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Factors that influence parking demand and supply

Question:

What Are The Solutions Which Can Address The Parking Problems In Saudi Arabia?

The parking and the parking related issue have become a huge concern for the government, business organizations and the individual users. It is one of the most familiar and common problem for the Saudi Arabian government. It is important that the Saudi Arabian government provide organized parking services including on street and off street parking to the customers, to make use of the established spaces and complement the street and land use so that the citizens can park their vehicles efficiently. The real estate developers should provide efficient parking facilities to the tenants to make their businesses profitable and to gain competitiveness against other consumers (Shoup, 2014).

In Saudi Arabia, the automobile industry rapidly developed since the 1980s and the mass utilization of cars and other four vehicles have impacted on the people’s life style. Using cars for transportation has increased the efficiency of travel and flexibility for the people. However, high usage of cars has resulted in various widespread problems such as limited land availability in urban areas, space requirement for road traffic which are efficient for efficient transportation system of a city.


The parking problem is magnificent in Central Business District (CBD), wherein in city traffic and parking demand has increased drastically and more vehicles and time has been spent for finding the parking for the vehicles. Similar to other parts of the world, Saudi Arabia is also facing problems related to parking in its major business as well as residential areas. The parking problem is especially prominent in Saudi Arabia as the vehicle ownership is increasing exponentially in accordance to the economy of the country. The vehicle ownership variation is different from other parts of the world as it enjoys an oil dependent economy. The Saudi Arabian economy has enjoyed the benefit of oil and the oil is sold there at a very cheaper rate. The low oil prices have also contributed to the large number of vehicles in the industry. With time, the problem of traffic congestion and parking issues will increase. As a result, the traffic problems are putting pressure on transportation system and the managers of town planning (Riggd, 2014).

There are several aspects in parking related to demand and supply in the country. It is important that parking and traffic should be managed in residential areas and business areas. It can be achieved by striking a balance between parking demands and supply and establishing a policy to relax the parking demands in the country. Three major factors have been identified which influences on the growth of parking demands in the country. These factors are vehicle ownership in the surrounding areas, level and form of public transportation and the efficiency in the land use. These factors have a role in increasing the demand for the parking areas and space. On the supply side, the provision of the parking and the efficient use of land have a critical role. The supply of the land for the parking is difficult due to the population growth and increased car ownership.

Negative impacts of illegal or irregular parking

Population is a significant factor which has impacted on the demand of car parking in the country. It is important to consider population while estimating the parking demands in the country. In order to implement a successful parking management scheme, the government should conduct investigation regarding the locations and the type of the parking demands. It can be achieved with the help of parking generators for obtaining intelligence regarding the parking demands (Aljoufie, 2016).

Another factor is the vehicle ownership in the populated areas of the country. The vehicle ownership is associated with the need of travel and can be used to examine the parking demands in the country. Due to the nature of the mixed land use, working trips and commercial trips, the parking demand in the country has increased drastically. In business areas, working trips along with commercial trips increases the parking demand during daytime and the return trips along with commercial trips increases the parking demands in the later evening.

The present report will analyze the issues related to parking areas in the Saudi Arabia. The country is suffering from the issues of parking area and space due to large number of vehicles.  With the population growth, the ownership of vehicle has increased drastically. As a result, several business and residential districts in the country are facing issues related to parking in the country. The aim of the research is to identify the underlying issues in related to vehicle parking issue in the country. Other than that, the research will also propose solutions to address the problem of vehicle parking. The aims of the research can be defined as:

  • To examine the reasons of parking issues in the country
  • To identify the underlying reasons related to the parking issues in the country
  • To explore the solutions and strategies which can be used to address the parking issue in the countr

Parking space and land is a significant factor in the city planning. The parking policies also play a vital role in efficient transportation system of a country. The parking policies ensure that the transportation system of the country is managed appropriately and the traffic demand in the area is addressed. However, the literature has highlighted the issue of illegal parking behavior which can create issue in the transportation system of a country. In the Jeddah City, a significant amount of illegal parking behavior can be observed. The government has also not managed the public parking supply and the parking system. The illegal parking problem in the country has increased the traffic congestion, air pollution, noise pollution and transportation in and around the city. In the recent years, there has been rapid growth in the vehicle ownership across different cities in Saudi Arabia which has created parking shortage and proliferate the issue of vehicle parking. The parking location and system plays a crucial role in the transportation system of a country. A large number of systems have been implemented to manage and control the parking in different city areas; however, it research into the problem has highlighted that parking issue is serious in central parts of the country rather than the outer parts of the country.

Proposed solutions to address parking problems


According to Liu, Yang & Yin (2014), in the recent year, the parking issues has become gigantic and an average citizen spend significant amount of time in finding a parking lot at the peak period of the day. As a result, illegal or irregular parking has created issues for the pedestrians in the city. Irregular or illegal parking has created issues and discomfort for the pedestrians as they felt discomfort while walking as the paths become discontinued. Due to the difference in time and space, the availability and the demand of parking space also vary.

In the perspective of Riggs (2014), corporates and business enterprises often face the challenge of providing parking supply while meeting the transportation demand for their communities. The parking availability can increase the fiscal and the environmental cost. All the major public institutions need to balance the parking supply, sustainability goals and the budget issues. The literature presents a potential model for parking price, incentives and information acquisition for parking in dense public areas. The government should also make trade-offs for the land use. It can be either for parking or more intensive land use. According to the literature, providing less space for the parking can increase the accessibility for the vehicle drivers. The users will commonly use transit and avoid solo transportation as they will not have to take daily decision about their trips.

According to Anderson, Obayi & Oksfor (2017), today, in most of the metropolitan cities, finding a parking space is a common problem. More importantly, this problem occurs quite significantly in shopping malls, stadiums and popular social places. During peak time or peak hours, this situation becomes more serious as the people are challenged to find a free spot at the parking space. The overcrowding in the parking area occurs due to inefficiency of the public transportation. In the view of Ruan, Liu, Wei, Qu, Zhu, & Zhou (2016), the public transportation was developed during the town planning and is currently insufficient to meet the demands of the commuters or has become obsolete. It is also associated with unfavorable consequences like discomfort, overcrowding, time delay and lack of maintenance. As a result, vehicle ownership has increased with the flourishing of the economy. However, there are several issues with the current parking system. Firstly, most of the people depend on traditional means of parking which is dependent upon human interaction with the environment. As a result, the government can develop a smart car parking system for heterogeneous and clustered environment in urban space.

Smart parking system

 In  the perception of Liao, Arentze & Timmermans (2013), there are several benefits of smart parking provision such as optimum use of available space, proper parking management scheme, less time for searching vacant space, reduced emission ad traffic congestion in parking lot. According to the literature, the smart parking service can be divided into five categories, namely, parking guidance and information system, transit based information system, smart payment system, e-parking and automated parking.


As per the views of Shoup (2014), establishing the parking space in a city is quite difficult as the city planners must rely on guesswork to set the minimum requirements for parking zones. The city planners cannot evaluate the parking demand at every space, the cost of parking space and the cost of urban development in the country. The parking requirements have several diversified effects such as it can increase traffic congestion, pollute air and water, degrade urban design, reduce walkability and increase the housing cost in the country. According to the literature, minimum parking requirements limit the urban development in the country. The developers are forced to develop parking more than the requirement or to construct smaller buildings which are less than the parking zone.

According to Mackowski, Bai & Ouyang (2015), it is proposed that the city planners should consider minimal parking requirements for the location. The minimal parking requirements refers to the process wherein adequate number of parking space have been developed after taking all the costs into account.

The present research will shed light on what are the issues in the parking area of the organization. Moreover, the research will also explore what are the potential reasons which are creating issues in the parking facilities provided by the business unit. The research will also explore the possible actions for the disease. The research has obtained the information from the secondary resources. Therefore, the outcomes of research will be dependent on the reliability of the secondary reseources. 

References

Aljoufie, M. (2016). Analysis of Illegal Parking Behavior in Jeddah. Current Urban Studies 4(4).

Riggd, W. (2014). Dealing with parking issues on an urban campus: The case of UC Berkeley. Case Studies on Transport Policy, 2, pp. 168-176.

Shoup, D. (2014). The high cost of minimum parking requirements. In Parking Issues and Policies (pp. 87-113). Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

Liu, W., Yang, H., & Yin, Y. (2014). Expirable parking reservations for managing morning commute with parking space constraints. Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, 44, 185-201.

Tasseron, G., & Martens, K. (2017). Urban parking space reservation through bottom-up information provision: An agent-based analysis. Computers, Environment and Urban Systems, 64, 30-41.

Liu, W., Yang, H., & Yin, Y. (2014). Expirable parking reservations for managing morning commute with parking space constraints. Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, 44, 185-201.

Ruan, J. M., Liu, B., Wei, H., Qu, Y., Zhu, N., & Zhou, X. (2016). How many and where to locate parking lots? A space–time accessibility-maximization modeling framework for special event traffic management. Urban Rail Transit, 2(2), 59-70.

Liao, F., Arentze, T., & Timmermans, H. (2013). Incorporating space–time constraints and activity-travel time profiles in a multi-state supernetwork approach to individual activity-travel scheduling. Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, 55, 41-58.

Mackowski, D., Bai, Y., & Ouyang, Y. (2015). Parking space management via dynamic performance-based pricing. Transportation Research Procedia, 7, 170-191.

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