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1: Describe how you would use Expectancy Theory in designing positions in flat and agile organizational structures. What are the advantages and disadvantages in using this theory in practice?

2: As a team leader, what could you do to help a multinational team work more effectively than a domestic team? What major problems might occur and how might you best handle them?

3: Publicly elected officials often display the leadership values and behaviors of their culture. Select two prominent world leaders and describe their behavior in cultural terms.

4: Choose a country you have never lived or worked in. Imagine that you have just been selected to become a new Managing Director in the country that you have selected – a country in which your company has decided to open a new industrial complex. Neither you nor your company have ever worked in this country before. What would you do to motivate the employees from the foreign country to join your company and work hard once employed?

5: Compare and contrast Maslow’s, Hertzberg’s and Alderfer’s motivational theories and indicate the benefits of each in structuring a compensation system for team that is international in nature.?


Use Expectancy Theory for designing a flat and agile organization

Expectancy Theory defines that individuals would decide for behaving or acting in a certain manner as they are motivated for selecting a specific behavior on others. This is due to what they expect a selected behavior to be like. It can be ideal when it comes to managing employees within an organization. As a leader one needs to motivate the employees by acting in a desired manner and leading by example. Getting inspired from the leader, the employees would be motivated to work in the expected direction to achieve the goals and objectives of the organization (National Forum 2011).



·         Offers a framework for thinking regarding the manner in which people make choices based on the expectations

·         Allows to account for the differences in choice among people (IRJBM 2014)


·         Perceptions regarding efforts, value and performance is difficult for qualifying for comparisons among different choices which means the use of expectancy theory framework might not be accurate.

·         Rewards might not be directly connected for efforts and performance. At some places rewards like raises could build the contract depending on factors such as education (National Forum 2011).


Approach as a leader of multinational team and working more effectively

In order to manage a multinational team it requires a manager to be well equipped with the needs and wants of the employees separately. In a domestic environment the expectations and knowledge levels of the employees are usually similar which is not true in case of a multinational team. Some of the challenges which might come when handling a multinational team for a leader are:

Communication: Communicating the right message is very important when it comes to getting the work done from team members. In a multinational environment, leaders would find it challenging to interpret the message to different class of individuals as they would need different approaches on most occasions (Russell Reyonds 2010).

Trust: Building trust among the team and reliability for the leader is quite difficult as it takes time till when each start to understand each other and the way they operate.

Diversity: Multinational team comprises of individuals from several countries which means diverse individuals from different cultures. A leader might have to face an issue to inspire all to work together especially when there are individuals from different cultures, mindsets and backgrounds (Russell Reyonds 2010).

In order to handle them as a leader I would need to interact and discuss matters with different people both in groups and individually. Their suggestions and views would also need to be taken into consideration and given value to gain trust.


Working as a Managing Director in India

Working as a Managing Director in India requires understanding the local values and cultural traditions in order to gain trust and confidence of the employees. The social cultures and the level of emotional belonging to the jobs with respect to India is quite strong as per the studies and other researches and compared to the western countries. For motivating foreign employees to join the company and work in India, it would be essential to highlight the work opportunities that they could avail of in the country. Being a developing nation, there are several areas where the company is expanding and offers a great potential as a business to them. Supervising and working in tough conditions would enable them to work in the environment and get acquainted with the processes and build upon a career for future. Highlight would be the challenge, the resources, and the learning opportunities on offer (PWC 2005).

Maslow’s, Hertzberg and Alderfer’s motivational theories

All the three theories work towards creation of motivation for employees. These take a long time for acquiring the needs required for motivation. Also, each theory makes people to choose the needs or goals for motivating them (OU n.d.). The Maslow’s theory coincides with the Alderfer’s theory, where ALderfer’s is said to be loosely based on Maslow’s. If we compare Maslow’s and Hertzberg theory we would observe that the psychological and safety needs under Maslow’s theory are similar with the hygiene factors. On the contrary, the differences in these 3 theories include the aspect of 3 needs for Alderfer’s while there are 5 needs as per Maslow’s theory. Also, Hertzberg theory not only determines what are the elements which satisfies or dissatisfies motivated employees, but also points out the areas which dissatisfies them? All these theories offer a detailed description of the ways in which leaders could proceed and operate to facilitate an easier as well as motivated employee base (IVCC 2013).



National Forum 2011, Expectancy Theory of Motivation: Motivating by Altering Expectations, retrieved on 11th May 2015 from,%20Fred%20C%20Expectancy%20Theory%20%20Altering%20Expectations%20IJMBA%20V15%20N1%202011.pdf
IRJBM 2014, Victor Vroom’s Expectancy Theory of Motivation – An Evaluation, retrieved on 11th May 2015 from
Russell Reyonds 2010, Building a Global “A” Team: Challenges for Asian Multinational Corporations, retrieved on 11th May 2015 from
PWC 2005, Foreign Nationals Working in India, retrieved on 11th May 2015 from
OU , Motivational Theories, retrieved on 11th May 2015 from
IVCC 2013, Human Motivation, retrieved on 11th May 2015 from

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