There are various strategies that are always adopted to manage floodwater as well as flood disaster mitigation. These decisions are very critical in decision making are the prerequisite in coastal reservoirs for floodwater development and flood disaster mitigation. The policies involved are informed by formed engineering assumptions about the developments and constructions, considering the environmental tenets, of the area and region as well as staying sensitive to the impending consequences or impacts.
This study involves an integration of methods that are suitable in a sustainable development planning as far as conservation of excess water resource is concerned. In dealing with such sustainable methods, it is prudent to note that the system takes advantage of the known geographical information in strengthening the management in the flood impacts. Therefore, the study follows the dual process of flood water development and flood disaster mitigation. For this dual purpose, the study looks at; first, the means and ways of reducing the hazard of water running down the hill in great high speed as well as being used for food production in agriculture through irrigation.
The established incorporated all the procedural works through the system of making decisions that are selective for the overall coastal reservoir construction. Thus, the outcome regarding the probable locations for coastal reservoir goes hand in hand with the site determined through the analysis that is done as far as storage capacity, coastal works, and lengths of canals from reservoirs to agricultural land are concerned. This study examined the tools of geographical information that have the possibility to resolve the challenges of engineering that are aimed at controlling flood hazards (Birkland, et al. 2003). It is apparent from the study that critical aspects of the future ensure that the research is an important informational tool that can be used to mitigate flood. More importantly, there are various legislative and administrative policies frequently informing the approaches structural and nonstructural for the development of the flood hazard.
In this way, for the construction processes, it is important to acknowledge the structural policies involved whereby the intended alterations that change the movement of the flood using dams, levees, and channel modifications. The nonstructural implications involved the other adjustments or modifications like the land-use regulations as well as the flood insurance, and this hastens the society ways of acting when either occupying or modifying a floodplain area. These factors are crucial in development of the floodwater coastal reservoirs as well as the flood water disaster mitigation.
Dealing with the floodwater in this way involves assessment of the future result that is desired in the floodplain conditions that is controllable based on three strategies. These strategies include that through reservoir construction will be used to harvest the excess water for storage to be used in times when water is sparse or assisting the areas or regions with inadequate rainfall. They include modification of the proneness of the damages and disruptions caused by the flood, the changes on the reduction of the hostile floods effects on the individual and the community, and the modification of the floods themselves (Billa, et al. 2006).
The general research questions which formed the basis of the analysis were based on the issues involved coastal reservoir for floodwater development and the flood disaster mitigation. However, in order to provide effective exploration to the study topic, the following specific research questions were addressed:
- Increased demand for water in a steady manner- Hilton, M. J., & Manning, S. S. (2005)
- Protecting River Banks- Arefiev, N., Badenko, V., Nikonorov, A., Terleev, V., & Volkova, Y. (2015).
- Fresh water reservoir Marina dam- Messner & Meyer (2006)
- Barrageas well as other flood-alleviation projects - Galelli, et al. (2012)
- National water sources and taps .- Jonkman & Kelman (2005)
- coastal reservoir- Hilton & Manning (2005)
- water supply concerns- Lai, et al. (2015)
- constructedtwo reservoirs, the in-land reservoir and the coastal reservoir share - Douglas, et al. (2018)
- Concept of Coastal Reservoir for Floodwater Development- Liu andYang (2013)
- Groundwater , chemical components, physical and biological quality and surface waters comparison - Plate (2002)
- quality of water- Siegrist & Gutscher (2008)
- Dam site, construction, and requirements such as topography as well as geology - Thomas (2005)
- construction of a coastal reservoir- Wong (2010)
- existing coastal reservoirs- Zhang, at al. (2002)
- protection of water from contamination - Stewart, et al. (2018)
- on-land reservoirs - Wang (2018)
- trapping water for the purposes of the coastal reservoir- Weichselgartner (2001)
- people mainly enclosed to the sea areas and natural benefits- Yang, et al (2013)
- Dam site analysis- (Yang and Lin, 2011).
- Model of the Marina Barrage design- (Tran, & Shaw, 2007).
The need for water keeps on increasing its demand day by day. Despite this increase, the average rainfall has remained constant and sometimes it is plentiful in most of the coastal regions. The review of literature in the study included the theoretical and empirical review of existing studies, articles, and information concerning the floodwater disaster mitigation as well as the coastal reservoirs for floodwater development. While the theoretical aspects of the review looked into the existing factors of coastal reservoirs for rainwater development and the mitigating factors of flood disaster, the empirical review concentrated more on the geographical, environmental, and the social concerns of the flood water disaster mitigations. While examining the theoretical literature review, the study identified the gaps, which it sought to fill in the existing literature.
Concept of Coastal Reservoir for Floodwater Development
Water accessibility and use is a vital aspect which not only plays a critical role in the hastening of environmental equity but also enhances human development. Liu andYang (2013) noted that water scarcity is a fundamental problem which results in various implications and the impacts of the water scarcity are not only felt at the local level but also at the international level. Some of the elements and problems associated to water scarcity may include hunger, poverty, degradation of soil, ecosystem desertification, climate change, food insecurity as well as world peace. The growing demand and increasing population day by day is the contributor the depreciation of water level and the slanting points which are imminently recorded on a daily basis. Hence, a number of project proposal have been prepared which aims at evaluating and appraising the effective water usage and hastening sustainability. Mostly, there is suggeation of utilizing the rainfall water or flood in more decisive and scientific manner which will not threaten both human and aquatic lives. In discussing the ways and means of controlling, preserving, and managing the flood water through the development of the coastal reservoir, it is important to acknowledge the water sources. While some regions depend on both the rainwater and the groundwater in equal contributions, some regions either get one more than the other or all being low.
On the other hand, Plate (2002) argues that groundwater tends record higher chemical components, physical as well as biological quality as opposed to the surface waters. Therefore, the analogy depicts that groundwater has minimal costs of treatment and maintenance in terms of water treatment as well as processing as compared to the surface water and this makes it preferable.
Contrary, groundwater is often harder in line with the as compared to surface water and also requires complex equipment for the exploration and maintenance. However, most scenarios indicate the groundwater is either fully developed or overdeveloped. Thus, exploration of groundwater worldwide is economically not viable as the expected outputs will not measure potential benefits in terms of returns. Thus, the other preferable water sources which records potential benefits need to be taken into consideration.
Siegrist & Gutscher (2008) argues that the quality of water, especially in the on-land dams (in this case reservoirs) are usually higher in comparison to the one coming from all the alternative sources part from the groundwater. However, among the disadvantage of such means of water production, the greatest is that the ground is less prone to the pollution as opposed to surface water which is more susceptible in line with the pollution. Stewart, et al. (2018) argues protecting the surface water from contamination is not easy and the key contaminations which are not easy to control include waterborne diseases as well as the chemicals which flow into the surface water either through the discharge or via surface runoff. The consistency in the eminence of water is mostly questionable for the on-land water dams. The fluctuations of temperature, the turbidity as well as the amount of precipitation are closely linked when it comes of surface water. Thus, there are many factors required in the treatment of groundwater that makes it very expensive to utilize.
In terms of the reservoirs, whose content relies on the rainfall as the supply source, Thomas (2005) notes that the number of dam sites available mainly results because of the dam construction requirements which includes both the correct geologic and topographical characteristics combination. Also soil erosion is another essential factor which influences the construction of dam and therefore, it retards the dam construction process more so in erosion prone areas by reducing the overall carrying capacities of the dams. According to Wang (2018) records the on-land reservoirs may be subjected to very high siltation rates and this may affect the performance and efficiency of the dams. These effects may be compared to the overall extreme siltation rates such as the Australia dam construction standards.
Changing the natural direction of flow of water from the remote source to the coastal reservoirs does not necessarily depend on the amount of the local rainfall or its quality. However, depending on the sources of water and the factors involved, the construction cost involved is poised to be very high. Most of these construction costs are felt socially, environmentally, as well as economically. The reuse of wastewater on the other hand does not also depend on rainfall quantity directly. However, this level of the contaminant may usually be greater than the other sources of water. In this way, Weichselgartner (2001) argues that the best option left in trapping water for the purposes of the coastal reservoir involves storm water harvesting that might later on be used in the house yards, parks, as well as other domestic and industrial uses.
According to Liu and Yang (2013) defined Coastal Reservoir as a freshwater reservoir which may be located in the sea and annually recharged by a river which recharges it via the river mouth. Also, coastal reservoir needs to be effective by having an impermeable barrier between two points which include the fresh river water alongside the salty sea water. According to Wong (2010), there are three guidelines that are outlined for the thriving edifice of a coastal reservoir. These three guidelines include separation, protection, and prevention. The first guideline, which is disjointing, involves a successful clean river separation between the polluted water as well as salt water through the various process of water cleaning such as sedimentation, distilling among others. Protection on the other hand, as the second guideline, involves the protecting the collected fresh water from the polluted river water as well as external pollution. The last aspect to consider is the prevention element, and it outlined guidelines for successful prevention of the overall salt water intrusion as it enters the stored fresh water.
In dire comparison of water coming from the overall desalination of seawater processes, then it evidential that catchment runoff forms the fundamental natural resource. In fact, the catchment runoff indicates cost saving as well as guaranteeing the quality of water and thus, making it absolutely safer for human consumption. As opposed to the on-land catchment runoff, coastal reservoir often receives and harvests the runoff catchment water in the sea. In essence, the sources of the coastal reservoirs are mainly the river sources and evaluations have shown that the reservoirs have potentiality of catching the water from the rivers. Thus, there are various classes of coastal reservoirs and the classifications mainly based on the location, water quality as well as the barrage. The natural reservoirs like the freshwater lakes are sometimes considered the natural coastal reservoirs existing.
According to Zhang, at al. (2002) among the existing coastal reservoirs include Zuider Zee, in Netherlands that was built in 1932 that has a water area of 1240km2. During this period, Yang, et al (2013) argues that the people were mainly enclosed to the sea areas and did set the land with getting water for their natural benefits. However, later on, some of these coastal reservoirs became examples of the man-made coastal reservoirs that predominantly accelerated the dilution of the salt water and forming sustainable water storage as well as water potable catchment.
There are various types of coastal reservoir with their respective functions. The classification of these coastal reservoirs considers the location, barrage, as well as water quality. As far as location is concerned, the geographical outlook of the coastal reservoirs comes to view through divisions of estuary reservoir, intertidal, as well as gulf reservoir. Based on the quality of water, the perspective of the outlook involves division of the water quality into consumption water reservoir wit good eminence, freshwater that are significant for farming purposes, as well as industrial purpose that requires moderate quality (Douglas, et al. 2018). Lastly, there are areas where the water quality is determined for sewerage and the ballast water basin among others. According to Douglas, et al. 2018, dams can also be classified as earth dam, concrete dam as well as soft dam reservoirs. Moreover, theses classification primarily divided into two categories such as natural as well as artificial. In a comparison mode, there are two types of reservoir: the on-land reservoir and the coastal reservoir. They exhibit the following differences:
Dam-site: while the on-land reservoir uses a limited area, usually a valley, the dam site for the Coastal Reservoir is usually the coastal region, inside or outside the mouth of a river (Yang and Lin, 2011).
Water height: The water altitude of the on-land reservoir is usually above the sea level while the water level of the coastal basin is at the sea level. In the same way, while the pressure at the on-land reservoir is very high, the coastal reservoir pressure is low but have wave surge. The pollutant of the on-land reservoir is land based while the pollutant at the coastal reservoir is both land based and seawater based. Finally, while the land acquisition and water supply is high and by gravity respectively in on land reservoir, the land acquisition and water supply are low and by pump respectively in the coastal reservoir.
Obtaining the basis from the table above, Douglas, et al. (2018), states that when constructed the two reservoirs, the in-land reservoir and the coastal reservoir share many similarities with reference to the presence of water. These similarities are either on the side which has the same density or the sides hard barrier which do not need strong construction material and costs for the inland reservoir.
According to Hilton & Manning (2005) the coastal reservoir is used to provide water for three distinctively important functions: domestic water using, irrigation, as well as industrial water use. The Chenhang reservoir in China is an example of the reservoir providing water for drinking, i.e. for domestic water usage in Shanghai. Located at the Yangtze River entrance estuary in China, the reservoir depicts a fundamental role in providing not only the overall domestic water usage, but also provide the industrial water that keeps the steel industry in Baoshan the becomes sustainable and continuous in production of steel in Shanghai China, in a twin contribution with Baogang Reservoir. This is shown in the picture below:
Figure 1: The picture of Baogang alongside Chenhang Reservoir
The Marina Dam in Singapore was constructed across the Marina channel with a width of 50 metres to retain the seawater. The Marina, the Punggol as well as Serangoon basins in Singapore, has increased the water sourcing area for the country making it about two thirds of the land since 2011. According to the information by Messner & Meyer (2006), the Marina dam has created the fresh water basin while acting as the makeable tidal barrier between the low lying area and the sea water bodies that may cause flooding in the areas.
The rapid growth of the economy and population in Singapore in the past decades has necessitated he increased demand for water in a steady manner. In fact, based on the study done by Hartmann, et al. (2007), the former means of water production in Singapore before building the Marina barrage could not be sufficient for water production and usage in the country. Therefore, Singapore built the Marina barrage, as shown in the picture below to augment the water supply with the rainfall.
The Marina Barrage
The Marina reservoir was deigned to carefully blend with the environment in a perfect manner. The main function was to operate as the tidal barricade for flood run, to maintain the freshwater body that was deemed new at a constant level at the center of attraction in the city and a major lifestyle attraction. More than that, it was created to create new reservoir that would complement the supply of water in the country (Tran, & Shaw, 2007). The figure below indicates the analysis Marina Barrage design model.
The working principle of the Marina barrage design
According to the records of Lai et al. (2015), the Marina Barrage was designed to enhance the supply of water in Singapore as far as water supply is concerned. Moreover, the Four National Singapore Taps water supply mainly designed as imminent plan for diversifying water sources. Jonkman & Kelman (2005) states that the four National Taps included the reclaimed water, local catchment, desalted water alongside the imported water in Singapore. As a result, the Marina water source has become the largest modern catchment in the city with approximately 10,000 ha. This indicates that when compared with other existing reservoirs its about 60% of the country’s catchment area.
Galelli, et al. (2012) records that as far as flood control is concerned, the Marina Barrage has formed part of the in-depth flood control scheme which is used to raise the level of management. This management mainly entails existing floods in the low-lying areas within the city such as Chinatown, Jalan Besar, Boat Quay, and Geylang. It was realized that there were series of heavy rainfall along the coastal zones of the country. In this way, series of nine crest gates will help during the heavy downpour of rainfall in the activation and releasing excess storm water when the tide is low into the sea. Contrary, high tide and the giant pumps have the capability of pumping a large volume of water as well as hasten the draining of the excess storm water from the on-land site into the sea per minute. Galelli, et al. (2012) noted that the use of barricades and marina barriers Singapore has reduced the overall flood prone margin successfully. In essence, it has reduced the site area from about 3200 ha-to-150 ha and 150 ha-to 85 –ha in line with the analysis taken from 1970s.
Within the perspective of civil engineering, this study adopted the experimental research design. This design facilitated the description of the coastal reservoirs for floodwater development and flood water disaster mitigation. Additionally, the study adopted the use of quantitative technique to descriptive statistical measures and more importantly measures of relationships. The use of experimentally research designs in engineering projects involves the analysis of results from experimental programs in Civil Engineering such as construction.
The statistical design of experiments not only assists in the refining of the analysis data but also hastens the modeling of the obtained response variables. Subsequently, the study used the fractional designs such as the control variables, at different levels, to evaluate the project and this assist in achieving the goals and objectives of the project without actually incurring extra cost. Some of the experiment examples used design in the field such as the construction materials and the technology are described and thus, ascertaining that the main benefits has been achieved. Overly, the appraisal of the obtained data from the field indicates that the same information obtained from the overall complete experiments can also be achieved when fractional experiments are used in the statistical criteria.
The study ensured that the definition and updating of technical, regulatory, economic and contractual standards in line with the design, edifice, maintenance and construction inspection tracks for all the works conducted at the site. Therefore, the methodology adopted was suitable in collaborating with all process and construction engineering activities in the coastal reservoir. Monitors and measures maintenance events that occur during the life cycle of the infrastructure (consumption, degradation trends, and failures) to periodically determine improvements in terms of effectiveness of maintenance interventions
The methodology also involved carrying out practical operational installation, maintenance, inspection of installations and structures, equipment, and rolling stock in the construction processes. Also carries out commonly used tasks including the related administrative operations; also carries out the operation.
The collection of data was done from secondary sources in the existing scholarly materials. The data collected for the purpose of this study has been analyzed by the use of quantitative data analysis techniques and tools. Generally, quantitative techniques have been used to address specific research questions and specific objectives of the study (Young, 2012). These techniques involved descriptive statistical measures of mean and measures of dispersion such as standard deviations on the respondents’ opinions on a number of issues and more importantly measures of interrelationships.
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