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Questions:

Assignment Tasks

Ambien PLC is a manufacturing company operating in the UK. You have recently been taken on in the position of Financial Controller. You have been asked by management to produce an assessment of a number of current issues facing the company as it seeks to expand its operations. Your assessment should be in the form of a formal business report, which would be suitable for presentation to the senior managers of Ambien PLC.

Issue 1 – Working Capital Management and Variance Analysis

The company utilizes a bank overdraft to manage its short term working capital needs. But the Managing Director has mentioned that he is fed up of ‘being in the red’ and would like some information on the profitability and short term capital planning of the company. He has presented you with the last three months cash budgets (both budgeted and actual:

Cash Budget for the three months ending 30th October 2014

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Budgeted

 

 

 

Actual

 

 

August

September

October

 

August

September

October

 

£,000

£,000

£,000

 

£,000

£,000

£,000

Cash Receipts

210

200

125

 

205

200

120

Capital Received

 

500

 

 

 

500

 

Br Fwd. Cash on Hand/(OD)

-200

 

 

 

-200

 

 

Total

10

700

125

 

5

700

120

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Rental & Rates

5

5

5

 

5

5

5

Admin & Sales Expenses

3

3

3

 

3

4

4

Distribution Expenses

2

2

2

 

1

2

2

Direct Labour

25

25

25

 

30

30

30

Cash Purchases (Raw Materials)

50

50

50

 

50

55

60

Capital Investment

 

 

50

 

 

 

50

Taxation Paid

 

500

 

 

 

500

 

Managerial Wages

20

20

20

 

20

20

20

Total

105

605

155

 

109

616

171

Balance

-95

95

-30

 

-104

84

-51

Crd. Fwd.

-95

0

-30

 

-104

-20

-71


The following information is also relevant:

• A depreciation charge of £10,000 was made during the period.

• All raw materials are paid for at the end of the month of delivery, the company keeps one month’s supply based on sales projections (i.e. the stock purchased and paid for during the month is used up in the following months production).

• Cash receipts represent the company’s credit terms of two months to its customers.

• The sales department have forwarded the following information to you:

Actual Sales (£,000) for:

September

October

 

 

150

200

 

Projected Sales (£,000) for:

November

December

January

 

210

150

125


Section One of your report should include the following:

• A numerical variance analysis of the previous financial quarter along with a detailed written commentary as to the variances discovered and what might have caused them. This should include your recommendations as to how to improve the production variances in the future.

• A Budgeted and Actual Profit and Loss statement for the period, as well as a Budgeted Profit and Loss Statement and Cash Budget for the current quarter. You will need to make some judgements as to the expenses likely to be incurred in the quarter based on your analysis of the variances above. Assume no further capital investment or taxation paid during the quarter.

• A detailed written analysis of the short term working capital requirements of the company with suggestions & recommendations on how to improve the situation.

Issue 2 – Capital Investment Appraisal

The previous Financial Controller oversaw the recent capital investment of £500,000 in new P&M. Unfortunately he left his working notes in a mess and other than a brief analysis of cash in-flows and out-flows there is not much in the way of proper analysis of this expenditure. Due to your recent studies in the area of capital investment appraisal you feel that you can offer the company a far better analysis of the investment and establish more robust procedures for evaluating future capital investment. In your briefing with the Managing Director you have learned that the company to date has operated a hurdle for capital investment of 3 years to payback. You mentioned at the time that payback is an inferior system for capital investment appraisal, but the MD did not have time to listen to your ideas regarding Net Present Value and the time value of money.

The analysis of cash in and out flows is presented here:

Capital Investment Appraisal

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Year

 

 

 

 

 

 

0

1

2

3

4

5

Cash Out-Flows

 

 

 

 

 

 

- Cost of Machinery

-500

 

 

 

 

 

- Feasibility Study

-20

 

 

 

 

 

Total

-520

0

0

0

0

0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cash In-Flows

 

 

 

 

 

 

- Reduction in Direct O/H

 

200

150

150

100

100

- Residual Value of the Machinery

 

 

 

 

 

50

Total

0

200

150

150

100

150

Net Cash Flow

-520

200

150

150

100

150


The following information is also relevant:

 • The company has a cost of equity capital of 14% and a cost of debt capital of 6%. The company is geared 50:50 debt to equity.

• The feasibility study refers to a long term project on the viability of purchasing new P&M. The previous FC has included this as a direct cost of the project

Section Two of your report should include the following:

• A derivation and explanation of the company’s weighted average cost of capital.

• A detailed analysis of the capital project, including payback analysis (bearing in mind the company’s existing capital budgeting hurdle) and an analysis of NPV.

• A  detailed  commentary  on  the  primacy  of  NPV  analysis  as  a  capital  investment appraisal tool along with recommendations on the future capital budgeting processes at the company.

Issue 3 – Foreign Trade, Exchange and Risk Management

The company is currently planning to expand its operations into new production facilities in Europe. The company has developed a new product which is to be sold in Europe. The Raw Materials for the new product are being shipped in from the United States. At the time of the order €1 = 1.385 $US. The first consignment of Raw Materials cost $500 per unit in direct materials for each unit of production, payment must be made in full on dispatch of the Raw Materials. Further; production, distribution and selling costs are estimated to be €300,000. The selling price per unit is projected to be €750. The first consignment of Raw Materials is due to be delivered from the US in three months from the date of the order. The company has predicted production demand of 1000 units of production in the first run. The company has negotiated with its bank a 3 month forward rate contract of €1 = 1.435 $US.

The previous FC had taken some advice from a FOREX expert on the likely volatility of the exchange rates between Euros and Dollars. He has produced an analysis that the forward rate predicted by the bank could vary by as much as 15% either way.

The new production facility has been financed by the issuing of debentures in the European debt markets. The total value of the bonds is €500,000.

Section Three of your report should include the following:

• A numerical analysis of the total profit or loss that can be expected if the company sells all units on production. This analysis should include the current price, the forward rate and should be adjusted for the predictions that the forward rate could vary by as much as 15%. 

• A written commentary on the nature of risk, bearing in mind that the company has taken on debentures in a foreign currency.This commentary must include recommendations for mitigating the identified risks.

 

Answers:

Issue 1: Working Capital Management and Variance Analysis

  • Variance Analysis

Variance Analysis

Particulars

Budgeted (€,000)

Actual (€,000)

Variance (Actual – Budgeted)

(€,000)

Aug

Sep

Oct

Aug

Sep

Oct

Aug

Sept

Oct

Direct Material

50

50

50

50

55

60

0

5

10

Direct Labour

25

25

25

30

30

30

5

5

5

Overheads

30

30

30

29

31

31

-1

1

1


Material Variance

It can be observed that the variances of previous quarter of material are respectively €0, €5000 and €10000. It has gradually increased from one month to another month. This is not favourable for the company. It may be the causes such as hike in market price of material, purchasing of standard materials than lower quality, strong bargaining power of vendors, inefficiency in buying by the procurement staffs, excluding of discount due to purchase of smaller sizes (Diriba, 2013).

The company should implement better practices of procurement such as inviting the suppliers with price quotations. Purchase should be at larger size and Procurement staff should increase their negotiable skill.

Labour Variance

Labour variance of every month of the quarter is €5000 which is adverse and there is no improvement from one month to another month. Reason behind of it may be increasing of minimum wage rate, inefficiency in hiring, hiring of large number of skilled labour or existence of strong negotiation by the labour unions.

To convert into favourable position, the company should do effective planning on hiring of labour and should reformulate the standard cost of labour (Bragg, 2001).

Overhead Variance

Here, overhead includes Rent & Rates, Admin & Sales Expenses, Distribution Expenses and Managerial Wages. On the above table, variance indicates that the company was favourable in the month August where the actual cost was less than the budgeted cost. But suddenly, it has increased in the month of September and it is also remain same in October. This is due to increase in Admin & Sales Expenses and Distribution Expenses.

Admin & Sale Expenses and Distribution Expenses of the organization should be properly managed to reduce the cost.

  • Profit & Loss Statement

Budgeted

 

£000(AUG)

£000(SEP)

£000(OCT)

PERTICULARS

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cash receipts (sales)

210

200

125

less:

 

 

 

Cash purchase ( raw materials)

50

50

50

Gross Profit

160

150

75

less:

 

 

 

Rental & Rates

5

5

5

Admin and sales expenses

3

3

3

Distribution expenses

2

2

2

Direct Labor

25

25

25

Managerial wages

20

20

20

Net profit before Tax(NPBT)

105

95

20

less:

 

 

 

Taxation paid

 

500

 

 

 

 

 

Net profit after tax (NPAT)

105

-405

20


Budgeted profit & loss account is the expected figure of income and expenses. It is made periodically to plan for the future income and expenses.

Actual

ACTUALPERTICULARS

£000(AUG)

£000(SEP)

£000(OCT)

 

 

 

 

Cash receipts (sales)

 

 

 

less:

205

150

200

Cash purchase ( raw materials)

 

 

 

Gross Profit

50

55

60

less:

155

-5

150

Rental & Rates

 

 

 

Admin and sales expenses

5

5

5

Distribution expenses

3

4

4

Direct Labor

1

2

2

Managerial wages

30

30

30

Depreciation

20

20

20

Net profit before Tax(NPBT)

96

-66

89

less:

 

 

 

Taxation paid

 

500

 

 

 

 

 

Net profit after Tax(NPAT)

96

-566

89


Actual profit & loss statement is compared to budgeted profit & loss account to find out whether the company is meeting the plan. Here, the budgeted and actual profit & loss account statement show that the company has earn less profit than budgeted in the month of August. In the month of September, it has more loss than the budgeted. But, it has earned more profit in month of October than the budgeted. Company is incurred loss in the second month of a quarter because the tax is paid in the second month of a quarter.

 

1.2.1  Assumed Current Quarter Profit & Loss Statement

Budgeted

PERTICULARS

£000(NOV)

£000(DEC)

£000(JAN)

 

 

 

 

Cash receipts (sales)

210

150

125

less:

 

 

 

Cash purchase ( raw materials)

55

55

55

Gross Profit

155

95

70

less:

 

 

 

Rental & Rates

5.25

5.25

5.25

Admin and sales expenses

3

3

3

Distribution expenses

2.2

2.2

2.2

Direct Labor

25

25

25

Managerial wages

20

20

20

Depreciation

10

10

10

Net profit before Tax(NPBT)

89.55

29.55

4.55

less:

 

 

 

Taxation paid

 

475

 

 

 

 

 

Net profit after Tax(NPAT)

89.55

-445.45

4.55

 
Actual

PERTICULARS

£000(NOV)

£000(DEC)

£000(JAN)

 

 

 

 

Cash receipts (sales)

205

150

200

less:

 

 

 

Cash purchase ( raw materials)

55

60

66

Gross Profit

150

90

134

less:

 

 

 

Rental & Rates

5.25

5.25

5.25

Admin and sales expenses

3

4

4

Distribution expenses

1.1

2.2

2.2

Direct Labor

30

30

30

Managerial wages

20

20

20

Depreciation

10

10

10

Net profit before Tax(NPBT)

80.65

20.65

64.65

less:

 

 

 

Taxation paid

 

475

 

 

 

 

 

Net profit after Tax(NPAT)

80.65

-454.35

64.65

 
Assumptions for Profit and loss statement:

  • We are assuming that rental and rent has been increased by 5% for next quarter
  • Cash purchase has been increased by 10%
  • Distribution expenses has been increased by 10%
  • Managerial wages, direct labour, Admin and Sales expenses are remain constant.
  • Taxation rate has been decreased by 5% for next quarter.

In the current financial quarter, the profit of the company has reduced in the month of August and incurred more loss in the month of more loss in the September than the budgeted. But, in the month of October, the earned amount of profit is more high than the budgeted. This is happening due to the variance of cash receipts on sales.

  • Cash Budget

PERTICULARS

£000(NOV)

£000(DEC)

£000(JAN)

 

 

 

 

RECEIPTS:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cash receipts

150

200

150

Capital receipts

 

200

200

Cash in hand / overdrawn

-71

-30.35

263.2

 

 

 

 

TOTAL RECEIPTS

79

369.65

613.2

 

 

 

 

PAYMENTS :

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Rental and Rates

5.25

5.25

5.25

Admin and sales expenses

3

4

4

Distribution expenses

1.1

2.2

2.2

Direct Labor

30

30

30

Cash Purchase ( Raw Material)

60

55

60

Capital Investment

     

 Taxation Paid

 

 

 

Managerial Wages

 

 

 

Depreciation

10

10

10

 

 

 

 

TOTAL PAYMENTS

109.35

106.45

111.45

 

 

 

 

Balance

-30.35

263.2

501.75

 

 

 

 

Crd Frd

-30.35

0

0


Assumptions for Cash Budget Next quarter

  • Capital Received for the month of December and January are £ 200000

Cash budget is estimated cash flows both inflows and outflows for a specific period.

  • Analysis of Working Capital Management

Working capital is the short-term capital required to invest for continuing the day-to-business. It is the outcome of time lag between expenses related to purchasing of raw materials and cash collection through selling of finished goods. There are components of working capital such as inventories, cash payables, cash receivables. Each component has contribution to working capital. Working capital is changed time to time for the proportion of the components. Liquidity and profitability can be decided by the requirement of working capital which creates effect on the decisions of investing and financing (Sagner, 2011). If working capital requirement is very less, it may require less amount of financing. As a result, more cash is available for shareholders. But at a same time less amount requirement of working capital may decrease the sales volume. So, profitability may be affected.

For good financial health of an organization, it is very important to manage the proportion of components of working capital management. Operating cycle is an important tool of analyzing the components of working capital (Preve & Sarria-Allende, 2010). All the components are converted in terms of days such as average days taken to collect the account receivables, average days taken to turn over the sale of a product and average number of days taken for paying the account payables to supplier.

Less amount of account receivable means company follows strict collection policies and provides a less amount of credit to sell. As a result, cash inflow can be increased. Following a strict collections policies and less credit may decrease the sale and profits of the company can be reduced. Increase in accounts payables availing a longer credit period from supplier means taking of low quality materials which can reduces the profitability. Decrease in inventory, company may fall in crisis to sell.

There are aspects of working capital: Current Assets and Current Liabilities. The issues can be raised from the both aspects. Current assets are short-term fund to meet the short-term liabilities. Current assets include cash, accounts receivable and inventory, etc. The issues related to current assets may be keeping too much inventory, allowing customer too much time to pay the credit amount. Current liabilities include accounts payable, short-term debt, etc. The issues related to current liabilities may be getting of short-term period to pay the suppliers and increasing of borrowing to keep running the business.

The cash collection policy of the company is not favourable. The payment to suppliers is done at the end of the month of delivery where customers avail two months for payment of credit amount. So, cash collection does not efficient to meet the payment to suppliers.

 

Issue 2: Capital Investment Appraisal

Section One: Derivation of Weighted Average Cost of Capital

The company financed both equity and debt capital in equal proportion. Tax rate is not included.  So, the weighted average cost of capital is as follows:

Particulars

Value (%)

Proportion

Cost of equity (%)

14

0.50

Cost of debt (%)

6

0.50

WACC

 

10


A company has different sources of finance such as Equity, Debt, Retained earnings, Short-term and Long-term Loan. Weighted average cost of capital is the average of all the sources of capital.

Here, the company has two sources of capital, Equity and Debt. WACC is calculated by using the following formula:

WACC= (Proportion of Equity × Cost of Equity) + (Proportion of Debt × Cost of Debt)

WACC is the average rate of return which is expected to compensate all the different investors of the company. Here, the WACC is 10% that means company has to pay $0.10 against $1to its investors.

It is helpful to gauge the expense of funding in future projects. It is also used in discounting cash flows for appraising the capital investment. Lower WACC means the company decides to increase its use of cheaper financing sources. If the cost of debt less than the cost of equity, the company’s weighted average cost of capital will decrease.

In case of this company, it is observed that the proportion of equity and debt capital is equal and also the cost of debt is less than the cost of equity. That means the company would like to face less risk for its capital investment. 

Section Two: Payback analysis and NVP analysis

2.1. Pay Back Analysis

Calculation of Pay Back Period

Year

Cash Out-Flows

Cash In-Flows

Cumulative Cash In-Flows

0

-520

 

 

1

 

200

200

2

 

150

350

3

 

150

500

4

 

100

600

5

 

150

750

Payback Period

3.20


Payback period is calculated to find out the length of time required to recover the cost of investment. According to that the decision is taken whether to undertake the project or not. Longer the payback period is not suitable for investment (Peterson Drake & Fabozzi, 2002). It is usually expressed in years and calculated by using following formula:

Payback period = Cost of Project / Annual Cash Inflows

Cash Inflows are accumulated by year until the Cumulative Cash Inflow becomes positive in respect of its total investment. Here, Cumulative Cash Inflow becomes positive in the 4th year. So, Payback period is 4 years but in exact, it would be 3.20 years.

The drawbacks of Payback back period are as follows:

1. Payback period method does not consider time value of money. But some companies modified this method by adjusting the time value of money to get to get the discounted Payback period.

2. According to Payback period method, the better investment is that one which has the shorter payback period. But it ignores the any benefits that occur after the payback period. So, it does not measure profitability.

 

2.2. NPV Analysis

Year

0

1

2

3

4

5

Cash Outflow

-520

 

 

 

 

 

Cash Inflow

 

200

150

150

100

150

Discount Rate

10%

0.90909091

0.826446281

0.751315

0.683013

0.620921

Present Value

 

181.818182

123.9669421

112.6972

68.30135

93.1382

Total Present Value

579.92

 

 

 

 

 

Net Present Value

59.92

 

 

 

 

 


A rate of return is assumed or set to discount the net cash inflows from a project. Here, rate of return is assumed 10% which is equal to Weighted Average Cost of Capital derived in previous in previous task.

If, NPV is positive or zero, the project is accepted and project is rejected when it is negative. In case two or more excusive projects having positive NPVs, highest NPV project is accepted (Langdon, 2002).

Here, the NPV is positive (59.92). So, the project may be accepted by the company.

2.3. Primacy of NPV Analysis

Net Present Value (NPV) is the present value of net cash inflows expected from a project including residual value, if any, less the initial outlay of the project. NPV is used in Capital Budgeting to measure the profitability of an investment or a project. It is one of the most reliable methods because time value of money is adjusted by using discounted cash inflows (Pettinger, 2000).

To calculate the NPV, first the present value of net cash inflows is determined from a project. The net cash flows may be equal or may different. If they are equal, present value can be calculated by using the present value of formula of annuity. However, if they are different the present value of each individual net cash inflow calculated separately (Costantini, 2006).

NPV of annuity is calculated by following formula:

Where,

            ‘R’ is the net cash inflow expected to be received each period;

            ‘i’ is the required rate of return

            ‘n’ are the number of periods

And, NPV of different cash inflows is calculated as follows:

Where,

            ‘i’ is the target rate of return;

            ‘R1’ is the net cash inflow during the first period;

            ‘R2’ is the net cash inflow during the second period;

            ‘R3’ is the net cash inflow during the second period, and so on….

NPV having positive value or zero is accepted. In comparison of two projects, the highest NPV project is accepted (Burger & Hawkesworth, 2013).

The drawback of NPV is that it is based on estimated future cash flows of the project and estimates may far from actual results (Baum & Crosby, 2008). This is due to the assumption of discounting rate. In order to result the particular issue, firm or organization can employ Internal Rate Return (IRR). So, in future budgetary process, organization needs use both NPV and IRR as investment appraisal process (Ballantine, Galliers & Stray, 1995).

 

Issue 3: Foreign Trade, Exchange and Risk Management

3.1 Analysis of Profit & Loss

At current exchange rate

Current exchange rate: €1=1.385 $US

Raw material cost per unit is $500.

So, total material cost = $500 × 1000 units = $500000

Total material in Euro with current exchange rate = €361010.83

Production, distribution and selling cost = €300000

Selling price per unit = €750

Total revenue from sales = €750 × 1000 units = €750000

Profit = €750000 - (€361010.83 + €300000) = 88989.17

At 15% increasing

Exchange rate will be €1 = 1.593 $US

So, total material cost in Euro = $500000 / 1.593 = €313873.19

Profit = €750000 - (€313873.19 + €300000) = €136126.81

At 15% decreasing

Exchange rate will be €1 = 1.177 $US

So, total material cost in Euro = $500000/1.177 = €424808.84

Profit = €750000 - (€ 424808.84 + €300000) = €25191.16

At 3 month forward contract rate

Three month forward contract is €1 = 1.435 $US

So, total material cost will be in Euro = $500000/1.435 = €348432.05

Profit = €750000 - (€348432.05+ €300000) = €101567.95

The above calculation shows that if the company agrees to buy raw materials from US at spot price, the profit will be affected. The materials will be delivered from US after three months of order and the forward rate may vary as much as 15% either way according to the FOREX expert analysis report. So, at the time payment of raw materials, company has to pay more if the currency value of US dollar decreases by 15% rather than increasing. As well as, company will earn more profit if currency value of US dollar decreases by 15% than increasing. But, there is risk associated with it that it may increase or decrease.

There is another option for going forward contract. So, if the company chooses to buy raw material from US at 3 three months forward contract rate, it can earn a favourable profit avoiding the risk associated with currency rate. Therefore, it will be a better option for the company to choose the 3 month forward contract rate.

3.2 Risk associated with issuing of debenture in a foreign currency

Company has to bear risk to choose the debt financing instrument in a foreign currency. The important risk with foreign financing is foreign exchange risk which makes difficult to control the stable and reliable earnings (Crowley & Lee, 2003). Foreign exchange risk depends on the changes of currency rate and value of investment gets affected. When profit is exchanged in domestic currency, earnings of profit from a foreign country can be decreased if domestic currency gets appreciated in respect of the foreign currency. Exchange rate is volatile in nature and it affects on sales and revenue of the company (MacDonald, Menkhoff & Rebitzky, 2009).

Suppose the company has decided to raise it finance of €500000 through debenture in US currency. Assume that, current exchange rate of Euro in respect of US dollar is €1=1.385 US $. If the Euro currency gets depreciated with US dollar (€1=1.152), company has to pay more amounts at the time of interest payment or full payment of debenture (Kikerkova, n.d.).

Mitigation of Exchange Risk

The exchange risk can be mitigated through hedging the fund. Company can choose to raise the fund through future contract, forward contract and options on currency the currency market (DeRosa, 2011). Suppose the company chooses to issue debenture in foreign currency through forward contract. So, exchange risk can be avoided and company can earn more revenues.

 

References List

Books:

Diriba, H. (2013). Cost Variance Analysis Under Decomposition Method. Saarbrücken: LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishing.

Sagner, J. (2011). Essentials of working capital management. Hoboken, N.J.: Wiley.

Preve, L., & Sarria-Allende, V. (2010). Working capital management. New York: Oxford University Press.

Pettinger, R. (2000). Investment appraisal. New York, N.Y.: St. Martin's Press.

Peterson Drake, P., & Fabozzi, F. (2002). Capital budgeting. New York, NY: Wiley.

Langdon, K. (2002). Investment appraisal. Oxford, England: Capstone Pub.

Costantini, P. (2006). Cash return on capital invested. Amsterdam: Butterworth-Heinemann.

Bragg, S. (2001). Cost accounting. New York: John Wiley.

Baum, A., & Crosby, N. (2008). Property investment appraisal. Oxford: Blackwell Pub.

DeRosa, D. (2011). Options on foreign exchange. Hoboken, N.J.: Wiley.

MacDonald, R., Menkhoff, L., & Rebitzky, R. (2009). Exchange rate forecasters' performance. Munich: Univ., Center for Economic Studies.

Journals:

Ballantine, J., Galliers, R., & Stray, S. (1995). The use and importance of financial appraisal techniques in the IS/IT investment decision-making process—recent UK evidence. Project Appraisal10(4), 233-241

Burger, P., & Hawkesworth, I. (2013). Capital budgeting and procurement practices. OECD Journal On Budgeting13(1), 57-104

Crowley, P., & Lee, J. (2003). EXCHANGE RATE VOLATILITY AND FOREIGN INVESTMENT: International Evidence. The International Trade Journal17(3), 227-252.

Kikerkova, I. CEFTA-2006 Effects Upon the Macedonian Foreign Trade Exchange. SSRN Journal.

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Toulin Method Of Argumentation

You are required to write a researched argument essay that convinces persuades the reader of your position / stance. This is an academic, researched and referenced do...

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202 Download9 Pages 2,237 Words

Consumer Behavior Assignment

Executive Summary The purpose of this report is to elaborate the factors which are considered by individuals before selecting an occupation. Choosing an occupati...

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Internet Marketing Plan For River Island

Introduction With the increase enhancement in the field of technology, it has been considered essential by the businesses to implement such technology in their b...

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325 Download9 Pages 2,203 Words

Strategic Role Of HR In Mergers & Acquisitions

Executive Summary In a merger & acquisition, role of an HR has emerged as a very critical function. At each stage of merger and acquisition process, HR plays a s...

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Relationship Between Knowledge Management, Organization Learning And HRM

Introduction In this competitive business environment where every business organization is trying to attract the customers of each other, it becomes essential for ...

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