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Pipeline Industry in Australia

Discuss about the Failure Analysis of Stress Corrosion.

The onshore pipeline industry of Australia plays a vital role for meeting the need of the people of Australia by providing energy, efficiency and robustness in environment infrastructure system. In Australian economy the pipeline and gas plays a very important role for the construction of new onshore pipelines, that has the expansion of existing pipeline system and hence the development of gad infrastructure (Antilleet al. 2014).  The Australian Pipeline & Gas Association (APGA) has identifies that all the Companies as a part of the association should be able to actively pursue strategies ensuring the excellence in safety, security and health outcomes in every aspect of the business activities. Since the industry determines the expectation of the people associated, regulators and wider community, it minimizes the incidents that affect the workforce of the environment (Maslen2014).

The standard of Pipeline-Gas and Liquid petroleum has been prepared by the members of Joint Standards Australia/Standards New Zealand Committee ME-038, Petroleum Pipeline. The members together decided to develop this standard. These standards are general and unifying standards that cover the high pressure petroleum pipeline. The series comprises standards from Part 0 to Part 5; general requirements, design and construction, welding, operation and maintenance, offshore submarine pipeline systems, Field pressure testing respectively. These plays secondary and indirect role top the system whereas there are primary and direct roles that achieve the purpose of ME-038 Committee.

The Pipeline development and construction in Australia operates the Bass Strait offshore oil and gas field since 1969. This associates production and facilities of processing. Esso Australia Resources Pty Ltd has several numbers of pipelines that transports crude oil, condensate and LPG (Triggeret al. 2014). There is a replacement going on, in the 187 kilometer pipeline transporting the crude oil and condensate between the facilities. The existing pipeline of Esso has been replaced by the adjacent new pipelines. The Esso consulted with some individual landlords and hence conveys the necessity the access of the land and properties in advance such that there are any other activities undertaken on the property (Towleret al. 2016). In every stage of the project of pipeline construction the Esso communicates the landowners and occupiers such that to provide information and understand the concerns of the project work. The interference gets minimized by the activities undertaken by occupiers and landowners. The pre-construction survey includes cultural and environmental heritages, which have been carried out prior the construction of the final project.  The affected owners of the land and occupiers are consulted for the nature, location and timing of the next survey.

Pipeline Design Standards

The preparation of the construction includes some of the temporary disruptions, cautious planning and consultation that help in ensuring the disturbance that should be minimized to the land owners. There are several stages consulting with this activity like pot-holing for proving the service location of existing pipeline, clearing alongside some public roads to provides temporary access to the pipeline easement and construction of temporary fencing and temporary gates.  The facility has temporary space of work adjacent to easement by negotiating with the landowners those who are relevant.

There are processes that the construction of pipeline follows: Clear and grade; Stringing and bending; Welding; Trenching; lowering in; backfill and soil replacement and rehabilitation (Maslen2015). The construction areas which are temporary for the pipeline can be identifies clearly. The clearing is limited to the safe completion of the project construction and some of the obstruction can be removed by consulting the landowners. Landowners have consulted with some of the aspects like dust, noise and timing and even bio-security. The pipes are then delivered and are laid in the ground making ready for the wielding. Bending equipments are brought to the place for bending requirement (Vacheret al. 2014). The qualified welders together join the pipeline and inspect it by using x-ray or ultrasonic equipments. The welded joints are protected from being corroded. Trenchless construction’ is used in pipeline installation when ordinary trenching techniques are not suited to certain conditions, such as crossing under watercourses, railways or some public roads. The quality assurance check after being finalized the pipe is lowered into the trench by using excavators. After placing the pipeline and excavated soil the sub-soils are placed into the trench. Rehabilitation of work sites for the Project will be undertaken taking into consideration any landowner, in accordance with industry standards and occupier requirements. There are processes and procedures to plant pipeline-natural gas. The gas are transferred by the pipeline system to the consumers or the excessive are stored in the underground storage for future use. Storage helps in maintaining pipeline systems operational integrity for meeting the customer’s requirement during peak-usage period. There are series of processes involving the physical array of facilities like Gathering lines, Processing Plantation, Mainline transmission systems, Market Centers and hub and underground storage facilities. The natural gas pipeline in Australia has produced natural gas sharply within last few years which resulted in the development of new project and industries regarding natural gas. According to Oil and Gas industry journal, Australia has been proved to be one of the largest natural gas reserves as recorded on January 2014.

Construction of Gas Pipelines

The main purpose of this project is to evaluate the case study of Australia’s operation in management in gas pipeline construction and the aspects of the preparation of the construction. Introduction journals related to the Construction and operation of the pipeline in Australia.

Reference List

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Batey, T., 2015. The installation of underground pipelines: effects on soil properties. Soil use and management, 31(1), pp.60-66.

Chandler, J., White, D., Techera, E.J., Gourvenec, S. and Draper, S., 2017. Engineering and legal considerations for decommissioning of offshore oil and gas infrastructure in Australia. Ocean Engineering, 131, pp.338-347.

Davies, P.J., Gore, D.B. and Khan, S.J., 2015. Managing produced water from coal seam gas projects: implications for an emerging industry in Australia. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 22(14), pp.10981-11000.

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Lacey, J. and Lamont, J., 2014. Using social contract to inform social licence to operate: an application in the Australian coal seam gas industry. Journal of Cleaner Production, 84, pp.831-839.

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Maslen, S., 2014. Learning to prevent disaster: an investigation into methods for building safety knowledge among new engineers to the Australian gas pipeline industry. Safety Science, 64, pp.82-89.

Meresht, E.S., Farahani, T.S. and Neshati, J., 2011. Failure analysis of stress corrosion cracking occurred in a gas transmission steel pipeline. Engineering Failure Analysis, 18(3), pp.963-970.

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Qiu, J., Dong, Z.Y., Zhao, J.H., Meng, K., Zheng, Y. and Hill, D.J., 2015. Low carbon oriented expansion planning of integrated gas and power systems. IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, 30(2), pp.1035-1046.

Rebello, C.A., Couperthwaite, S.J., Millar, G.J. and Dawes, L.A., 2016. Understanding coal seam gas associated water, regulations and strategies for treatment. Journal of Unconventional Oil and Gas Resources, 13, pp.32-43.

Revie, R.W., 2015. Oil and Gas Pipelines: Integrity and Safety Handbook. John Wiley & Sons.

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Sovacool, B.K., 2009. Energy policy and cooperation in Southeast Asia: The history, challenges, and implications of the trans-ASEAN gas pipeline (TAGP) network. Energy Policy, 37(6), pp.2356-2367.

Techera, E.J. and Chandler, J., 2015. Offshore installations, decommissioning and artificial reefs: Do current legal frameworks best serve the marine environment?. Marine Policy, 59, pp.53-60.

Towler, B., Firouzi, M., Underschultz, J., Rifkin, W., Garnett, A., Schultz, H., Esterle, J., Tyson, S. and Witt, K., 2016. An overview of the coal seam gas developments in Queensland. Journal of Natural Gas Science and Engineering, 31, pp.249-271.

Townsend, T.G., Powell, J., Jain, P., Xu, Q., Tolaymat, T. and Reinhart, D., 2015. Sustainable Practices for Landfill Design and Operation. Springer.

Urciuoli, L., Mohanty, S., Hintsa, J. and GerineBoekesteijn, E., 2014. The resilience of energy supply chains: a multiple case study approach on oil and gas supply chains to Europe. Supply Chain Management: An International Journal, 19(1), pp.46-63.

Vacher, C.A., White, S., Eberhard, J., Schmidt, E., Huth, N.I. and Antille, D.L., 2014. Quantifying the impacts of coal seam gas (CSG) activities on the soil resource of agricultural lands in Queensland, Australia. In 2014 Montreal, Quebec Canada July 13–July 16, 2014 (p. 1). American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers.

Yong, J., 2017. Current State and prospects of CNPC's oil and Gas Storage and Transportation. ????, 23(4), pp.28-34.

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