Discuss about the Factors Affecting High Expenditure Customer Satisfaction.
This section indicates the research methodology that brings clear explanation on the factor affecting of the high expenditure customer satisfaction and customer loyalty in a Hong Kong travel agent. Main role of researcher is to outline rationale behind the topic named as factor affecting of the high expenditure customer satisfaction and customer loyalty in a Hong Kong travel agent (Walter and Andersen 2013). The aim of the study is to bring innovative ideas and concepts relating to the present study. This dissertation initiates in bringing the real essence as well as factors behind factor affecting of the high expenditure customer satisfaction and customer loyalty in a Hong Kong travel agent. Researchers requires in gathering reliable information from potential sources. It brings out core aspects behind the topic for future analysis purpose. Researchers use research philosophy, approach and designs for conducting the research on topic in the most appropriate way. Research onion is explains with proper justification from each layer in alignment with the research topic (Taylor, Bogdan and DeVault 2015). Accessing data is considered as one of the important job for the researcher. Researchers should use right data for conducting research. Secondary data should be up-to-date and the researcher should use no old data. Issue of accessibility will be found in primary data. Feedback given by the participants and the way they give feedback will be matter of issue faced by the researcher. The researchers take online interviews and they need email ids of people so that researchers can send questionnaire (Silverman 2016). Face-to-face interview taken by researcher involves time issues because participants mostly remains busy with their scheduled work and shows no interest in answering the interview questions. Researchers face variety of problem at the time of conducting the particular research on the selected topic. Due to time constraints, researchers fail to conduct in-depth analysis on the given topic. One of the other limitations to the study is lack of financial resources. Researchers fail in using expensive method for conducting the present research work (Anfara and Mertz 2014).
- To advise an action for capturing the market share
- To recognize factors that affects customer loyalty as well as customer satisfaction
- To be aware of the concept of customer loyalty and customer satisfaction
- To study the connection linking factors with customer loyalty and customer satisfaction
Research design and justification for using quantitative survey method
Research Design mainly refers to overall strategy selected for integrated components of study in logical way. It involves effective way for addressing the research problems in constituting blueprint for the collection as well as analysis of data. Research problem mainly determines in the research design for study investigation for future analysis purpose.
Quantitative research is the numerical representation as well as manipulation of observations for describing phenomena of reflected observations. It requires usage of wide variety of natural as well as social sciences such as physics, biology as well as sociology and geology at the same time.
There are different types of quantitative research that is classified under survey research, correlation research as well as experimental research and causal-comparative research.
The above research mainly uses scientific sampling as well as questionnaire design for measuring the characteristics of population in relation with statistical precision. It mainly requires that the respondents be selected on random basis under defined techniques.
Samples of quantitative research- survey research
From the various types of quantitative research, it is important to use survey method in the present study for understanding the factors behind customer satisfaction and customer loyalty. Survey research is one of the systematic ways for gathering of information especially from respondents for understanding the behavioural aspects of population of interest. Survey research is mainly concerns with sampling, questionnaire design as well as questionnaire administration and data analysis.
Types of Surveys
In-person interviews- This is one type of survey method consisting of an interviewer asking the respondent questions in face-to-face situation. Interview usually takes place at respondents home or at research office depending upon the situation. Personal interviews are mostly flexible in nature as well as can be administered in any type of questionnaire whether structured questionnaire with specified and variable question sequences.
Telephone Interviews- This type of survey method mainly involves presentation of the questionnaire used by telephone.
Omnibus Survey- This is similar to telephone survey. It is a quick turnaround whereby researcher analyzes data in and within the specified week. It is cheap in relation with other related survey methods.
Research Onion means answer about how a study must be agreed out using clear methodology necessary for the research. It mainly shows clear structure with appropriate strategies as well as methods used in the research. In answering the questions in the research, it helps in expanding in the new knowledge attributes (Smith 2015). Other elements selected from the research onion layers helps in giving answers to research question deciding upon the research philosophy.
Figure: Research Onion
(Source: Skinner 2015)
The first layer in the research onion is Research Philosophies. It majorly gives an idea on how researcher thinks regarding the research. There are several views regarding the research process dominating the literature including positivism, Interpretivism and realism. Research philosophies involve beliefs for final implementation on the topic as factor affecting of the high expenditure customer satisfaction and customer loyalty in a Hong Kong travel agent (Silverman 2016). It helps in ensuring brief understanding on the research process on factor affecting of the high expenditure customer satisfaction and customer loyalty in a Hong Kong travel agent. There are three broad classification of research philosophy named as Positivism, Interpretivism and Realism.
Figure: Broad Classification of Research Philosophy
(Source: Reynolds et al. 2014)
In this particular research, researchers make use of these research philosophies for interrelating subject matters in alignment to the given topic. Researchers use this philosophy to deal with future research outcomes in way of conducting statistical data collection methods. This particular study uses this philosophy for predicting ways for analyzed results on topic relating factor affecting of the high expenditure customer satisfaction and customer loyalty in a Hong Kong travel agent (Pickard 2012). The main difficulty faced by researchers involves detailed research due to time constraints. On the other hand, researchers fail in adopting best methods due to insufficient financial resources. Researchers should make sure of making minimal errors at the time of conducting the research. It will help in getting better results on the topic named as factor affecting of the high expenditure customer satisfaction and customer loyalty in a Hong Kong travel agent. Post-positivism is one of the main stages in positivism philosophy for interpretation of the background research. It needs extreme scientific calculations for conducting the research in certain way. On the contrary, deductive approach deals with human thoughts as well as emotional side (Panneerselvam 2014). This particular approach ensures integrated human interest as well as benefits in case of developmental factors for the topic on factor affecting of the high expenditure customer satisfaction and customer loyalty in a Hong Kong travel agent. At the end, Realism is the combined form of Positivism and Interpretivism. It aims at handling the ontological aspects of developing the main critical theories on the selected topic.
Justification of using Positivism Research Philosophy
Researcher selects the topic on factor affecting of the high expenditure customer satisfaction and customer loyalty in a Hong Kong travel agent for conducting the research in the most appropriate way. Researcher uses Positivism research philosophy in conducting the research for factor affecting of the high expenditure customer satisfaction and customer loyalty in a Hong Kong travel agent. This particular research philosophy enables increased effectiveness and error minimization (Neuman and Robson 2012). On the contrary, research philosophies show the ways in case of validation of a given topic. Positivism gains ensuring scientific knowledge for some assumptions for the topic on factor affecting of the high expenditure customer satisfaction and customer loyalty in a Hong Kong travel agent. This involves variety of justifications for presenting propositions in the near future.
The second layer in the research onion is the research approach. Research Approach provides proper explanation for an edge of discussion for the topic on factor affecting of the high expenditure customer satisfaction and customer loyalty in a Hong Kong travel agent (Miller et al. 2012). It mainly ensures clear understanding on the validation on the current study on factor affecting of the high expenditure customer satisfaction and customer loyalty in a Hong Kong travel agent. There are two broad classification of research approach named as Deductive approach and Inductive approach.
Deductive approach works from more general to specific. This is known as top-down approach. Deductive approach is mainly consistent in way of developing theory as well as testing with the help of research. Arguments are mainly based n laws, accepted principles as well as rules used for Deductive reasoning (Matthews and Ross 2014). Deductive approach is one of the research approaches that involve application on given topic on factor affecting of the high expenditure customer satisfaction and customer loyalty in a Hong Kong travel agent. This particular approach aims at maintaining relationship between research outcomes at the time of conducting research. Addition to that, it helps in ensuring required convenience as well as accumulated data usage on models and theories on factor affecting of the high expenditure customer satisfaction and customer loyalty in a Hong Kong travel agent (Walter and Andersen 2013).
On the contrary, inductive approach helps in generation of models for getting authentic information on factor affecting of the high expenditure customer satisfaction and customer loyalty in a Hong Kong travel agent. This particular approach evaluates the production results in an empirical form. Inductive reasoning mainly works like other way like deductive from specific to general in case of broader generalizations as well as theories (Mackey and Gass 2015). It is informally refers as bottom-up approach as well as conclusion based on premises involving high degree of uncertainty.
Justification of using Deductive Research Approach
Researcher uses deductive approach in the present study at the time of conducting the research. Researchers refer to the existing strategies and theories for applying in the current study for factor affecting of the high expenditure customer satisfaction and customer loyalty in a Hong Kong travel agent. Researchers will make use of findings of data of previous research works by authors (Green, Camilli and Elmore 2012). This will help researcher in reaching proper outcome for the particular research work.
The third layer in the research onion is the research strategies. It uses different research methods for investigating the research question as well as aims at the same time. Some of the popular methods used for research strategies are as follows:
Experiment- It is one of the classical forms of research that mainly owes towards natural sciences. It includes definition of theoretical approaches as well as selection and allocation of variables. It has limited control over the variables (Gast and Ledford 2014).
Survey- This is one of the research method including questionnaires as well as statistical surveys for gathering data regarding people and thoughts and behaviours.
Case Study- This is one of the interesting strategy in conducting research for conducting in-depth study of single as well as group and community (Walter and Andersen 2013).
Action Research- This is one of the reflective process for progressive problem solving leading by individuals working with other related teams for improving the issues as far as possible.
Grounded Theory- It is one of the systematic qualitative research methodology especially in social sciences emphasizing mainly on generalization of theory.
Ethnography- It is the study as well as cultural process by using multiple ways for researching as well as observing people, events and artifacts (Walter and Andersen 2013).
Justification for using survey method
In the present study, researcher’s uses survey method for conducting the research in the most appropriate way. Questionnaire is distributed to customers of travel agency in Hong Kong.
The forth layer in research onion is the research onions. It mainly includes three major methods like:
Mono method- This particular method considers for the research for using single data collection techniques as well as corresponding analysis. This method rejects in favour of mixed methods using qualitative and quantitative techniques (Gast and Ledford 2014).
Mixed Method- This particular method considers as field of inquiry using both qualitative as well as quantitative methods for answering research questions in single study. It is considered as mixed because it uses both quantitative as well as qualitative techniques (Walter and Andersen 2013).
Justification for using mixed method in research choices
In this present study, mixed method is used as it takes into consideration both qualitative as well as quantitative techniques. It aims at combining research questions, analytical approaches as well as data collection procedures and conclusions at the same time (Flick 2015). This particular research has the ability to unite exploratory as well as confirmation research. It mainly allows in generating as well as testing theory for similar studies.
Describe the measures of
These are the variables characterizes of subjects as collected for describing the sample. It is also known as sample characteristics. It mainly describe study sample and determine if particular sample are representative of population of interest. It is difficult to manipulate demographic variables by the researcher. Researchers aim at explaining the relationship between demographic variables as well as dependent variables. Some of the common demographic variables are age, gender as well as occupation and marital status of the population.
Independent variable- Perceived value, brand image, customer satisfaction and word of mouth communication
Dependent variable- Customer satisfaction and customer loyalty
From the above variables, it is easy to understand the fact that factors influencing expenditure assumes to be independent variables. On the contrary, customer satisfaction as well as loyalty depends upon the above-mentioned variables in the most appropriate way.
It is important to understand the fact that main purpose of research requires describing as well as explain the variance in the present study. It is the difference occurring naturally in the world as well as creating resulted manipulation at the same time. These are the names given to variance for determining the factors affecting high expenditure in understanding the customer satisfaction and loyalty in Hong Kong travel agent. It is important to understand variables by the researchers as they are considered as the basic units of information interpreted in research studies. Researchers require in analyzing as well as interpreting values of each variable in the descriptive study in particular experiment.
Describe the questionnaire design including
Structure of questionnaire
Questionnaire is prepared using open and closed-ended questions that will be asked to the recipients.
Process of pilot testing the questionnaire
Data analysis is completed based on the information collected from primary research. In this particular study, pilot study will be done, 10 questionnaires will be sending for ensuring questionnaire is clear and understandable by other recipients. After particular questions are fixed then it will be passes the pilot test. Then, questionnaire will be send to 30 recipients after 30 questionnaire are done (Bolger and Laurenceau 2013). After that, reliability test will be conducted by using SPSS 22.0 software. It confirms each variable that are consistence with the related questions. The Cronbach’s Alpha Index will be over 0.7 and passed after the reliability test. Questionnaire will be send to all possible random selected customers.
Discussing the sampling design
Secondary resources will also be used in this research. Secondary data will be collected from travel magazine, website journal, Government official as well as certain theories on customer satisfaction and retention strategies (Bryman and Bell 2014). These strategies can be further analyzed, as they may be helpful for increasing the number of customers who shows interest in travelling.
Definition of population
Questionnaire will be sent to 150 customers of the total population.
Gathered information is presented in terms of mathematical models as well as statistical calculations and pie charts. In this particular research, there will be usage of descriptive statistics for data analysis. Descriptive data uses various statistical measures such as median, mean as well as standard deviation showing in pie chart. Research hypothesis will use SPSS 22.0 software for performing regression as well as correlation. Regression analysis helps in estimating the relationship between variables (Blumberg, Cooper and Schindler 2014). Dependent variables are customer loyalty as well as customer satisfaction. There are three broad classifications on the qualitative methods under content analysis. This involves comparison as well as counting of content and keywords at the same time (Billig and Waterman 2014).
Figure: Research Hypothesis
(Source: Created by Author)
Determination of sampling size
Questionnaire will be distributed to 150 customers of travel agency in Hong Kong.
Data collection process
Data can be collected using primary as well as secondary research. In case of primary data, questionnaire will be distributed to 150 customers of travel agency in Hong Kong. Collection of data will be done with the help of using random sampling technique. In this particular research, random will be used at the time of conducting the research. This would be less time consuming as well as less biasness as a result (Clark and Creswell 2014). Primary data collection will help travel agent for understanding the customer preferences who can actually afford high expenditure for travelling purposes.
Data analysis procedure
Secondary data are collected from authentic online sites as well as official data where the information will be mentioned regarding customer satisfaction and growth of travel agencies (Brinkmann 2014). Researchers also pay attention and have a look over the previous papers by previous researchers. Secondary data have mostly higher authority as well as quick access.
Descriptive statistics means data analysis describing patterns that emerges data in the most appropriate way. It mainly allows researchers in analyzing the study and reaching to conclusions in relation with hypothesis.
Correlation aims at analyzing positive or negative relationship among the given variables. Independent variables in this research are perceived value, word of mouth communication as well as brand image and customer satisfaction. Correlation analysis uses variables having positive and negative relationships. In case of qualitative analysis, it will be analyzed with the help of content analysis.
Regression analysis is use with the help of software. In this particular research SPSS software is used for conducting the present study analysis.
This particular chapter summarizes the research methodology used by the researcher at the time of conducting particular research work. It explains the various research philosophies, approaches as well as design for conducting the particular research. Researchers use both primary as well as secondary data for conducting the present research. The particular research paper can be used as secondary form of data sources as far as future research is concerned. Future research can be done whereby travel agencies can incorporate strategies for further development as well as increase in the sale of products. There can be even exploring over new areas for research as well as way of promotions for detailed analysis Researchers should try hard in carrying out the research work in ethical ways. Conduction of research should be carried out truthfully as well as correct data usage for completing the research. Primary as well as secondary data should be collected at the time of conducting this research (Archer et al. 2015). Research work might be cancelled if researchers fail to use ethical methods for carrying out the research work. Future researchers should carry out different research based upon similar topics. Future researchers have chance in taking into considerations customers who majorly opts for budgeted tour plans (Anfara and Mertz 2014). It is important to understand regarding customer satisfaction among customers who have limited budget for any kind of tour plans. Researchers should use innovative ways of increasing number of customer for the business enterprise. Researcher has taken one travel agency as well as carried out the research work for investigating the theme of customer satisfaction. Therefore, it is essential to gather various perspectives from the customer who avails packages from other related travel agencies for getting better idea of theme of customer satisfaction and travel agencies in Hong Kong (Silverman 2016). In case of secondary research, researchers should not use any unethical means for retrieving the data especially from online sites. Most of the researchers upload their research work on online sites. Researchers sometimes do not want their work in case of public usages as well as have blocked access on those specific papers by other user. Online sites asks user for paying certain amount of money for getting access to the sites or papers (Anfara and Mertz 2014). Researchers pays desired amount and then make use of authentic websites for gathering data. Many sites have interview with managers of the company who gave their personal view over subjective matter. Researchers can make use of some valid points as mentioned in the interviews for research purpose as well as should not used for any kind of unethical purposes.
In case of primary research, researchers take proper care that the research participants should not face any kind of problem at answering the questions. Researchers are advisable to take care of environment as well as place of the interview. Researcher should make arrangement for conducting constant medical monitoring at the interview place for any kind of medical help. Researchers should take prior consent of the participants of whether they show interest in taking part in the research work. Research participant need to sign and provide their consent for taking part in the research work. Researchers carry out the work after the participants duly sign the form. Research purpose as well as publication place are clearly mentioned to the research participants (Anfara and Mertz 2014). It is important for the researcher to assure the participants that their feedback will not be used for any kind of unethical purpose. Participants even have choice to leave the projects at any time if they are not comfortable with the interview process.
Therefore, it can be seen that the researcher carries out primary as well as secondary research in ethical ways. Steps taken by the researcher will help in preventing any kind of issues at later stage of research work (Walter and Andersen 2013).
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