Discuss about the Expectation in Perceptual Decision Making.
Values are guided by the inherent knowledge and moral obligations possessed by an individual. The personal and ethical values possessed by an individual have a profound effect on the life processes of a person. The current section of the chapter focuses upon a number of aspects which can have a profound effect on the decision making and judgemental skills of an individual. Therefore, the manner of deconstruction of the problems, phrasing of the questions, eliciting of responses can exercise huge influences upon the judgmental patterns of an individual. The response elicitation procedures may become a major instrumental tool for affecting the process of inculcation of values by an individual. As argued by Herben & Goldberg (2014), the processes of decision making is very complex and have to pass through multiple layers of cognition. The values possessed by an individual along with the present circumstances can have a huge impact upon the decision or judgment making. This often results in a decisional glitch where an individual does not possess a coherent opinion. The lability in judgment could be attributed to a number of factors such as habituation and eagerness for learning possessed by an individual. The stimulus presentation is the second most important stage where homogeneity of information along with limited knowledge about alternatives could impact the decision making of an individual(Summerfield & De Lange., 2014)
However, I think the values are based upon the ever changing circumstances and challenges encountered by an individual. In this respect, being the captain of my university sports team I would need to emphasize upon the present situation and circumstances before taking up a particular decision which works in the favour of the different members of my sports team. Though, I have often found it difficult in arriving at a decision which would be agreed upon by most of team members. In such situations there is a constant conflict between existing values and weighing of the alternatives.
The current head analyses the perception of risk possessed by an individual and the responses elicited by the evaluation of risk upon the decision making of an individual. The assessment of the risk could be directly related to Maslow’s theory of hierarchy, where the complex fears could be neutralized only with the evaluation of the more direct and pertinent fears. The deconstruction of risk and fear in the minds of an individual could be explained on the basis of a number of cumulative theories. The theories could be diversified into different components such as the knowledge theory, personality theory, economic theory and political theory. The knowledge theory has the most direct and pronounced effect on the decision making of an individual. As mentioned by Coghill, Seth, & Matthews (2014), much of the risk perception is often influenced by paradoxes or the value sets incorporated within an individual.
I had come across a number of different perspectives regrading the assessment and neutralization of fear during my university days. In this respect, much of my anxieties would stem from the pre-conceived notion where any new choices taken up me could have a profound effect on my future. I had to choose from a number of courses presented to me in my university module. My decision making was based upon a set of ideologies regrading the ample amount of benefits offered by different courses. I had been more inclined towards taking up nanotechnology as my future concern. However, I was hyper anxious attributed to the high costs involved in the nanotechnology courses. I guess I personally wanted to avoid the complexities associated with the course, much of the hypothesis was put in my mind from relevant sources. Thus, the reflexes play a pivotal role in shaping the personality attributes of an individual which further governs the choices.
Decision making is affected by rationality and may vary from person to person. In this respect, the psychology of perception sets the living world as a standard against which the decision making or the rationale is done. Additionally, the psychology of thinking forms the basis for the rationale or the decision making. In this context, the biases in people can be seen as a hindrance which further challenges the realization and the affirmation of the self goals (Tsunada et al. 2016). The judgemental biases are further supported by researches and statistical evidences.
I have personally faced such decision making biases owing to the overlapping facts and information made available to me. I had to produce a power point presentation based upon the current trends in marketing intelligence as a part of my university course work. However, I had very little or no time available for the data collection and presentation. This is because we had a series of exams within the seminar presentation. One of the friends copied much of the data available over the internet with little or no manipulation. Moreover, his work turned out to be well and he received a token of appreciation for that. However, I could not resort to the means of false representation of facts and data. In this respect, I was affected with the basic psychological perception in my mind regrading fair business practices. On the contrary my friend was affected with the oblivion which focussed more upon profit than ethics. I believe such conflicting situations could also be attributed to the real world.
The last section of the chapter focuses upon Neutral Omnipartial Rule Making (NORM). This stems from the various factors which are taken into consideration for the presentation of a choice on a moral ground(Newell & Shank, 2014). The process evaluates the underlying logic which forms the basis of our moral decision making. The NORM is based upon the philosophical and cultural attributes which forms the basis of decision making of a person. NORM also includes publicly elicited and general responses in the process of decision making.
In this respect, I had to face an ethical dilemma in my practice as a trainee nurse during my nursing postgraduate program. I had to deal with patients who were receiving care services for end of life palliative care. My moral obligation was to disclose to them every trivial details their regarding their present health conditions. However, disclosing the fact about terminal illness to a patient would often mean lowering the hope and positive attitudes present in a patient which could also affect their recovery.
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Herben, T., & Goldberg, D. E. (2014). Community assembly by limiting similarity vs. competitive hierarchies: testing the consequences of dispersion of individual traits. Journal of Ecology, 102(1), 156-166.
Newell, B. R., & Shanks, D. R. (2014). Unconscious influences on decision making: A critical review. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 37(1), 1-19.
Riskin, L. L. (2013). Inner and Outer Conflict.
Summerfield, C., & De Lange, F. P. (2014). Expectation in perceptual decision making: neural and computational mechanisms. Nature reviews. Neuroscience, 15(11), 745.
Tsunada, J., Liu, A. S., Gold, J. I., & Cohen, Y. E. (2016). Causal contribution of primate auditory cortex to auditory perceptual decision-making. Nature neuroscience, 19(1), 135.