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Question:

In what ways are the expressionist tendencies of the Griffins, Kevin Borland and Edmond & Corrigan a rebellion against mainstream tendencies and/or a gateway to pluralism within Melbourne architecture? 

 

Answer:

The architecture of Melbourne is the second largest city in an entire Australia. It provides an extensive design formation of new and old architecture. There is much residential architecture with the jurisdiction of suburbs and has been duly shaped by an extensive history. This entire essay depicts with the expressionist tendencies of three individuals namely Griffins, Kevin Borland and Edmond & Corrigan ( rebellion) against the main stream to pluralism with the architecture of Melbourne. Early Melbourne generally includes colonial towns of Australia, dotted house via the details of Hoddle's grid plan street. The researcher has estimated and manifested several strategies of Melbourne architecture with that of prefabricated housing: two iron houses in the Southern region of Melbourne. The researcher has discussed the detailed analysis of Melbourne architecture with the concept of expressionism article style in which the professional's artist seeks to depict the reality image with that of the segregated region. More specifically, the entire architecture of Australia depicts the professions of German artists. This revolutionary of architecture generally starts at the time of World War I with the intermediaries of the medieval period. The Griffin architecture reflected the structure in Canberra and the related Canberra sketches. The design of Griffin design was totally different from any of the professional’s architect. Griffin uses the techniques of the dome, triangle, etc for. manifestation. The architect was totally manifested in the region of Australia, Canberra; but its style was estimated like the region of America. The concept of Edmond and Corrigan uses the techniques the concepts of polychrome bricks which were colorful in nature. The look was totally traditional and has immense benefits like space utilization etc.
The researcher has highlighted and reflected varieties of strategies relating to the content and has discussed in the separate stanzas with the relevant concept. In the first few stanzas, the mainstream tendencies of Griffins, Kevin Borland and Edmond & Corrigan ( rebellion) has been relatively discussed with the help of provided references case study.

Criticism on the Contribution of Griffins in architecture

W.B. Griffin outlined the strange structure of the Giurgola’s Parliament House with a pyramidal top. The structure for the flag was considered unnecessary, problematic and uneasy. The colossal Canberra was a weird structure that was subject to detachment and flawless in its technique, but it lacked the similarity between the originality and experiment. The Capitol in the valley of Molonglo was designed by the Griffins, and it is the most impressive and inscrutable architectural idea of the Griffins that was provided the tangible form. The drawings of M. M. Griffin for the federal capital competition demonstrated that the designs were more promising and exciting than the rest of structure in Canberra. The head architects of the NCDC have supported the style of architecture of the Griffins. Their efforts were undoubtedly noteworthy, and their visions have a significant position in the lived experience worldwide, peculiarly in American views. The Griffins as the students of architecture and practitioners reasoned a significant rearrangement of the forces of society and politics in the United States. The domestic architecture of the Griffins was responsible for the protection from the social argument and inconsistency for some certain bourgeois culture. The artist-architect that prevails in the bourgeois culture arose to the position of Alter Ego for the owner, and they become possessive hostile for their achievement.

Transition introduced three studies on the architecture of the Griffins to mark the death anniversaries of W. B. Griffin and M. M. Griffin. Griffins and their architecture should not be considered as modernists but as avant-garde on social and political terms. Their architecture was limited to the physically powerful system of local patronage, social clubs and artistic societies and very little concept of nationalism. Griffins and their architecture were largely differing in views from the European Modernism because they were committed to the post-confederation nationalism. The Griffins were not prepared for the social and political conditions they witnessed. The Art and Craft were torn between the consistent sloppy associations and the essential challenge that was a result of embracing the abstraction, the mechanism, and the construction process. The ideas were so unclear and shapeless that it became impossible for clarifying the democratic ideas. The ideology of Griffin's architecture was the experimental architecture that was severely aesthetic and abstract.
The rock solid house was their only thesis after which their architecture became incorporated, rough-hewn brickwork, members of crystalline structures and decorative element. The Griffin wanted to revert the deep archetypes- the temple, the cave, the redoubt. The abstraction endangered to counteract the bourgeois society, to bring it close to the actuality of the manufacturing production. For complementing the growing orthodoxy of the fresh corporatism in America, an anti-modern visual was emerging. The Griffins were reacting to the Canberra sketches that helped them to find the ways for opposing this artistic to retain the aura of Arthurian obligation for the community. The projected house of M. M. Griffin further developed the anti-modern impulsive nature, and it was ultimately sublimated in the blueprint of Newman College.
The position of Griffin could be clearly summarized to the aesthetic they introduced in Australia, which was anti-modern. The social and political ideals prevented them from the acceptance they needed in the bourgeois social organization. The architecture of Canberra described by Griffin demonstrated strange deformation of the architecture meaning and sagacity. There is uncertainty of messages with odd expressions and dead silence. Canberra has the troubling and weary atmosphere that is made by the compulsive slips in series. The Griffin architecture had been explained by Habermas as deterioration of the bunch propagandisticbunch art or into commercialized group culture. It has been the fate of the most of the architectural structure of the Griffins.
Criticism on the Contribution of Edmond and Corrigan in architecture
Edmond and Corrigan supported the use of nontraditional ways for architecture development. They patiently used the nonconventional polychromic brickwork for the architectural structures. These polychromic bricks are colorful and provide different looks from the other building structures. The medieval Europe was noted for the use of brightly painted or colored bricks. These types of bricks were often pallid washed or destroyed during the protestant restructuring in the iconoclast stages. The architecture of Edmond and Corrigan deceased from the squatter romantics in such a strong way that the self-conception of Australia differs from the actual perception. Conrad Hamann wrote a book named “Cities of Hope” in which he rehearsed and remembered the official construction of the designs by the Edmond and Corrigan. The stage design is shown on one side while the architecture of the design was shown on the other side.

The architectural concept in Australia was changing in the time of 1975 when diversified concepts were evolving in the segment. According to most of the architecture in Melbourne was dependent on the traditional and theoretical method due to low innovation capabilities. In such time, Edmond and Corrigan evolved a new way of architecture design. Both the designer was associated with the new style that was completely different from others. Both the designer has made a distinct way in their design. At that, time traditional architecture in Australia was flowing in a defined direction. Therefore, the design of every building was almost same, and the looks were becoming very monotonous. On the other hand, some historians have stated that to change the pattern and to change the looks in the design both Edmond and Corrigan has taken the initiative to innovate a difference in the process. The design of both architects was changing the dimension of Australian trend. Diverting from the traditional architectural design they have to adopt an expressionist view. Their design was influenced by the theme and objective of the construction, therefore; they get the acceptance very quickly.
Edmond
The basic part of the construction design was not associated with any particular material, therefore, traditional designer use to implement those materials in their construction that provides a smart finish to the construction. On the other hand, it is seen that Edmond and Corrigan made the mark by selecting a unique material to design the outer surface of their construction. Both the Architect selects the polychrome brick to design the outer surface that gives a rough finish and gorgeous looks. It can be opined that the expressionist mentality on the design gets the popularity, and many church administration has given them the responsibility to design their church that will provide an impact on the followers. While conducting their business both the designer has, maintain the innovative design and put the expression of the designer as well as they try to make sense of the design that relates to the construction objective. Many designs as if city center of Melbourne and another construction was important for them because they were adopting such design that accommodates many things in a small place. Therefore, modernization of the architecture was one of the important aspects that differ from others. To support this view it has been stated that traditional architect never emphasizes on the space utilization which is most important whereas Edmond and Corrigan emphasized on the space utilization along with the traditional design. Therefore, acceptance of their design was very high at that time. They always try to accommodate a large number of things in a smallest possible space, which is the requirement of the modern times.
Criticism on the Contribution of Kelvin Boland in architecture
Kelvin Borland was born in West Melbourne on 28th October in 1926. He is one of the reputed educators and designers of substance and originality. The first building developed by this architect was the rice house with a different kind of housing Archetype. Use of the unusual materials and construction technique made this hose notable.

The house is made of two structures; the first structure is made up of centenary arches in series form to support the structure, which is supported by concrete walls and bricks and the second structure is made of two arches. The first structure is covered by a walkway which is comprised of metal frames. This architect implemented both the socialism as well as the modernism in his construction buildings which made him unique form other architects of that time.

This was another unique construction made by Kelvin Borland with his friends Mcintyre, Murphy, and Irwin. This is a V-shaped stadium made by steel rods and tied to the ground. This V shaped structure has minimized the total volume of the building and provided visual interests form the elevations.

The house was invented by Borland, however in the later times it was over handed to Geoff. The house was developed with full proof planning of modern and contemporary flat roofed rooms. Wall paneling with dark stained plywood was made for making contemporary and modern house. A per shill hall with well structured roof was designed almost after four years.

This house was made on 17 acres land on the hilltop of park orcahards, where the roof structure was made with surmounted plans and consisted of two hexagons. With a straw board the ceiling was structured and the internal as well as external walls were made almost above sixteen meters form the ground. Mt Gambier limestone was used to make the external walls. It was quite different from the regular geometric constructions. Kelvin has reconstructed this building with a unique octagonal plan by constructing the roofs against the wall alignment.
Form the architectural designs made by Kelvin Borland it can be stated that his beliefs in making reversed changes provide unique styles to the buildings and make it a national model of experimental and optimistic period. The decisions made by this architect reflect his honesty, form, texture, clarity and function.

Kelvin and his team members made the school Preshill to reconstruct its regular design, irregular angles and forms and complex structures. Each building of the school was made with beams and raw timbers. The rooms were fitted with clerestory windows and sliding glass doors were used. The internal space can be used for various purposes by dividing it to the folding doors. To the main space, many small spaces were attached where children were provided with elevated platforms for their playing purposes. The diagram provided above is the School Hall at Margaret Lyttle Memorial School situated in the areas of Australia. The researcher has estimated and manipulated several intellectual strategies relating to the content of an architectural concept of an Australian region.

Conclusion
This entire assignment concludes with the broad concept of Melbourne architecture with the expressionist tendencies of three individuals namely Griffins, Kevin Borland and Edmond & Corrigan (a rebellion). The researcher has discussed several strategies and manipulation relating to the content of an Australian architecture. The researcher has discussed the Criticism on the Contribution of Griffins in architecture and the Criticism on the Contribution of Edmond and Corrigan in architecture. For complementing the growing orthodoxy of the fresh corporatism in America, an anti-modern visual was emerging. Their design was influenced by the theme and objective of the construction therefore; they get the acceptance very quickly. It can be easily estimated and manifested that Kelvin Borland was reputed educators and designers of substance and originality. The concepts of polychromic bricks in Melbourne architecture has been succeeded instantly. The architectural concept in Australia was changing in the time of 1975 (First World War I). The researcher has articulated the following pictorial diagrams relating to the concept of Melbourne architecture; Giurgola’s Parliament House which include W. B. Griffin and M. M. Griffin, Corrigan, Edmond, Rice house, Olympic Swimming Stadium, Glan Waver House and Mchutchisons House.
From the architectural designs it can be easily stated the beliefs in making reversed changes provide unique styles to the Melbourne buildings and make it a national model of experimental and optimistic period. The researcher has maintained and manipulated that many new and latest innovative architecture are fascinated like Olympic Swimming Stadium by Kelvin Borland. This entire essay is very useful and helpful for the readers as it is totally based in argumentative fundamentals. The researcher has discussed the detailed analysis of Melbourne architecture with the concept of expressionism article style in which the professional’s artist seeks to depict the reality image with that of segregated region. More specifically, the entire architecture of Australia depicts the professions of German artists.
 

Bibliography

‘Frederick Romberg and the Problem of European Authenticity’, in Roger Butler (ed.), The Europeans: Émigré Artists in Australia 1930-1960, Australian National Gallery, Canberra, 1997 Heralds of Free Enterprise: in James Sabine, (ed,) A Century of Australian Cinema, AFI-Heinemann, Melbourne, 1995, pp. 85-11, 213-15
‘Frederick Romberg, Architect’, in Leslie Bodi and Stephen Jeffries (eds.) The German Connection, Monash University, Melbourne, 1985, pp. 55-72
‘Life on the Sunlit Plain: Australia’s Architecture in the Age of Modernist Triumph’ , in Kirsty Grant (ed.), Mid-Century Modern: Australian Furniture Design, NGV, Melbourne, 2014, pp. 126-143; see also Neil Clerehan, ‘The Architect’, pp. 40-43; Mary Featherston, ‘The Designer’, pp. 144-159
A History of Australian Architecture, Part 3, 1900-1945, Educational Media, Melbourne, 1985. Slide images, audio tape, small book
Apperly, Richard, Irving, Robert and Reynolds, Peter, Identifying Australian Architecture, Styles and ---, 1788 to the Present, Angus and Robertson, Sydney, 1989. Esp. Interwar and early Postwar sections.
Architecture, 1917-57, Melbourne University Press, 2007
Boyd, Robin, Victorian Modern: 111 Years of Modern Architecture in the State of Victoria, Australia, RVIA Students’ Society, Melbourne, 1947.
Burns, Karen (ed.,) Transition, special issue on the Griffins, , essays by James Weirick, Karen Burns, Michael Markham, Anna Rubbo
Conrad Hamann, ‘Early Romberg’, Architecture Australia, 66, 2, April-May 1977, pp. 68-75, notes in the following issue, July 1977, pp. 62-63
Cuffley, Peter, Australian Houses of the 1920s and 1930s, Five Mile, Melbourne, 1989, 1994 ff. , Australian Houses of the 1940s and 1950s, Five Mile, Melbourne, 1993, 2007
Duncan, Jenepher, Gates, Merryn, Walter Burley Griffin: a Re-View, Monash University, Melbourne, 1988. Essays by James Weirick, Anna Rubbo, Conrad Hamann
Edquist, Harriet: Frederick Romberg: The Architecture of Migration, RMIT Exhibition Gallery, Melbourne, 2000, using contemporary photography by Wolfgang Sievers and Romberg himself.
Freeland J M (Max), Architecture in Australia: A History, Cheshire, then Penguin, Melbourne, 1968 ff. esp. sections on Modernism
Fry, Tony, ‘The Photomodern’, Transition, 1986, or his Design History Australia, Hale and Iremonger, Sydney, 1989
Goad, Philip, Melbourne Architecture, esp. Bryce Raworth and others, ‘Between the Wars 1920-1930’, pp. [106]-129; Philip Goad, ‘The Moderne City 1930-1945’, pp. [130]-151; and ‘Post-war Recovery 1945-1955’, pp. [152]-171.
Hamann, Conrad. Cities of Hope Remembered: Cities of Hope Rehearsed: Australian Architecture & Stage Design by Edmond & Corrigan 1962-2012. Fishermans Bend, Vic. : Thames & Hudson Australia, 2012.
Hamann, Conrad. Cities of Hope: Australian Architecture and Design by Edmond and Corrigan, 1962-1992, Melbourne; New York: Oxford University Press, 1993. (Available from the Library Reserve).
Howard Tanner, ed, contrib.), Architects of Australia, Macmillan, Melbourne, 1981 esp Chapters 13, 14 and 15 by Donald Johnson on ‘Walter Burley Griffin 1876-1937’ pp. 107-118; Ian and Maisy Stapleton, ‘C Bruce Dellitt 1900-42 and Emil Sodersten 1901-61’, pp. 119-128; Conrad Hamann, Roy Grounds 1905- [1981], Frederick Romberg 1913- [1992] and Robin Boyd 1919-1971, pp. 129-139. Notes for these chapters are on pp. 143-4.
Johnson, Donald, Australian Architecture 1901-51: Sources of Modernism, University of New South Wales Press, Sydney, 1980
Julie Willis, Australian Modern: The Architecture of Stephenson and Turner, Miegunyah, Melbourne, 2004
Kevin Borland: Architecture from the Heart, edited by D. Evans with H. C. Borland, C. Hamann, Melbourne: RMIT Publishing, 2006. (Available from the Library Reserve).
McDougall, Ian. ‘Speculating on a Traditional Avant-Garde’, Express Australia, New York: Express Annual 1984, pp.32-33. (Week 12 Reading from Blackboard).
Munday, Richard. ‘Passion in the Suburbs’, Architecture Australia, Vol, No.1, Architecture Australia with “Passion in the Suburbs”, vol. 66, no.1 (February-March 1977) pp. 52-61.
Nilsson, Mary, Ferson, Mark, Art Deco in Australia: Sunrise over the Pacific, Craftsman House, Sydney, 2002 Stephen, Anne, McNamara, Andrew, Goad, Philip, Modernism and Australia: Documents on Art, Design and
Taylor, Jennifer, A History of Australian Architecture, Part 4: On from the 1940s, Educational Media, Melbourne, slide images, audio tape, small book.
Thorne, Ross, Cinemas of Australia: via USA, University of Sydney, 1982
Turnbull, Jeff and Navaretti, Peter Y. The Griffins in Australia and India: The Complete Works and Projects of Walter Burley Griffin and Marion Mahony Griffin, Melbourne : Miegunyah Press, 1998. (Available from the Library Reserve).
Turnbull, Jeffrey, Navaretti, Peter, The Griffins in Australia and India, Melbourne University Press, 1994
Van Daele, Patrick, Lumby, Roy, A Spirit of Progress: Art Deco Architecture in Australia, Craftsman House, Sydney, 1997
Watson, Anne, Beyond Architecture: Marion Mahony and Walter Burley Griffin in America, Australia and India, Powerhouse, Sydney, 1998
Weirick, James. ‘The Griffins and Modernism’, Transition: Discourse on Architecture, No. 24, Autumn, 1988, pp.5- 13.
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