Student

Attribute

Description

Data Type

Constraint

Example

Student_Number

This attribute is used for uniquely identifying the rows of the student entity

Varchar (40)

Primary Key

Std111

School

The id of the school in which the student is going

Varchar (40)

Foreign key references School table (School_code)

Sch111

First_Name

This attribute holds the first name of the student

Varchar (40)

 

Johnny

Last_Name

This attribute holds the last name of the student

Varchar (40)

 

Bravo

Gender

The gender of the student (male or female)

Varchar (40)

 

Male

DOB

The date of birth of the student

Date

 

12/04/1993

 

Table: Subject

Attribute

Description

Data Type

Constraint

Example

Subject_Title

Uniquely identify each row of the subject entity

Varchar (40)

Composite Primary Key

Foreign Key references to Subject table (Subject_Title)

Mathematics

Type

The category of the subject

Varchar (40)

 

Science

 

 

Table: Teachers

Attribute

Description

Data Type

Constraint

Example

Tax_File_Number

This attribute is used for uniquely identifying the rows of the student entity

Varchar (40)

Primary Key

1Z 05F 16F 24 1272 269 5

School

The id of the school in which the teacher teaches

Varchar (40)

Foreign key references School table (School_code)

Sch111

First_Name

This attribute holds the first name of the school

Varchar (40)

 

Blossom

Last_Name

This attribute holds the last name of the school

Varchar (40)

 

Grill

Gender

The gender of the teacher (male or female)

Varchar (40)

 

Female

Qualifications

The qualification of the teacher is located

Varchar (200)

 

Bachelor of Science, Master of Science in Mathematics

 

Table: Teacher_Subject

Attribute

Description

Data Type

Constraint

Example

Teacher

The primary key of the teacher entity

Varchar (40)

Foreign Key references to Teacher table (Tax_File_Number)

1Z 05F 16F 24 1272 269 5

Subject

The name of the subject that the teacher teaches

Varchar (40)

Foreign Key references to Subject table (Subject_Title)

Mathematics

Strat_Time

The time at which the teacher starts teaching subject

Time

 

10:00:00

End_Time

The time at which the teacher class ends

Time

 

12:00:00

Date

The date on which the teacher teaches the

Date

 

23/02/2018

 

Table: Student_Subject

Attribute

Description

Data Type

Constraint

Example

Student_Number

The primary key of the student entity

Varchar (40)

Composite Primary Key

Foreign Key references to Student table (Student_Number)

Std111

Subject_Title

The primary key of the subject entity

Varchar (40)

Composite Primary Key

Foreign Key references to Subject table (Subject_Title)

Mathematics

 

Table: Manage

Attribute

Description

Data Type

Constraint

Example

Teacher

The primary key of the teacher entity

Varchar (40)

Foreign Key references to Teacher table (Tax_File_Number)

1Z 05F 16F 24 1272 269 5

School

The teacher manage the school which has this id

Varchar (40)

Foreign key references School table (School_code)

Sch111

Strat_Date

The date from which the teacher will start managing the school

Date

 

12/02/2008

End_Date

The date from which the teacher leaves the responsibility of managing the school

Date

 

12/02/2016

Implementation of Database and Data Population:

 

Populate School Entity:

INSERT INTO `school` (`School_code`, `Name`, `Town`, `Street`, `Postcode`, `Phone`) VALUES ('sch111', 'Abbotsford Public School', 'Abbotsford', 'Segenhoe St', '2336', '65437271');

 

Populate Teachers Entity:

INSERT INTO `teachers` (`Tax_File_Number`, `School`, `First_Name`, `Last_Name`, `Gender`, `Qualifications`) VALUES  ('1Z 8A2 1E5 72 4437 495 6', 'sch111', 'Jayden', 'Rule', 'Male', 'MSC in Math');

INSERT INTO `teachers` (`Tax_File_Number`, `School`, `First_Name`, `Last_Name`, `Gender`, `Qualifications`) VALUES  ('1Z 05F 16F 24 1272 269 5', 'sch111', 'Angelina', 'Julia', 'Female', 'PHD in Physics');

Populate Student Entity:

INSERT INTO `student` (`Student_Number`, `School`, `First_Name`, `Last_Name`, `Gender`, `DOB`) VALUES ('STD111', 'sch111', 'Sophia', 'Poltpalingada', 'Female', '1997-11-08');

INSERT INTO `student` (`Student_Number`, `School`, `First_Name`, `Last_Name`, `Gender`, `DOB`) VALUES ('STD113', 'sch111', 'Keira', 'Rae', 'Female', '1995-04-04');

Populate Subject Entity:

INSERT INTO `subject` (`Subject_Title`, `Type`) VALUES ('Mathematics ', 'Science');

INSERT INTO `subject` (`Subject_Title`, `Type`) VALUES ('Physics', 'Science');

Populate Manage Entity:

INSERT INTO `manage` (`Teacher`, `School`, `Strat_Date`, `End_Date`) VALUES ('1Z 05F 16F 24 1272 269 5', 'sch111', '2002-04-11', '2010-04-17');

INSERT INTO `manage` (`Teacher`, `School`, `Strat_Date`, `End_Date`) VALUES ('1Z 8A2 1E5 72 4437 495 6', 'sch111', '2010-04-18', '2018-04-02');

Populate Student_Subject Entity:

INSERT INTO `Student_Subject` (`Student_Number`, `Subject_Title`) VALUES ('STD111', 'Mathematics ');

INSERT INTO `Student_Subject` (`Student_Number`, `Subject_Title`) VALUES ('STD113', 'Mathematics ');

Populate Teacher_Subject Entity:

INSERT INTO `Teacher_Subject` (`Subject`, `Teacher`, `Strat_TIme`, `End_Time`, `Teaching_Date`) VALUES ('Mathematics ', '1Z 05F 16F 24 1272 269 5', '02:00:00', '04:00:00', '2018-03-07');

INSERT INTO `Teacher_Subject` (`Subject`, `Teacher`, `Strat_TIme`, `End_Time`, `Teaching_Date`) VALUES ('Physics', '1Z 05F 16F 24 1272 269 5', '10:30:00', '13:00:00', '2018-03-07');

 

Bibliography:

Al-Masree, H. K. (2015). Extracting Entity Relationship Diagram (ERD) from relational database schema. International Journal of Database Theory and Application, 8(3), 15-26.

Veikkolainen, T., Pesonen, L. J., & Evans, D. A. (2014). PALEOMAGIA: A PHP/MYSQL database of the Precambrian paleomagnetic data. Studia Geophysica et Geodaetica, 58(3), 425-441.

Yang, L., & Cao, L. (2016). The Effect of MySQL Workbench in Teaching Entity-Relationship Diagram (ERD) to Relational Schema Mapping. International Journal of Modern Education and Computer Science, 8(7), 1.

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