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Foundation Of Management: Output And Productivity

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Question:

Discuss about the Foundation of Management for Output and Productivity.

 

Answer:

Introduction

The twentieth century has created different management theories that have helped in understanding the view of management in the present context. Theories created in the era has helped managers in organizing and managing people  the role of a manager is important to integrate activities which regulates every important function in the organization. The essay is based on comparison of two theories which are: scientific school of thought of Frederick Taylor & human relation theory of Elton Mayo.  These two theories are important from the point of view of high productivity to be carried out at workplace. Contrasting both will help in developing a better understanding about the theories.

Scientific Management Theory

 The industrial era has made changes by increasing the rate of output and productivity. This led to development of scientific theory of management by FW Taylor.  According to him most of the efficient methods for completing a task, completion of a task, development and motivation of employees is scientifically influenced. The 4 major objectives of Taylor Scientific management are as follows:

The development of science for every element of an individual work is to be replaced by the old rule of thumb method (Taylor, 2004).

There should be a scientific selection, training and development method instead of allowing an individual to choose their task. This is to provide them effective training to derive competitive results (Waring, 2016).

The theory is based on development of a spirit of hearty cooperation between the workers and management in order to ensure work in accordance with scientifically devised procedures (Shafritz, Ott and Jang, 2015).

The division of work between the workers and the management should be based on equality.  Each group should take work according to their individual capability.  There are organizations that need to arrange in hierarchy, system of abstract rules and impersonal relationship between the staff (Witzel and Warner, 2015).

The theories are based on the pig-iron production line located in Bethlehem Steel Corporation. By altering the work methods Taylor was able to improve the overall productivity. The theory when applied to other workers gave a drastic result (Carraher, 2014). The theory gained recognition within few years of implementation. Soon many organizations started implementing the scientific theory to gain the output. Taylor is a father of scientific management.  He gave the first important  management theory. He is famous for the time and motion study and Piece rate system (Scott and Davis, 2015; Mills, A.J., Weatherbee, Foster and Helms Mills, 2014).

 

Human Relations Theory

Elton Mayo is a founder of the human relation movement. His participation in the well-known Hawthorne Studies gave the famous Human Relations Movement (Basu, 2004).

The human relation school of management developed due to Hawthorne experiments.  The theory explains what actually happens when six individual become a team. The teams are responsible to deliver output in an efficient way. The team should feel free to communicate their experience with each other. The employee should work without coercion by working in an efficient way (Pirson, 2014). As per Mayo the organization have to endeavor to appreciate the esteem and sentiments of acknowledgment and approval of non-monetary wants of the employees (Dodge, 2015).  The human relation theory thereby focuses on the following concepts:

Individual are provoked by the social needs and effective on-the –job relationship help in attaining goals. This will allow an individual to respond under excessive work-pressure. All the organizations are co-operative social system. There is a necessity to satisfy the psychological needs. It is one of the main concerns.  The relaxed employment assemblage does have a considerable consequence on the work. They do affect the overall efficiency.  The chief apprehension of the employees is satisfaction of their wants in order to gain results (Mayo, 2014).

Another finding of human relation school is that the workers can only operate in an informal social interaction. The informal connectivity allows workers in gaining effective result. The best vehicle to achieve result is through the informal chain.  The members are ready to cooperate in an informal chain. This helps in building the basic chain of cooperation and communication in the organization (Landy and Conte, 2016).

Contrast in Between the Classical Approach and Mayo Idea

The contribution of both the schools has contributed in achieved differentiated goals. Mayo’s idea primarily focuses on finding the most appropriate ideas to work through motivation. This will help in increasing the level of productivity in the organization.  Both theories have equally recognized the information that the institution has different set of targets (Hatch and Cunliffe, 2013).

Taylor scientific school determined on getting work done rather than having a concern regarding the work. This school merely considers workers as Robots that are controlled by a specific individual.  Meanwhile Mayo’s human relations school is concerned with itself, needs of the workers etc. His theory is based on motivating the employees in a positive direction. These needs allow an individual to thin independently without any outer pressure.  The theory focus on the needs of an individual to social interaction is important for job satisfaction. The amount of job satisfaction is derived from solving of workers need to achieve organizational goals (B. Dent and Bozeman, 2014).

Furthermore, classical theory focuses on the economic needs of an individual. It further states that the individual is more considerate about his individual needs and it is considered as the source of motivation for the employees. Human elation theory focuses on psychological needs. According to the theory workers are motivated by the informal social interaction. These social interactions allow an individual to grow.

Classical theory has a perception that the people are capable to maximize the overall rewards. On the contrary, the human relation school considers that the people are not rational. They argue with the purpose of,  an individual is independent and his behavior is influenced by the social context (Burke, 2013).

Moreover, the classical theory believes that there is no disagreement amid individual and the organizational goals, whereas the human relation theory believes, “there is no habitual association amid individual and the organizational wants”.

The human relation theory believes that the communication channel covers both the logical and economic aspect in an organization. Team work is important for cooperation and attaining effective technical decision. The positive angle associated with the classical theory has helped in achieving methodical outline of carrying out business activities in an organization. There is an interest in the division of work.  The particular approach helps in reducing the time and wastage of resources.  This allows management to be focused about their responsibilities. The classical approach on the negative side failed to be familiar with the wants of the human resource of the organization. The attentiveness is more focused on the job rather than on the employees. The classical approach of management is practiced is the contemporary organization. The workers are given  specified targets that are to be practices in the organization to attain objectives.  The scientific approach of management is practiced I more modified pattern in an organization (Taylor and Hartwell, 2014).

The positive side of human relation is regarding recognition of workers and the individual in a group.  It is considered to be one of the most effective parts in an organization. The employees when properly motivated give effective results on a long run.  The theory thereby focuses on mutual cooperation in order to carry out a task.  The recognition of workers in an organization is important for gaining results. The independence among the workers helps them in achieving goals.

The negative side of human relation theory is that some workers are persistently abusing the liberty given to them.  They avail the undue advantage of the freedom given to them. This affects the overall productivity in an organization.

The transformation of the Elton Mayo’s thought through the theory of TQM expert has allowed this activity achievable in a contemporary organization.  The concept of strategic human resource management is now carried out to manage the human resource in an effective way

Conclusion

To conclude both the theories aim towards a common goal. The way of reaching the destination is diverse. The scientific management theory and the human relation theory aspire for brilliance. The superiority can only be achieved if ether of the two or both theories is applied in an organization.  In the context of present modern organization an efficient manager has to apply both the theories into practice to attain results. Both the theories are two wheel of an organization that helps in balancing the work

 

References

Dent, E. and Bozeman, P., 2014. Discovering the foundational philosophies, practices, and influences of modern management theory. Journal of Management History, 20(2), pp.145-163.

Basu,R. 2004. Public Administration: Concepts And Theories. Sterling Publishers Pvt. Ltd

Burke, W.W., 2013. Organization change: Theory and practice. Sage Publications.

Carraher, S., 2014. Leadership, entrepreneurship, and suggestions for future research. Journal of Management History, 20(1).

Dodge, A. ed., 2015. Public relations: Strategies and tactics. New York, NY: Pearson.

Hatch, M.J. and Cunliffe, A.L., 2013. Organization theory: modern, symbolic and postmodern perspectives. Oxford university press.

Landy, F.J. and Conte, J.M., 2016. Work in the 21st Century, Binder Ready Version: An Introduction to Industrial and Organizational Psychology. John Wiley & Sons.

Mayo, E., 2014. The social problems of an industrial civilisation. Routledge.

Mills, A.J., Weatherbee, T.G., Foster, J. and Helms Mills, J., 2014. The New Deal, history, and management & organization studies: Lessons, insights and reflections. Routledge companion to management & organizational history. London, England: Routledge.

Pirson, M.A., 2014, January. Reconnecting management theory and social welfare: A humanistic perspective. In Academy of Management Proceedings (Vol. 2014, No. 1, p. 12245). Academy of Management.

Scott, W.R. and Davis, G.F., 2015. Organizations and organizing: Rational, natural and open systems perspectives. Routledge.

Shafritz, J.M., Ott, J.S. and Jang, Y.S., 2015. Classics of organization theory. Cengage Learning.

Taylor, F.W. and Hartwell, R.M., 2014. The Industrial Revolution.

Taylor, F.W., 2004. Scientific management. Routledge.

Waring, S.P., 2016. Taylorism transformed: Scientific management theory since 1945. UNC Press Books.

Witzel, M. and Warner, M., 2015. Taylorism revisited: Culture, management theory and paradigm-shift. Journal of General Management, 40(3), pp.55-69.

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