Evaluate traditional and Contemporary leadership theory to generate a Conceptual Model that contributes to a framework for building Leadership Capacity and lifelong leadership for Quality Improvement to advance Nursing.
A leader is an individual or a group of people who chooses, prepares, trains and inspires one or more people with various gifts, aptitudes, and skills and directs the groups to the establishment’s mission and purposes causing the followers to readily and enthusiastically expend mystical, emotive and physical energy in a rigorous harmonised effort to achieve the firm’s mission and targets (Stewart L, 2010). The leader achieves this impact by meekly assigning a predictive vision of the forthcoming years in clear terms that resonates with the ‘followers’ principles and morals in such a way that the follower can comprehend and analyse the future into current-time action steps. In the nursing field, there are issues which constantly arise which if not solved appropriately often interferes with the productivity of the sector. The nursing sector relies on evidence that can be supported by effective research. For the quality of the work of the workers to be visible there is need to properly utilise the research ideas in the daily clinical nursing activities (W, 2009). For this issue, the leadership attributes of the nurses their manager and administrators have been pointed out as vital for supporting the utilisation of the research work and practice based on evidence. It’s therefore a great drawback when the current conditions in the nursing practice gives contrary evidence when it comes to how effective the nursing leadership have been when it comes to successfully implementing research-based practice in the sector (Locke R, 2011). several theories have risen in the past with researchers still coming up with more theories to try to define leadership (Tornabeni J, 2008). Our analysis will therefore focus on how the formulated theories can be put in practice to help ease the leadership strains affecting the nursing sector.
Traditional leadership theories
First, we have the trait theory, this leadership theory is majored around identifying the personal features and personalities that is associated with successful leaders within various fields. This nature of research was one of the first to mushroom in the quest to illustrate the basis of defining leadership (Warrick, 2011). The great man theory formulated by Thomas Carlyle is an example of this type of research, his research was majored around leadership which was based on hereditary features. The great man leadership theory is an example of the trait theories, this theory define leadership as an inborn quality that you either have naturally or not. According to the theory one cannot learn or develop the leadership qualities if not born with them (Zaccaro, 2007).
Based on the rise of the world historical great leaders such as Julius Caesar, Mahatma Gandhi and Abraham Lincoln historians develop the myth that great leaders arise by birth to take control of situations at the right time. Most of the past leadership researches were developed around the leaders at that time whom most of the time arisen to their positions through birth right. It was therefore not possible for the lower social class to portray their leadership abilities. The theory is still being used currently whenever a prominent leader is described to be having leadership personality an indication that the internal qualities are what makes efficient leaders.
According to a sociologist Herbert Spencer, leader’s qualities emerged from their interaction with the society. He further explains that for great leaders to develop there are a series of complex issues that modifies his appearance as well as his social state. The key issue with the great man theory is that some people who it described as possessors of the inborn leadership qualities sometimes end up as very poor leaders with others with the same qualities not holding any societal leadership role at all
Michigan state studies, in the 1950’s series of research were conducted in the Michigan University to try evaluate the ideologies and ways through which good leaders go about improved productivity and job satisfaction. These created two major leadership behaviours employee and production oriented leadership (J.K).
In the employee’s orientation, a great leader views employees as human beings with needs hence the needs are used as the basis for building a strong relationship with the employees. On the other hand, production orientation leadership revolve around the production aspect of the task and employees are just ways of ensuring the objective is attained.
The Michigan studies thereby concluded that the employee’s orientation combined with a general supervision of the workers generated best outcome (Samad, 2012). It further describes participation of the leader as great tool to influencing the possibility of yielding positive outcome from the employees (Grant, 2012).
The Michigan state study on leadership support the issues that the employee oriented style of leadership is best effective for getting the best out of the employees as required of nurses. Provided the nurse leader can identify the issues affecting those under her she should be able to reach them emotionally and provide the necessary motivation to assist them. this is a crucial issue in the surgical segment.
The clinical environment is technical when it comes to applying management decisions every single decision might just be a disaster in the wards or a life saved. For this reason, the nurse managers are supposed to ensure that the cooperation between the nurses is tight and they undertake their duties in a manner that indicate togetherness in the sector. A leader will therefore have to apply the employees oriented style of leadership as per the Michigan state study. Here he will treat the employees as being and carry out a general supervision of them so that each employee develops a bond with the other for attaining the general objective. If the is combines with the transformation theory then the manager nay as well achieve his objective of triggering a positive job environment for all the workers. Just as the transactional theory states sometimes the motivation of the employees can be improved by offering presents. (Correia de Lacerda, 2010). This gives the employees a chance to psych up in cases of those who don’t share on the general ambitions of the firm.
Another theory which was traditional put in place to illustrate what leadership is bout is the least preferred Co-worker theory. An American scientist Fiedler formulated a scale to determine if an individual leadership is relationship or task oriented. By workers rating of their leaders the scale is used to analyse the leadership style portrayed by the co-worker. The theory considers the various bipolar adjectives which are then rated and the responses recorded. The use of the Least Preferred Co-worker assumes that leaders with relationship oriented tend to have a positive description of their least preferred co-worker but those with task-oriented attributes are harsher in their descriptions.
As the social, cultural and political environment that surrounded the traditional leadership theories continue to emerge researches have continue to generate new theories to explain the leadership definition in the contemporary society.
Contemporary leadership theories
Th Transformational theory is one of them. This theory focuses on the way leaders generate valuable and effective change in their fans. In his study of political leaders James MacGregor Burns come up with the transformational leadership concept a term which has taken root in organisation’s leadership as well (Zhang, 2013).
Under this theory two leadership styles are discovered, the transactional and transformational styles. Transactional leaders emphasize on issuance of rewards and benefits as a technique for achieving compliance on the other hand transformers objective is to change the others to support themselves as well as the organization, by this the leader generate trust, respect,
loyalty and admiration among his subjects. For this purpose, the leader can instil hard work among their employees (Chun, 2009).
This theory has seen over 30 years of research which approves it as an effective way when it comes to morality and values in leadership. Even though the leaders might fake the transformational qualities the theory still have enough to instil leadership qualities among the other employees.
As evidence in the assessment one nurse leadership in tasked with realising optimum performance from the other people this goes in line with the transformational theory. The nurse should use her passion and values for the job as a motivational tool to lure the others to follow her. As a good leader, her cooperation and ethical behaviour together with ability to communicate persuasively to her followers will give her a niche when it comes to obtaining the confidence of the nurses under her. Further the theory supports that the nurse leader should be in touch with the duties and tasks which have been allocated under her and divide them appropriately among her employees.
Nurse Managers are normally underprepared to take their management roles. Most of the nurses only possess the technical skill to undertake their roles but the situations at the words sometimes abruptly demand more of leadership qualities than the technical knowledge only. At these corners, the nurses find themselves undergoing through distress (Schaubroeck, 2007).
. These situations are very critical to the quality of services offered by the nurses something which cannot be tolerated in the surgical wards. This situation can only be changed by the transformation theory which insists that leadership skills can be instilled on individuals rather than the great man’s theory which defines leadership to be in born. Nurses should therefore undertake additional studies to help them gain more leadership roles (Den Hond, 2007).
As a novice nurse the objectives are sometimes achieved by the technical skills acquired through the nursing technical schools but just like any other career even nursing entails job promotion (Al-Tarawneh, 2012). The issue is the top positions in the sector normally demand more of leadership abilities than the technical skills. So, as a nurse in the surgical section it’s important to gain the experience in the technical aspect of the job. This will as per the charismatic leadership theory give the nurse the confidence to express herself eloquently also the nurse should acquire more detailed information regarding the vision of the firm and the nature of leadership roles the field demand. For this purpose, the charismatic model if put in place effectively can assist the nurses gain her career objectives of achieving promotion n her job.
The nurse managers need to gain more knowledge in their organizations structure. When it comes to leadership planning and policy creation forms the basis of drafting the objectives. This can only be attained by acquiring the leadership roles and qualities need for effective execution of plans (Sun, 2012).. The nurse tasked with the management of the surgical wards need to get herself informed on the nature of the department. Afterwards she should consider the employee orientation approach to draft policies which are employees friendly and work together with her employees in executing the plan. This way she would be able to gain their trust and get to know their opinion regarding their future expectation of the departments situation. This approach will automatically emerge with the transformational theory when the manager will have achieved her role of modifying her employees into leaders by having them participating on the decision-making processes of the surgical department. Furthermore, the nurses will find it easy to work together among themselves for achieving a set of goals which they formulated together. Application of leadership theories in offering solution to issues identified in assessment one.
This is a very efficient way of enhancing togetherness and improving the productivity of the employees without having to rely on power show oriented techniques which only put the employees under duress and therefore requiring intense personalised supervision before they can perform
On the other hand, there is the charismatic leadership theory which is built around the leader’s persuasiveness and charm which result from their commitment to their roles. Charismatic leaders are exemptional due to their skilled communication qualities characterised by eloquence hence able to convey their ideas to the followers in a deep emotional way. This attribute is magnified when it comes to handling of crisis as these individuals possess great vision of the organisation.
As a nurse in the surgical ward sharp management is very vital for quality healthcare delivery. The leader here must be able to use more than the rules to influence the nurse’s performance. Charismatic theory of leadership defines a good leader as fluent in speech, have a general vision of the tasks ahead and passionate on his job. These set of qualities are what drives the surgical procedures and a nurse who will be able to motivate her colleagues to perform optimally in critically situations such as vital operations is the best definition of a leader. The surgical wards are some are often populated with patients who are traumatised with some going through the agony of passing through the operation process, leadership qualities within the nurses will be very effective in assisting such issues (lyar, 2007).
All this can only flow if the nurse manager portrays transformational leadership style and converted her followers to display similar leadership roles as her as a way of effectively achieving their objectives.
For greater productivity of the worker’s leadership is necessary. For this reason, the nurses in the surgical department need to be equipped with the necessary skills to undertake these roles. Based on the traditional leadership theories leadership was defined as a feature which was developed naturally by the leaders. This attributed to the influence that was being shown by the already developed leaders in the society. Since the democratic space at those environments was small the leadership was through hardship and so the lesser in the community never found the platform to showcase their leadership qualities. But the change in the social structure and environment have led researchers to dig deeper into the situation and come up with effective theories which have defines the teaching of leadership in the. With these new theories, a major conceptual term is that leadership is a role which can be learned by different individuals. Through modification of character and gaining of knowledge and experience in their fields even the average nurses can portray leadership skills and motivate the other employees to gain the necessary leadership roles especially in critical situations such as during operations thereby optimising their productivity in their field. The qualities in the above theories differ but one thing which is evident in most is that leadership is avital quality in productivity and the Nurses need it as well when it comes to developing their sector.
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