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Essay: Inflammation Add in library

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Question:

Write an essay on Inflammation.

 

Answer:

Inflammation is the process of defending via the immune cells against any foreign particles entering the body system. The hot inflamed toe generally indicates the increased level of uric acid in the body or rheumatoid arthritis. Uric acid is the complex chemical compound which is toxic to the human body. Uric acid is brought to liver where it is broken into simpler compound and excreted out through the urine. Human blood cells has a acceptance level of uric acid, if the level exceeds the acceptance level, it affects human body by its toxic and acidic nature[1]. The hot inflamed toe can be characterized by the enhanced redness, swelling and heated toe joints; these three are the signs or characteristics of inflammation. With the enhancement of uric acid level in blood, the uric acid becomes crystalline. As the crystalline uric acids are problematic for being excreted from the body through urination, this uric acid crystals isdeposited on the joints and tissues surrounding the joints. On other hand, sometimes, these uric acid crystals are brought to kidney and in spite of being excreted out from the body, these remains in kidney as kidney stone[2].

The circulatory system has a major role in this process. The redness, swelling and generation of heat are the signals for the circulatory system indicating that an infection has taken place at that areas. In this context, a number of cytokines and chemokines help in the establishment of inflammation and attract the immune cells, i.e. the neutrophiles and macrophages at the site of inflammation, where these cells engulf the infectious foreign particles and removes from the blood. In the action of the cytokines and chemokines, red blood cells are accumulated in the injured site for beginning the healing process, enhancing the redness. The healing process enhances the flow of tissue fluids with different mediators at the injured area, thereby swelling occurs. In the response of overlapping events of inflammation, leukocyte migration, pain and vigorous reaction of phagocytosis of infectious foreign particles, heat is being generated[3].

In the case of hot inflamed toe, injured tissue initiates the inflammation process, thereby accumulating red blood cells at the surrounding areas, activating circulatory system. Sometimes, aching and burning pain is addressed in toes in response to activity of circulatory system. Then vasodilation occurs, that is the widening of the arterioles for supplying more blood into the injured site, it leads to smooth muscle relaxation and the permeability of endothelial lining of capillaries are widened[4]. It makes the leucocyte’s migration within the endothelial cells easy and in this way they becomes able to enter into the inflamed tissue, allowing the damaging tissue for generating heat in the local area. The chemical and inflammatory mediators are released into the injured areas and increased blood flow lead to redness and temperature rise. This edema and swelling introduce pain. The pain is introduced by the action of prostaglandin and substance P that are inflammatory mediators. In addition, the pressure created by the interstitial fluids upon the nerve endings also tends to increase pain[5].

 

Reference List

Al-Homood, Ibrahim A. "Rheumatic conditions in patients with diabetes mellitus." Clinical rheumatology 32.5 (2013): 527-533.

Bardin, T., and G. Desideri. "How to manage patients with gout." Current medical research and opinion 29.sup3 (2013): 17-24.

de la Rosa, Martha, and Jean-Luc Girardet. "Compounds, Compositions and Methods for Modulating Uric Acid Levels." U.S. Patent Application No. 13/321,155.

Jones, Robert A., and Brian Quilty. "The crystal arthropathies." InnovAiT: Education and inspiration for general practice (2013): 1755738013499319

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