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Explaining Financial Of Derivatives Employed

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Discuss About the Vital Financial Derivatives Employed Within Portfolio Management?




The current assignment indicates the implementation of suitable financial derivatives by the portfolio managers in order to enhance their overall investment return. Financial derivatives are deemed to be of four distinct types that facilitate the investors to attain increased access within the market. The implementation of derivative facilitates the investors to hedge their total exposure within the capital market (Berezhnoy et al. 2014). Such derivatives also facilitate the portfolio managers and the investors in order to apply important investment theories in order to attain high profits. The overall assignment generally analyses within hypothetical situation in which all the four distinct types of derivative instrument is analysed and managed. Finally, the total recommendation meant for the portfolio managers that might facilitate in enhancing the total process along with offering great capability for enhancing profits through employing the distinct derivative instruments.

There exist distinct kinds of financial derivatives that might be employed though maintaining portfolio management of such derivatives those are explained:

Forward Contract Derivatives

Forward contract derivatives are considered as the simplest form of decorative instrument that is applicable just for one day. This is deemed as among the oldest contract forms the investors in order to hedge or loss control carries that out in upcoming years. The forward contract is deemed as an agreement that is to be carried out between two parties considering a product sale or certain instrument in the upcoming years (Bodie 2013). Such instrument is used widely at the time of future contracts intervention. Numerous investors are considering using the forward contracts in an efficient manner until the day for maintaining suitable exposure within market. It was also indicated that forward contracts are majorly carried out between two major counterparties in which there is less exchange responsible transactions. In account to the same, it was argued that the application of future contracts must not facilitate or oblige several parties for maintaining commitment in consideration to the contract. Details regarding the forward contracts can be maintained confidential for the public for the reason that it is not that important to offer important details in consideration to the transactions (Dutta 2016). Forward contract facilitated investors to control the increasing prices in a better manner and decrease in certain losses that can attain income from the volatile capita market. In the recent years, forward contract is employed within currency exchange that is carried out by a bank.


A forward contract example




AUD payment



Current AUD/USD Rate


= 2,000,000 * 0.75 = 1500000

Forward Contract Rate


= 2,000,000 * 0.73 = 1460000

Expected AUD/USD Rate


= 2,000,000 * 0.72 = 1440000

Reduction in losses             



A company that employs AUD USD rate for decreasing the volatility within the exchange market for the payment, which requires to be transformed into USD. The total use of forward contract majorly facilitates in decreasing losses by $20000. This was deemed possible through employing a forward contract that dealt with overall exchange rate and decreased all the risks that might be experienced by an individual while exchanging payment. This majorly facilitates the investors to address the total exchange rate that helps in ecreasing certain risk within the capital market (F?t and Pop 2015).


Future Contract Derivative

Future contracts serve as a feasible transaction that might be carried out which facilitates the investors in carrying out suitable investment decisions. Such kind of contract is deemed identical with the forward contracts in which specific commodity sale is carried out on a particular upcoming date. In contrast, certain commodity prices are fixed within the recent date that facilitates in decreasing the type of price volatility that might think in the upcoming year. Future contracts employ exchanges that are carried out by a medium that facilitates and obliges several parties to address the part within bargaining. Future contracts carried out within a previously designed format that must be followed by an investor through carrying out investments and transaction (Frino, Mollica and Webb 2014). In addition, future contract consider following a regular settlement contract format in which the overall gains and losses can be realised on a specific day after the trading day commencement. Within future contracts, the buyers and sellers do not form the type of contract to enter within an agreement that they considerably transit within the exchange. For this reason, such exchange is generally accountable for certain transactions carried out within future contracts and is liable to pay all its parties.

Future contract example




Buying Gold

150 ounce


Current Gold price


= 150 * 1358.63 = 203794.5

Future contract


= 150 * 1365 = 204750

Expected Price


= 150 * 1450 = 217500

Reduction in losses



From the total analysis of the future contracts is an instance that might be understood with decrease of $12750 worth the value in gold purchasing bus conductor. Such decrease was attained majorly for employing a futures contract that facilitates in the current prices locking related to gold along with facilitating the investors for gradually decreasing high losses in purchasing thee gold commodity (Johnson 2015). Such type of extensive employed facilitates the investors in enhancing their recent financial exposures within the market in a better manner.

Option Contract Derivative

Option contract derivative serves as a third option that can be employed by investors for effectively hedging exposure within capital market. The option contract facilitates investors in efficiently hedging against certain future volatility that can be expected by them. There are two kinds of options and they are greatly used by investors that include call option and put option. Call option is deemed appropriate that facilitates investors and purchases something at a future date at a specific price (Hou 2017). Moreover, put option majorly facilitates investors to sell certain things at a specific price. In addition, option contract offers an efficient selection to the traders as this might facilitate trade in future. An important selection facilitates investors in order to speculate market effectively and decreasing several extreme losses that might be carried out in the investment period.

The option contract is majorly carried out within the support to an exchange to be an important measure that must be considered while the option trades are carried out. Option trades might facilitate the investors in enhancing their exposure within the market with several small premiums offered by the people. At any expense of premium, the investors might ignore certain losses that might take place in upcoming years. Recently, the option contact is in increased demand among the investors for this facilitates them in generating several risks and enhances the investment capability (Norden, Buston and Wagner 2014). Option contracts are carried out relied on process associated with specific instrument and such options are carried out relied on future price volatility for attaining increased investment returns (Lievenbrück and Schmid 2014). The major cost that was experienced by the option contractors is the higher amount that they are charged for carrying out trades. Implementation of premium amount supports the investors in decreasing capital blockage. This was previously carried out within future contracts and facilitates them in enhancing the investment ability. It was gathered that because of speculators of the option trading system and novice traders are capable to inflate and generate volatility within the market that in turn decreases market efficiency.


Option Contract Example



Calculation Formulas and Value

Selling shares of Apple


Buying Put Option

Current price


2000 * 162.96 = 23396.7

Strike price


2000 * 140 = 19600



2000 * 6 = 12000

Expected Price


2000 * 130 = 16900

Actual Price


2000 * 159 = 25281

Reduction in losses


28900 - 25281= 3619 loss

As per the example mentioned in the table above, option price of an Apple might not offer to deal with important speculation of $130. This gradually indicates the losses of an investor of amount $ 3619 after the person has invested with strike rate of $140 and premium rate of $6. Moreover, the current price with which an investor invested is $ 162.96. In addition, the price decreased by $ 159 that has resulted in a great loss of $ 3619.

Swaps Derivative

A highly complex contract type within derivative is deemed as swap contract that encompass effective speculation and important research before carrying out a trade. Swap derivatives are majorly carried out on several participants in whom investors employs a fixed rate for interest in order to enhance total gains attained from the investment. The swap trades facilitate investors to the swap interest rates and certain currency in order to increase total financial income. Along with the swap trades, companies are capable to avoid rtes of foreign exchange that might affect an investment’s overall return (Salazar 2014). Swap trades majorly carried out by the private contractors in order to negotiate among the parties in order to attain important advantages from certain spread. Swap trades are carried out by the investment bankers among the two parties for it facilitates in decreasing risks from the investment. However, Swap trades might facilitate enhancing total risk gathered from currency exchange rate that might affect and decrease certain income that can be generated from investment.

Amount to be invested




Interest rate 1st country

Interest rate 2nd country

Exchange rate









Invested amount



Interest received



 Converted to 2nd country



Invested amount



Invested paid



Total income



From total analysis of the given instance, it might be gathered that investment within first nation might eventually facilitate in attaining interest 450,000 that might be transformed to 10,500. Moreover, a loan within second nation code gradually attracts payment of 4500 hat can attain increased income of 6000 for certain investors. This is identified gradually as a swap trade that was carried out by the organizations and investors for enhancing total investment.

Evaluating Desirability of Employing within Derivatives within Hypothetical Conditions with Suitable Critics

After accomplishment of total analysis of four distinct types of derivative instruments, option contract along with futures contract is majorly recognised to extremely viable investment option. This might also facilitate investors to carry out trades devoid of any important risk. For this reason, certain hypothetical situations in the above conditions in certain instances that majorly indicate the implementation of an option trading along with future trading might facilitate the investors in conducting the investment decisions and carrying out trade within the market effectively (Khumawala, Ranasinghe and Yan 2016). In contrast, forward contracts are the aspects employed within the markets that must be avoided, by the investors along with portfolio managers in order to carry out and offer the required portfolio construction. Moreover, portfolio manager might also avoid swap trades for it just includes complex endeavour carried out by organizations. For this reason, the implementation and option contracts might gradually facilitate a portfolio manager in carrying out and delivering the required return rate from investment.


Recommendations and Conclusion

After the total analysis of the assignment, it might be realised that the derivatives contracts might facilitate the investors to invest within the market in a better manner. In order to carry out important transactions by the investors within the market that majorly employ the derivative instruments like future, forward, options along with swap contracts. Moreover, use of option and future contracts is considerably higher within the market as it offers effective technique investors in order to enhance the profitability. For this reason, it might be realised that implementation of option contracts serves an effective investment instrument that might facilitate the investors in carrying out high-end trades. For such reason, portfolio managers must attain an option and future contracts for effectively carrying out and develop their portfolio for attaining important investment return.


Reference List

Berezhnoy, V.I., Berezhnaya, E.V., Berezhnaya, O.V., Telnova, N.N., Ostapenko, E.A. and Shatalova, O.I., 2014. Methodology of application of the systematic and derivative analysis of the conditions of the local raw materials market development. Life Sci. J, 11(8), pp.600-602.

Bodie, Z., 2013. Investments. McGraw-Hill.

Dutta, A., 2016. A Comparative Study of Efficiency of the Market-The Pre and Post Derivative Trading Period in India.

F?t, C. and Pop, F., 2015. The Evolution of OTC Interest Rate Derivative Market: The FRA Case. Procedia Economics and Finance, 32, pp.1154-1162.

Frino, A., Mollica, V. and Webb, R.I., 2014. The Impact of Co?Location of Securities Exchanges' and Traders' Computer Servers on Market Liquidity. Journal of Futures Markets, 34(1), pp.20-33.

Hou, Q., 2017. Research on the Development of Derivative Products of Comic and Animation Advertising Video of Local Characteristic Culture. DEStech Transactions on Social Science, Education and Human Science, (icsste).

Johnson, C.A., 2015. Moving from Soft Law to Hard Law in the Derivative Area: A Case Study. The Changing Landscape of Global Financial Governance and the Role of Soft Law, p.258.

Khumawala, S., Ranasinghe, T. and Yan, C.J., 2016. Why hedge? Extent, nature, and determinants of derivative usage in US municipalities. Journal of Accounting and Public Policy, 35(3), pp.303-325.

Lievenbrück, M. and Schmid, T., 2014. Why do firms (not) hedge?—Novel evidence on cultural influence. Journal of Corporate Finance, 25, pp.92-106.

Norden, L., Buston, C.S. and Wagner, W., 2014. Financial innovation and bank behavior: Evidence from credit markets. Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, 43, pp.130-145.

Pinzur, D., 2016. Making the grade: infrastructural semiotics and derivative market outcomes on the Chicago Board of Trade and New Orleans Cotton Exchange, 1856–1909. Economy and Society, pp.1-23.

Rauterberg, G.V. and Verstein, A., 2014. Assessing transnational private regulation of the OTC derivatives market: ISDA, the BBA, and the future of financial reform.

Rifai, N., Syaukat, Y., Siregar, H. and Gumbira-Sa-id, E., 2015. Factors affecting increased export of Indonesian palm oil and its derivative products to the United States of America market. Journal of ISSAAS (International Society for Southeast Asian Agricultural Sciences), 21(1), pp.137-146.

Roukny, T. and Battiston, S., 2014. A network analysis of the evolution of the German interbank market.

Salazar, M., 2014. Swapping More than Regulations: Reexamining the Goals of the Dodd-Frank Act and the European Market Infrastructure Regulation on Over-the-Counter Derivative Markets. Sw. J. Int'l L., 21, p.217.

Sharma, P., Lee, S., Guo, T., Irwin, D. and Shenoy, P., 2015, April. Spotcheck: Designing a derivative iaas cloud on the spot market. In Proceedings of the Tenth European Conference on Computer Systems (p. 16). ACM.

Takino, K., 2016. An Equilibrium Model for an OTC Derivative Market under a Counterparty Risk Constraint.

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