1. Compose a brief Word document that answers the following questions.
2. Different measures of disease are useful to evaluate and assess public health programs and needs in different situations. Refer to Chapter 3 in Friis and Sellers (2014).
3. State which measure would best support your goal and briefly explain why you chose that measure for each of the following questions
Measures of disease help in the assessment of health priorities when developing public health programs because they help to compare and contrast disease patterns (Bhopal, 2016). In addition, a careful consideration of disease measures ensures that health programs are designed based on the specific needs of the target population and location. Most importantly, these measures enhance disease surveillance to establish the most essential hazards. The usage of hazard analysis critical control point systems relies on data and information collected through epidemiological methods. Different occurrence measures are essential because they help to quantify health outcomes and form the basis of etiological and other studies because they enable researchers to measure the occurrence of disability and death accurately (Friis & Sellers, 2014).
Measures that support different goals
- To demonstrate the risks of car-train crashes at railroad crossings without warning signals.
Incidence is the most appropriate measure in this case because the goal is to measure the risk rather than the actual number of car-train crashes.
To demonstrate the amount of children’s exposure to secondhand cigarette smoke.
Prevalence would be an ideal measure to support this goal because the actual amount will be demonstrated. Indeed, the objective of this question is to establish the number of cases of children’s exposure from a large population.
To estimate the number of persons who have had leukemia during their lifetimes.
Lifetime prevalence measure would be used for this goal since it aims to find the actual number of leukemia cases for the entire life.
To estimate the number of healthcare facilities needed to support patients with Alzheimer’s disease.
Prevalence is the best measure for this goal because the actual number of healthcare facilities will be matched to the actual number of patients with Alzheimer’s disease.
To argue that mortality from HIV infection is a more serious public health problem in one region of the U.S than another.
Crude death rate is the best measure for this goal because it will help to calculate the number of deaths per population. Hence, the crude death rate in one region can be compared with the rate of a different location to determine which region has the highest number of deaths compared to the whole population.
Bhopal, R. S. (2016). Concepts of epidemiology: integrating the ideas, theories, principles, and methods of epidemiology. Oxford University Press.
Friis, R. H., & Sellers, T. (2014). Epidemiology for public health practice. Jones & Bartlett Publishers.