Describe about the Ethical Dilemma in ICT for Improved Equipments and System.
The information system and technology has been in a state of development since the introduction of improved equipments and system. The growth of technology has also made the development of ICT evitable for the growing companies and organizations (Vaishnavi & Kuechler, 2015). The ethical issues and flaws have also grown with the increase of uses of technology and information system. The developed technology has been misused by many people for their personal gain and for harming others. The following assignment has been made on the application of Doing Ethics Technique on a selected article for addressing and understanding the ethical issues of cyber crimes on others.
Application of Doing Ethics Technique (DET)
Selected article- “Smaller firms set to 'face £52bn in fines' for security breaches as cyber-crime skyrockets” by OWEN (2017).
Step 1: Short Summary of the ethical scenario
According to Owen (2017), the British Firms have become a subject to 230,000 attacks by cyber criminals in the year 2016. The total amount of loss tolled to be approximately 52 billion pounds (83.87 billion Australian dollars). The study has shown that the cyber attack had an average frequency of over 1000 on a daily basis in UK. It is an alarming situation for the business organizations as the firewall security is not enough to resist the attack and protect their data from external influence. The chairman of internet service provider Beaming has warned people for not taking these attacks lightly. The current rate of attack on cyber structure can rise to 122 billion pounds in the year 2018, if proper strategies are not applied and implemented (Jacobo, 2016). The development and increase in the issues of National Cyber Security have risen to the loss of 5.26 billion in a year.
Step 2: List of stakeholders
The stakeholders are very important for any business organization as they form the base for supporting the business organizations with financial support and resources (Moore, 2012). The ethical dilemma has shown that the cyber criminals have harmed the business organizations with the loss of financial resources. The primary stakeholders that have to face negative consequence due to the unethical cyber criminal issues are the organization owners and stakeholders (CEO, Managers, Directors, Investors, Customers, and sponsors). The cyber criminals are the stakeholders that have been benefitted from the cyber criminal activities. They have used the technical knowledge and advancement for getting personal gain by attacking the privacy of information. The non human stakeholders include the computer technology ethics and legal rights to privacy that have been violated in the scenario.
Step 3: Ideals and Rights.
The ethical issue has given rise to financial loss for the business organization and the involved individuals with the organization. The legal right to privacy and confidentiality of information has also been violated in the ethical dilemma (Melden, 2013). The cyber criminals have used the technology of hacking for getting into the secured system of the business organization and extract the information from the system without any consent of the owner. It has shown the unethical use of technology and equipments for personal gain. The unethical hacking and getting into someone else’s data base has shown the non abidance of the computer technology ethics and rights. The personal information of the stakeholders and business organization’s data are extracted in the above ethical dilemma.
Step 4: Obligations and Laws
The cyber criminals have deified the computer technological ethics and given rise to ethical dilemma for the small business organizations and the individuals connected to the organizations (Moore, 2012). The legal obligations included in the ethical dilemma are loss of information authenticity due to misuse by the cyber criminals. The cyber criminals have targeted small business organizations to make money out of the attack. The attackers have used ransom ware for hindering the process of business organizations and access to the information. The owners of the business organization would have to pay a considerable amount to the attackers for letting them use the system for their processes and access the files from the system. According to Kim (2015), the ACS has formed the laws that abide the improper use of technology for harassing the people.
Step 5: Consequences for Each Stakeholders
The ethical dilemma has resulted in harming the operations of business organizations and the individuals involved in the project. The development of the hacking tools has been deployed for bypassing the security of the information system and extracting the information from the system (Hansson, 2016). The involved stakeholders in the project are organization owners and stakeholders (CEO, Managers, Directors, Investors, Customers, and sponsors), cyber criminals, computer technology ethics, and legal rights to privacy.
The human stakeholders that have been negatively affected from the ethical dilemma are the organizations stakeholders and other involved persons. They have to face loss of financial resources due to the mentioned ethical dilemma. The cyber criminals are another stakeholder involved in the scenario. However, they have been positively affected from the issue as they are the initiators of the attack and they gain benefits from the other parties. The non human stakeholders are the computer technology ethics and legal rights to privacy. The unethical use of computer technology has resulted in harming the computer ethics. The rights to privacy of information have also been violated in the scenario.
Step 6: Ethical Theories
Act Utilitarianism: The ethical dilemma has resulted in decreasing the overall happiness of organization owners and stakeholders (CEO, Managers, Directors, Investors, Customers, and sponsors) by harming the financial stability of the organization (Vaishnavi & Kuechler, 2015). Hence, the Utilitarianism would help in modification of the thinking of the cyber criminals and prevent them from misusing the technology.
Act Kantianism: The Kantianism theory is helpful for rectification of moral contradictions and logical reasoning that results in solving the unethical issues. According to Hay (2013), the Kantianism theory has the possibility for providing moral lifting of the hackers and cyber criminals to rise above their personal benefits and avoid the unethical practices.
Rule Utilitarianism: The rule utilitarianism has been used for solving the issues related with hacking and uplifting of the overall happiness.
Social contract theory: The social contract theory applies for supporting the ethical practices in computer technology.
Step 7: Solution Summaries
The smaller companies should design and implement the process of encryption for their information system storage system. The use of secured design would allow the users for the protecting the information from wireless hackers. Windows firewall is useful for protecting the network security of the information system (Biham & Shamir, 2012). However, it has flaws that have been utilized by hackers for getting into the system. Hence, the use of IDS/IPS would be helpful for protecting the network from unauthorized access. The system development of the wireless information system should have integrated and password protection for dealing with the cyber criminals. The lack of self realization among the users has resulted in increasing the occurrence of unethical hacking issues.
Doing ethics can be defined as the process of analyzing the issues and evaluating methods of their solutions for any specific ethical problem related to technology. The assignment had evaluated the various stakeholders for the small business organization and it has shown the affect of the ethical dilemma on these stakeholders. The various theories of Ethical Science like, Utilitarianism, Kantianism theory, rule utilitarianism, and Social contract theory has been analyzed in the assignment above. The solution summarizes the various methods for dealing with the ethical issues. The solutions are designing and implementing the process of encryption, using secured design for information system, windows firewall, and IDS/IPS technique. The overall analysis of the assignment has shown the development of optimized solution for the ethical issue of hacking into the system.
Biham, E., & Shamir, A. (2012). Differential cryptanalysis of the data encryption standard. Springer Science & Business Media.
Hansson, S. O. (2016). The Ethics of Doing Ethics. Science and engineering ethics, 1-16.
Hay, C. (2013). Kantianism, Liberalism, and Feminism: Resisting Oppression. Springer.
Jacobo, J. (2016). More Than 100 Cars Stolen by High-Tech Thieves: Police. ABC News. Retrieved 9 August 2016, from https://abcnews.go.com/US/houston-police-100-cars-stolen-high-tech-thieves/story?id=41124433
Kim, J. (2015). A Study on the Development of the Emergent System Recovery in an Effective Way from Hacking Attacks or Security Incidents.International Journal of Security and Its Applications, 9(8), 187-194.
Melden, A. (2013). Ethical theories. Read Books Ltd.
Moore, A. D. (2012). Owning genetic information and gene enhancement techniques: why privacy and property rights may undermine social control of the human genome. Bioethics, 14(2).
OWEN, V. (2017). Smaller firms set to 'face £52bn in fines' for security breaches as cyber-crime skyrockets. www.dailymail.co.uk. Retrieved 17 January 2017, from https://www.dailymail.co.uk/money/smallbusiness/article-4120352/Smaller-firms-set-face-52bn-fines-security-breaches-cyber-crime-skyrockets.html?ITO=1490
Vaishnavi, V. K., & Kuechler, W. (2015). Design science research methods and patterns: innovating information and communication technology. Crc Press.