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Environmental Economics: Tasmanian And The Federal Government

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Question:

Discuss about the Environmental Economics for Tasmanian and the Federal Government.
 

Answer: 

Introduction

The Tasmanian and the Federal Government of the country has been seen to be included under the World Heritage, based on the grounds of degraded forest. The various types of the degraded areas have been seen to be considered under the plantation and the forests which have thinned or cleared felled from a proportion of the proposed amendment. It has been further seen that around 74000 hectares of the Tasmania’s World Heritage forest have been proposed to be removed. The delisting of the issues has been seen raising various types of the issue which are seen to be associated to the facing various protests (Nepstad et al., 2014). This issue is seen to be of importance due to bringing of more value to the broader World Heritage Area. The current state of the issue is seen to be associated to the clear cutting of old growth forests in parts of Australia. This has been further seen to be associated to the concern for the destruction of natural ecosystems and the replacement with monoculture plantations. The current status of the issue are further seen to be associated to the destructions of the rain forests, this are seen to be responsible for the overall degradation of the ecosystem of Australian border (Gallemore & Munroe, 2013).

 

Ecosystem Service Analysis

The main forms of the ecosystem being affected by the incident have been seen in terms of detraction from the heritage values and the wilderness in the country. Not only the environmental impact has been seen in terms of forestry coupes but also it has been considered in form of the different types of the issue which are seen to be associated to the re-growth in the forest areas. Some of the important ecological issues have been further identified in form of blocking the access to the roads in the forest, high voltage power lines and plantations. Some of the advantages of the ecological benefits have been also seen in terms of the enhancement in terms of producing habitat, increasing carbon storage and in terms of the ecological benefits. The various types of the forestry operations have been seen to be rated as “pine and exotic eucalypt” plantations within the World Heritage Area. The main concerning issues in Tasmania have been seen to be pointed out in 2009. Tasmania has been to be as one of the most protected places on earth. More than 45% of the total forests in Tasmania are seen to be protected under World Heritage Area, with various types of the forest reserves and national parks (Nolte, et al., 2013). Hence, the main implication of the deforestation is not only detrimental to the forest covers but also to the Heritage sites. It has been further seen that the total growth in the forest areas will also promote the various types of the trade activities in terms of export of the woodchips. Some of the major setbacks have been further seen in terms of Rainforest Action Network. The death and the destruction of the forest in Tasmania have been seen with the vision of Roos’s childhood. It has been seen that the according to Roos’ philosophy of life the death and the testament based on the importance of the natural world, beyond utility, profit and the services which are seen to be important for the human (Brown & Zarin, 2013). These requirements of the ecosystem have been identified in terms of the clean air, water, biodiversity. The main vision was seen in terms of the intangible quality in the ecosystem. Hence, it has been seen that the various changes in the ecosystem due to the deforestation were seen to be affecting the overall quality of clean air, water, biodiversity. The two third of the Australian population has been seen to be under “Commonwealth-state Regional Forest Agreements (RFAs)”. IT has been seen that the various impacts of the deforestation is seen to be having a direct impact on the RFA’s (Society, 2015). The various types of the consideration of the deforestation have been further seen with the long-term impact in the ecological imbalance based on the issues related to the soil erosion. The deliberate attempts of the deforestation has been further lead to soil erosion and associated to the related issues of depleting of the soil. Some of the various types of the other considerations have been seen in terms of the sustainability in the ecosystem (Barber et al., 2014).

 

Current Regulatory and Policy Mechanisms

The current regulatory body responsible for the regulations is framed by the Government in the Tasmanian State and the various dependencies in form of the commonwealth of Australia. The acting advice of the recommendation of the forest practices authority and the executive council has been seen in terms of the regulations under the Forest Practices Act 1985. Some of the main forms of the regulations of the company have been seen with the Forest Practices Regulations 2007, Forest Practices Amendment Regulations 2009, Forest Practices Amendment Regulations 2011, Forest Management (Consequential Amendments) Act 2013 and Forestry (Rebuilding the Forest Industry) Act 2014.   

The regulatory practices have been further seen to be associated to the Forest practices and planning and determination of the regulations of the deforestation in Tasmania. The various ranges of the study has been able to state on the various types of the practices which are seen to be associated to the establishing of the trees on land and not being threatened native vegetation. The current regulatory policies have been further seen not to be involving in terms of the construction of roads the operations of the quarry (Godar et al., 2014). Due to this particular reason the deforestation activity started in the first place. It has been also seen that the various types of the factors responsible for the regulatory mechanisms has been further seen to be associated to the construction and the maintenance of the gas pipelines. The harvesting of the tree ferns has been seen to be done based on the consent of the applicable land and consent of the owner. It has been also observed that not more than 6 tree ferns are seen to be related to land in a particular year(Pfaff et al., 2014). The various types of the considerations has been made in terms of the harvesting of timber, clearing of the trees and the various types of the conversion associated to the native vegetation community. It has been further observed that the various types of the regulations are seen to be related to the various types of the legislations which are seen to be associated to the conversion associated to the plantation and the clearance and the different of the conversion process of TNVC. The forest commission has been seen in terms of the multi-million dollar advertising and the campaigns for the various types of the ecological aspects. The Tasmanian Forestry Commission and the North Broken Hill has been seen to be responsible for the mining company on mainland Australia has been seen to be associated to the preservation of the highly destructive and wasteful logging. The clear fells are further seen to be a bigger issue and thousands of hectares are seen to be cleared annually. It has been further seen that the forestry commission has marked coupes for logging at a very altitude. This has been seen to be evident in form of the wood chip conservation. The mainstream media has been also discerned to play a pivotal role in publishing main stream media. 

 

Appraise the Current Regulatory and Policy Framework

The main forms of the present regulations have been seen to be focusing on the provisions which are focused towards the mining activities and development of the land for the purpose of the transportation services. It has been further seen that the various types of the present regulations has been seen to conducive for building of roadways and encouraging the mining activities. Based on the several types of the considerations it has been seen that an individual is seen to be associated to the activities which are seen to be helpful for the mining activities. The deforestation is seen to be permissible based on the regulation for improving the traffic of the overall area. Due to these activities the company has been seen to be facing several issues which are seen to be associated to the different types of the issues related to the construction and the maintenance of the gas pipelines. The main forms of the depictions made in the study has been further able to state on the various types of the issue which are seen to be associated to the disregard for the several types of the other issues related to the ecological imbalance. The activities permitted by the Government has been seen to be not only detrimental for the preservation of the World Heritage Site in the area but also led to the several types of the issues related to the soil erosion. The main issues have been further seen to be brought by the several types of the consideration which are related to the detoriating rainforest in the Tunisia region (Obidzinski et al., 2015). This consideration has led to the various types of the consideration of the study has been seen to be considered based on the different assumptions for the various types of the considerations made in terms of the encouraging the mining activities. It has been further considered that the present regulatory framework needs to do several types of the improvements which are associated to the different types of the regulatory framework for the various types of the regulations based on the several types of the factors which are seen to be based on the considerations made in terms of the traffic. The policy appraisal need to further take into consideration the protection of the values which are associated to the different types of the factors related to the extraordinary natural and the cultural values in the area. The different types of the consideration of the study have been further able to take into account the protection of the Heritage site in the area. The various types of the considerations of the study have been further able to depict the land area which must be taken into account for the forest cover. The regulation of the legislations needs to further take into account the natural ecosystems and the replacement with monoculture plantations (Lawrence & Vandecar, 2015).

 

Opportunities for Improving Regulatory and Policy Framework

The improvement opportunities in the country have been considered by UN by calling for a blanket ban on logging and the various types of the mining activities in the forests of Tasmania. The Tasmanian government has decided to open up a total area of 200000 hectors for the lodging activities and thereby representing 12% of the world Heritage area of the state. As for the new management plan of the government it has further proposed to work on tourism infrastructure of the country. The state’s world Heritage area is seen to be covering 1.5 m hectors which is seen as about 20% of the total state’s land mass. The protected area has been further seen to include the temperate forests, aboriginal sites and mountains. The decision handed down to the Germany for the world Heritage committee has been characterised of the property with the key values for being fundamental for the management. The report of the committee has been able to state the failure of Tasmania for the cultural properties associated to preserving of and the ecological balance and Heritage sites. The committee has been further seen to be concerned for the survey which is seen classes that the indigenous sites based in the area. The key improvements have been expected to complete only after 2018. The committee is in further seen to include plans to open up areas for attracting greater number of tourists and raising concerns for the strict controls for any further deforestation activities in the area. The Tasmanian government has been seen to mull more than 24 proposals for the new tourism infrastructure for the world Heritage area. This is in further seen to include the boat trips in the areas of Bathurst Harbour and Port Davey. It is an further seen that the building of five huts around the South Coast track has been seen to bring in attractive innovation for mountain biking experience for the tourists. The government has been seen to be stressing on the activity associated the selective lodging and boosting on the struggling economy of the State which is seen to be the main essence of the world Heritage values (Byerlee et al., 2014).

Based on the present findings it has been further assessed that the lodging and mining activities as in seen to be playing no role in terms of world Heritage area. One cannot expect to protect the values in an area by logging. It has been further seen that protecting of the area has been seen to be involved with fully acknowledging the various types of values for the Heritage committees and protecting the interests of ancestral values of the aboriginal community. The environment Minister of Tasmania Mr. Matthew Groom has further proposed not to rule out the mining and logging activities as it is an ongoing process. He has further agreed to fully acknowledge the protection of four related sites and ensured that the new plan is able to genuinely product that extraordinary natural and cultural values associated to the area (Milman, 2015). The environment Minister has further acknowledged to ensure that the new plan is able to genuinely protect the extraordinary natural and cultural values of the forests affected by deforestation. It is further that the commitment to protect the values and work alongside the world Heritage committee for a responsible outcome.

Conclusion

The different types of analysis has been able to suggest that the main forms of the ecosystem being affected by the incident have been seen in terms of detraction from the heritage values and the wilderness in the country. Not only the environmental impact has been seen in terms of forestry coupes but also it has been considered in form of the different types of the issue which are seen to be associated to the re-growth in the forest areas.  Based on the information obtained from the current regulatory mechanism the main regulations are framed by the Government in the Tasmanian State and the various dependencies in form of the commonwealth of Australia. The acting advice of the recommendation of the forest practices authority and the executive council has been seen in terms of the regulations under the Forest Practices Act 1985. The different types of the improvement initiatives have been considered by UN by calling for a blanket ban on logging and the various types of the mining activities in the forests of Tasmania. The Tasmanian government has decided to open up a total area of 200000 hectors for the lodging activities and thereby representing 12% of the world Heritage area of the state.

 

Reference List

Barber, C. P., Cochrane, M. A., Souza, C. M., & Laurance, W. F. (2014). Roads, deforestation, and the mitigating effect of protected areas in the Amazon. Biological Conservation, 177, 203–209. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2014.07.004

Brown, S., & Zarin, D. (2013). What does zero deforestation mean? Science, 342(March), 805–807. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1241277

Byerlee, D., Stevenson, J., & Villoria, N. (2014). Does intensification slow crop land expansion or encourage deforestation? Global Food Security. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gfs.2014.04.001

Gallemore, C., & Munroe, D. K. (2013). Centralization in the global avoided deforestation collaboration network. Global Environmental Change, 23(5), 1199–1210. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2013.04.004

Godar, J., Gardner, T. a., Tizado, E. J., & Pacheco, P. (2014). Actor-specific contributions to the deforestation slowdown in the Brazilian Amazon. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 111(43), 15591–15596. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1322825111

Lawrence, D., & Vandecar, K. (2015). The impact of tropical deforestation on climate and links to agricultural productivity. Nature Publishing Group, 5(2), 27–36. https://doi.org/10.1038/nclimate2430

Milman, O. (2015). UN calls for ban on logging and mining in Tasmania's world heritage area. the Guardian. Retrieved 9 May 2017, from https://www.theguardian.com/australia-news/2015/jul/02/un-calls-for-ban-on-logging-and-mining-in-tasmanias-world-heritage-area

Nepstad, D., McGrath, D., Stickler, C., Alencar, A., Azevedo, A., Swette, B., … Hess, L. (2014). Slowing Amazon deforestation through public policy and interventions in beef and soy supply chains. Science, 344(6188), 1118–23. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1248525

Nolte, C., Agrawal, A., Silvius, K. M., & Soares-Filho, B. S. (2013). Governance regime and location influence avoided deforestation success of protected areas in the Brazilian Amazon. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 110(13), 4956–4961. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1214786110

Obidzinski, K., Kusters, K., & Gnych, S. (2015). Taking the Bitter with the Sweet: Sugarcane’s Return as a Driver of Tropical Deforestation. Conservation Letters, 8(6), 449–455. https://doi.org/10.1111/conl.12172

Pfaff, A., Robalino, J., Lima, E., Sandoval, C., & Herrera, L. D. (2014). Governance, Location and Avoided Deforestation from Protected Areas: Greater Restrictions Can Have Lower Impact, Due to Differences in Location. World Development, 55, 7–20. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.worlddev.2013.01.011

Society, N. (2015). Deforestation Facts, Deforestation Information, Effects of Deforestation. National Geographic. Retrieved from https://environment.nationalgeographic.com/environment/global-warming/deforestation-overview

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