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Question:

Discuss about the Environmental Law of New Zealand.
 
 

Answer:

Management occupies a central place in order to reduce the pollution levels. This reduction adds to the lifestyle of the public domain. Application of effective management techniques enables the companies and organizations to control the misutilization of the natural resources. Specific example in this direction is the environmental legislations, which makes the personnel aware of the wellbeing of the public domain. The generalization of the issue contradicts the focus of this report on New Zealand. Counter arguing this contradiction, the focus on judicious utilization of water adds to its freshwater. Moreover, it also adds to the existence of the individuals.

Fresh water attains an important position within the natural resources of ecological diversity. According to the numerical projection, the fresh water occupies 70% of the natural resources. Attachment of effective management techniques adds firmness in the position of freshwater within the other natural resources[1]. However, due to the increasing pollution levels, the freshness of the water is at stake. This report attempts to speculate the correct utilization of the environmental law policies in terms of judicious utilization of freshwater. One of the other focuses of the assignment is on the regulatory framework towards nitrogen discharge allowances.

Water is one of the major requirements for survival. Mere provision of water to the public does not help in the achievement of sustainable growth. Application of management techniques after the provision of resources helps in the evaluation of the exposed performance. This is applicable for every field that offers a quality lifestyle to the public domain. Speculation of New Zealand in particular contradicts the inner essence of the term “management”[2]. Countering this, focus on New Zealand establishes relevancy with the requirements of the report.

The political unrest within the threshold of New Zealand aggravated the complexities of freshwater resource managers in terms of preserving the quality of water. The adoption of Management Act went in vain, which compelled the management authorities to think of something creative, which would support in making judicious utilization of the fresh water[3]. One of such example was the governmental initiative entitled, New Start for Fresh Water”. This initiative compelled the management staffs to put on thinking caps as to execute effective trade with fresh water. This issue excavated the need to supervise the catchment area, which resulted in the over allocation of the fresh water resources. Along with this, regulation of the waste discharge is also needed for controlling the pollution levels[4]. Herein, lays the effectiveness of the regulatory framework, which adds to the preservation of the quality of natural resources.

A typical example in this direction is the Healthy Rivers Plan. The word healthy contradicts the aspects of waste discharge. This plan was adapted for bringing about changes in the management of the fresh water resources. As a matter of specification, adoption of directives lessened the emission of wastes, which possessed flexibility for preservation of uniqueness of fresh water. Further, optimizing the resources, out of 70% water resources, human get to use only 3% of the waters, which is available in rivers and lakes. Herein, lays the effectiveness of management, which would provide fresh and accessible water for the public usage. Viewing it from another perspective, management of the nitrogen discharge adds to the quality and freshness of the water[5]. Countering this, management in this case comprises of allowances in terms of utilization of fresh water.

Regulatory framework acts as a cornerstone for the New Zealand fresh water resources management in terms of adding to the existence of the public domain. Typical example of this is UN convention on the Law of Non-Navigational Uses of International Watercourses. According to the propositions of this legislation, effective initiatives were undertaken for regulation of the export activities in terms of fresh water[6]. The prefix “non” contradicts the illegal activities, which resulted in the misutilization of water. Attachment of the rapid population growth in this context, misutilization symbolized deprivation for future generation in terms of using the basic raw materials for survival, of which water attains top most position.

 


Counter arguing this, compliance with the standards and codes of the directive enabled freshwater resource management of New Zealand to provide fresh and accessible water to every corner of the world. Herein, lays a conscious approach towards the wellbeing of the public domain. The attribute of “consciousness” can be conjoined with the propositions of the directive, UNECE Convention on the Protection and Use of Trans-boundary Watercourses and International Lakes[7]. Delving deep into the directive, many issues are highlighted, most important one is the protection. This issue is crucial in terms of free flow of goods from one part of the country to another. However, protection was on international level as freshwater was exported from New Zealand to the neighboring countries. Adherence to the standards and codes of this legislative enhances the corporate social responsibility of the freshwater resource department of New Zealand. As freshwater possesses collective usage, therefore management of the discharge is an essential factor to gift a life to the public domain[8]. Management here reflected the adoption of proper drainage basins. The integrated structure of the drainage basins mitigated the amount of discharges. The major drive behind this is the presence of advanced technology, which effectively regulated the agricultural wastes, sewerage discharges among others. These machines reduced the pollution levels largely, which simultaneously projected a noticeable decline in the death rates due to lung cancer and other pollutant diseases. Taking into consideration the viewpoints of the stakeholders and shareholders proved beneficial for the freshwater resource department to control the discharge of pollutants in the near future, which preserved the quality and freshness of water[9].

These results made New Zealand a better place to live in for the inhabitants[10]. The name New Zealand is itself an evidence for the earlier sentence. The initiatives undertaken for bestowing clean, hygienic and accessible water to the public domain added a “new zeal” within the existence of the public domain. This addition resulted in the creation of a different land, which provided an escape to the public domain from the polluted ambience[11]. The new Christianization of New Zealand broadens the scope and arena of the freshwater resource department. This expansion enhances the parameter of corporate social responsibility of the department, which ensures the wellbeing of the inhabitants of New Zealand[12].  

In order to maintain pace with the rapid growth of population, New Zealand freshwater resources department adopted effective pollution control measures[13]. Viewing it from the perspective of the report, this approach overpowers the regulatory framework towards utilization of freshwater as compared to the nitrogen discharge allowances. Taking a cue from the discussion, allowances in terms of discharge clears out the bacteria and adulteration, which adds to its quality[14]. Attaching the aspect of allowance in this aspect symbolizes the consciousness of the freshwater resource department managers in terms of providing clean accessible and drinking water to the public domain.

Delving deep into the matter of Nitrogen Discharge Allowances (NDA), nitrogen is an essential component for plants and animals for their survival. On the contrary, present of nitrogen in the lakes degrades the quality of water making it unsafe for the public[15]. This crisis necessitates the aspect of management. In view of the earlier sentence, the two aspects of the reports attain equal alignment. Countering this, one aspect leads to another. In order to preserve the quality and freshness of water, effective and judicious utilization is required. Application of effective and efficient management technique results in the judicious utilization of resources, especially water. Mere implementation of the legislations does not serve the actual purpose. Consideration of specifications enables the freshwater resource department of New Zealand to mitigate the illegal activities that deprive the public from acquiring fresh and accessible water[16]. In order to serve the basic needs of the public, export of the available resources and import of the lacking resources is crucial. However, prior permissions safeguard the freshwater resource department to avert situational crisis, such as scandals.  

Countering this, one aspect is related to another. Coverage of every strata of society for distribution of the natural resources would help the human resource department of New Zealand to prosper. Special focus on the below poverty level people would help in the achievement of positive results. Introduction of policies and legislations towards the upliftment of this particular section would upgrade the status of New Zealand in terms of preserving the ecological diversity[17].

 

Bibliography

Betteridge, K., et al. "Why we need to know what and where cows are urinating–a urine sensor to improve nitrogen models. Betteridge, Keith, et al. "Development of a critical source area prediction model of nitrogen leaching." Accurate and efficient use of nutrients on farms. Eds. Currie, LD (2013).Vol. 75. 2013.

Brouwer, Floor. Economics of Regulation in Agriculture: Compliance with Public and Private Standards. CABI, 2012.

Cañedo-Argüelles, Miguel, et al. "Saving freshwater from salts." Science 351.6276 (2016): 914-916.

Cantonati, Marco, et al. "Crenic habitats, hotspots for freshwater biodiversity conservation: toward an understanding of their ecology." Freshwater Science 31.2 (2012): 463-480.

Compton, Tanya J., et al. "Predicting spread of invasive macrophytes in New Zealand lakes using indirect measures of human accessibility." Freshwater Biology 57.5 (2012): 938-948.

Duncan, Ronlyn. "Regulating agricultural land use to manage water quality: The challenges for science and policy in enforcing limits on non-point source pollution in New Zealand." Land Use Policy 41 (2014): 378-387.

Myers, S. C., et al. "Wetland management in New Zealand: Are current approaches and policies sustaining wetland ecosystems in agricultural landscapes?." Ecological engineering 56 (2013): 107-120.

Nanda V and Pring G, International Environmental Law And Policy For The 21St Century (1st edn, BRILL 2012)

Palmer, Q. C. "Protecting New Zealand's environment: an analysis of the government's proposed freshwater management and Resource Management Act 1991 reforms." (2013).

Roygard, J. K. F., K. J. McArthur, and M. E. Clark. "Diffuse contributions dominate over point sources of soluble nutrients in two sub-catchments of the Manawatu River, New Zealand." New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 46.2 (2012): 219-241.

Stenger, Roland, et al. "Groundwater assimilative capacity–an untapped opportunity for catchment-scale nitrogen management?." Advanced Nutrient Management: Gains from the Past-Goals for the Future (2012).

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