Channel reuse provides dynamic control over the receive sensitivity so that it can easily improve the spatial reuse property of channel. Co-channel interference or CCI can be defined as the crosstalk which generally takes place from two radio transmitter which makes use of same frequency Zhu & Wang, 2012). There can be several cause of co-channel radio interference like dense deployment. This ultimately relates to the fact that Co-channel interference generally reduces overall usage of channel in a particular zone or area. The channel reuse property is generally applied to some of Non-DFS channels. It is seen that it disables and does not affect the DFS radar signature detection property (Leith et al., 2012). Channel reuse property can be easily configured to operate or work in three modes namely static, Dynamic and Disable.
Static mode: This particular mode of operation is totally depended or based on coverage which mainly depends on clear Channel Assessment (CCA) threshold (Jamil, Cariou & Helard, 2014). In the static method or mode of operation CCA is adjusted as per the needs of configured transmission level of power of AP.
Dynamic mode: In this type Clear Channel Assessment (CCA) is totally based on the loads of various kinds of channels and it also takes into account the location of associated clients. When someone makes use of Channel reuse feature to any kind of Dynamic value. This feature is automatically providing wireless medium to be around. CCA provides threshold to easily accommodate the transmission between AP and kinds of parts associated.
Disable Mode: This particular mode does not provide any kind of support to tuning of CCA detection of threshold.
Frequency Reuse in Cell
In cellular network, frequencies are allocated to the various kinds of services which are reused in a regular area of pattern which are known as Cells. It is generally covered by various kinds of base station (Ghosh et al., 2012). In a mobile phone network these cells are generally hexagonal structure. While in radio broadcasting a similar concept or idea can be developed which is generally based or dependent on rhombic cell. For ensuring the mutual type of interference between various kinds of users which generally remain below the harmful level, adjacent type of cell generally makes of different type of frequencies. In many cases it is seen that C various types of frequencies are used for each particular type of cluster which has C adjacent cells (Novlan et al., 2012). Cluster pattern and frequencies related to it are generally reused in a regular pattern over the whole type of network which is totally used in service type of network. The total bandwidth for a provided system is considered to be C times the bandwidth which is generally provided by a single cell.
On the contrary in real world cells, the cells are hexagonal in nature as found in theoretical kinds of studies. Computer methods or techniques are being used for proper planning of base station location and frequencies of various kinds of cells (Saquib, Hossain & Kim, 2013). The closest distance which is between the center of two cells which makes use of coverage of base station and interference from other kinds of cells.
WMAN stands for Wireless Metropolitan Network which provides a platform for establishment of several wireless based LANs. In this type of connection is established which includes of metropolitan network like various kinds of building in a particular city which can be easily considered to have a connection like various building a city which can be taken or considered to have an alternative or backup to alternative layer or fiber cabling. WMAN technology can be also defined as Wireless local loop. It generally provides communication between two or more terminals with the help of a single value of access points (Bou-Harb et al., 2013). The most common type of Wireless Networking technologies is inclusive of WiMAX (Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access). WiMAX can be defined as a broadband service which generally provides high speed connectivity over a long distance which makes it attractive to internet and various kinds of telecommunication provider (Hajli & Lin, 2016). There are certain number of issue in WiMAX network which are rouge dependent station, Dos based attacks, Man in the middle attack. The real test of WiMAX network will begin when the provider begins to make use of wide-scale network deployments and various kinds of researchers and attackers associated with it.
In WiMAX there are generally two type of security issue in physical layer that are:
Jamming arises by introducing a strong noise so that it can easily reduce the capacity or value of channel which can be considered to be malicious or intentional (Bellalta et al., 2014). Jamming can be easily increased by increasing the bandwidth or power of a given signal.
Scrambling can be easily defined as a type of jamming which can be used for short interval of time and it has some specific sort of WiMAX frames. Scramblers can easily reduce the bandwidth of victims and can easily increase the processing of data by making use of some selective scrambling.
Water torture attack: This is a type of attack which is generally based or depended on subscriber station to drain some battery or to consume some of the computing sources by sending a series of fake frames. This particular type of attack is considered to be more dangerous than Denial of service (Dos) attack because the subscriber station which is totally based on portable device which carries a large number of limited source.
There are other threats which are generally associated with WMAN technology like IEEE 802.16 which is vulnerable to various kinds of attacks in which an attacker which has a sufficient radio transmitter can easily write a radio channel (Bellalta et al., 2016). When the mesh mode in the network is considered the 802.16 can be easily affected by various kinds of replay attacks in which an attacker can easily send a valid frame of attack which consist of valid frames. When this particular type of security flaw is dealt then it results in a concept which is known as mutual type or kind of authentication.
From the first article that is from today’s internet to future internet of things, I have concluded that this paper merely focusses on various kinds of Internet of things. I have learned about the present situation or value of things which must be integrated into the heterogeneous system (Gamage et al., 2014). This paper provides a summary of things which are in our opinion as the main wireless and technical challenges which are generally in relation to various kinds of technical challenges and it also address the various kinds of technical which must be addressed so that it can easily provide development of IOT and its acceptance in the upcoming years.
Although the concept or idea of IOT have changed a lot in last few years but there are some technical challenges which have many kinds of technical issues which might not have been solved which is inclusive of heterogeneity, security, connectivity, management and identification. After analyzing the privacy and security factor an idea has been gathered about reasoning capabilities and method of collection of storing of data about the working environment in which data can be used easily (Florwick et al., 2013). In the energy management topic, I have come across various phases of energy like harvesting, conservation and consumption which is considered to be a major kind of issue. The development of novel solution provides maximum amount of energy in phase of paramount. Effective communication and networking in a dense network generally need some protocol at the lower end which can support to various kinds of wireless Network. Various kinds of issue like medium access control, error control and Quality of service should be incorporated in the various design.
After reading the paper on Design and Simulation of State of Art ZigBee Transmitter for various kinds of IOT devices, I have concluded that the paper focus on rapid development in Wireless Networking which has been encountered in the last few years. Wireless Networking focus on high speed and long range of application. I have analyzed that increasing or growing demand of low data and low power of Networking have led to the development of a technology which is known as ZigBee. This technology was mainly developed for WPAN which stands for Wireless Personal Area Network. It is directed at control which provides support at control and military application. It provides low cost, low rate of data with much more battery life. ZigBee is well known standard which generally defines a set of protocol which can be used for communication. ZigBee based devices generally operate on various kinds of frequency band namely 868MHz, 915 MHz and other 2.4 GHz bands. This device has maximum rate of data which is 250K bits per second. The following paper addresses architectural block of ZigBee transmitter. Advancement of VLSI technology has led to the development of efficient, small and flat design. ZigBee has many applications in the field of Internet of Things because of the fact that it that has a low power and low rate of device.
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