Assignment Will Aim To Address And Discuss Relevant Issues?
The following assignment will aim to address and discuss relevant issues pertaining to the impact of two public health interventions or programs that have been utilized to mitigate the public health concern related to the outbreak and spread of HIV/AIDS amongst the people who inject drugs (PWID) in Australia. Discussions will be carried out with respect to the definite public health programs that were applied in the health scenario of the defined region for ameliorating the spread of HIV/AIDS in the concerned population. Lessons learnt from the interventions that hold the potential to inform future public health actions and steering positive outcomes will be addressed as well. Critical analysis of the interventions with mention about the strengths and limitations will be done to provide succinct overview on the topic. A comprehensive synopsis of the measurable impact of the interventions will be provided alongside detailed description of the intervention or program. Prior to the detailed analysis and description of the interventions, the pertinent issue, the population and population group in addition to the identified risks and determinants of health will be incorporated to offer an insight on the interventions. The public health interventions comprising of the Needle and Syringe Program and the Condom Social Marketing Program will be explained in course of the assignment.
People who inject drugs (PWID) have been found to possess greater propensity of being infected by HIV/AIDS in contrast to their general counterparts who do not engage in such activities. However, a contradictory observation in this respect suggests that because of the stigmatization and criminalization of the actions presented by the PWID they are more likely to be deprived of the basic access to healthcare services, subsequent treatments and preventive measures related to the HIV. The presence of societal stigma and preconceived notion about them are largely responsible for making it more vulnerable for them to encounter discriminating and health inequity while suffering from AIDS like condition. The reaching out to the population is another challenging task for the healthcare workers and other associated team members that further aggravates the situation making it more difficult to intervene. Thus, pertinent information and succinct knowledge related to the multifaceted and various health factors as well as health behaviors that account for the spreading of HIV among the PWID population is desirable (Mathers et al., 2013). The most prominent factors that paved the way for resulting in the spread and outbreak of HIV among the PWID population encompass several crucial issues. The health related risk factors identified that are intimately associated with the harboring of AIDs like condition in PWID include, sharing of needles, sex work practice. Other factors that are indirectly related as potential agents for culminating in the emanation of AIDS like symptom refer to the marginalization and criminalization under the jurisdiction of law, unemployment and poor socio-economic background in conjunction with threats of imprisonment and detention. PWID encompass individuals belonging to diverse backgrounds and genders including women, transgender women, sex workers, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people. The faulty healthcare practices as well as the apprehensions of the PWIDS are the major identified reasons that are responsible for the inability of holistically addressing the HIV/AIDS issue among the concerned population. Ignorance about the correct health procedure, dearth of knowledge on matter concerning the pathogenesis and possible routes of transmission of HIV are some of the vital reasons that have lead to the onset of the diseased symptoms. However amongst the identified factors, the issue of sharing needles is considered particularly threatening as the vulnerable groups are more likely to resort to sharing the needles due to inability and regulatory restrictions of buying syringes for some other purposes other than the medical ones (Rowe & Berger, 2015). Thus, the need to invest in taking initiatives that will effectively mitigate the issue is required to offer best possible resolution for combating the ill effects and adverse outcomes due to such possibilities and confounding factors are necessary. Holistic interventions are required in this respect to cope up with the ensuing condition. Two of the implemented methods that accounted for combating the condition prevalent because of HIV/AIDS encompassing Needle and Syringe Program in addition to Condom Social Marketing Program amongst the PWID in Australian context will be discussed for understanding their potential benefits and efficacy in terms of tackling the thwarting situation.
The growing volumes of evidences with respect to the interventions undertaken for handling the public health concerns associated with the transmission and prevalence of HIV/AIDS among the people who inject drugs in Australia revealed the efficacy of prudent and pragmatic approaches to safeguard the health of the concerned population. Adequate attention being conferred on the harm reduction because of the presence of HIV/AIDS has been found to harbor optimum outcomes. Significant and situation appropriate measures adopted by the relevant organization with sufficient support and cooperation from the government has lead to the generation of adequate awareness and responsiveness among the vulnerable individuals thereby paving the way for a better tomorrow. The chances of being infected by the HIV pathogens have been drastically reduced as consequence of the relevant interventions (Madden & Wodak, 2014). Further empirical findings have brought to the forefront, the positive outcomes of the interventions that demonstrated an extremely low and sustained rate of HIV incidence over the past two decades with the timeframe of 1995-2012, among the PWID. The reason for such holistic outcomes may be attributed to measures following the early establishment and up-gradation of the needle and syringe program with subsequent contribution from other interventions such as that of Condom Social Marketing Program (Iversen et al., 2014). Hence, it may be well commented that abidance with these potential intervention programs are highly successful and effective strategies to deal with the public health issue as observed in case of HIV/AIDS among the concerned population.
Abdul-Quader, A. S., Feelemyer, J., Modi, S., Stein, E. S., Briceno, A., Semaan, S., ... & Des Jarlais, D. C. (2013). Effectiveness of structural-level needle/syringe programs to reduce HCV and HIV infection among people who inject drugs: a systematic review. AIDS and Behavior, 17(9), 2878-2892.
Aggleton, P., & Kippax, S. (2014). Australia's HIV-Prevention Response: Introduction to the Special Issue. AIDS Education and Prevention, 26(3), 187-190.
Health.gov.au. (2017). Retrieved 22 May 2017, from https://www.health.gov.au/internet/main/publishing.nsf/content/83AAED699516CE2DCA257BF0001E7255/$File/evid.pdf
Iversen, J., Wand, H., Topp, L., Kaldor, J. and Maher, L., 2014. Extremely low and sustained HIV incidence among people who inject drugs in a setting of harm reduction. AIDS, 28(2), pp.275-278.
MacArthur, G. J., van Velzen, E., Palmateer, N., Kimber, J., Pharris, A., Hope, V., ... & Rhodes, T. (2014). Interventions to prevent HIV and hepatitis C in people who inject drugs: a review of reviews to assess evidence of effectiveness. International Journal of Drug Policy, 25(1), 34-52.
Madden, A., & Wodak, A. (2014). Australia's response to HIV among people who inject drugs. AIDS Education and Prevention, 26(3), 234-244.
Mathers, B. M., Degenhardt, L., Bucello, C., Lemon, J., Wiessing, L., & Hickman, M. (2013). Mortality among people who inject drugs: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 91(2), 102-123.
Needle, R. H., Burrows, D., Friedman, S. R., Dorabjee, J., Touzé, G., Badrieva, L., ... & Latkin, C. (2005). Effectiveness of community-based outreach in preventing HIV/AIDS among injecting drug users. International Journal of Drug Policy, 16, 45-57.
Paiva, V., Ferguson, L., Aggleton, P., Mane, P., Kelly-Hanku, A., Giang, L. M., ... & Parker, R. (2015). The current state of play of research on the social, political and legal dimensions of HIV. Cadernos de saude publica, 31(3), 477-486.
Rowe, R., & Berger, I. (2015). Patterns of performance and image enhancing drug use among men accessing needle and syringe programs in Sydney, Australia. Drug & Alcohol Dependence, 156, e194.'
Topp, L., Day, C. A., Iversen, J., Wand, H., Maher, L., & Collaboration of Australian NSPs. (2011). Fifteen years of HIV surveillance among people who inject drugs: the Australian Needle and Syringe Program Survey 1995–2009. Aids, 25(6), 835-842.
Wilson, H., Brener, L., Mao, L., & Treloar, C. (2014). Perceived discrimination and injecting risk among people who inject drugs attending Needle and Syringe Programmes in Sydney, Australia. Drug and alcohol dependence, 144, 274-278.
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