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Functions Of Manager In An Organization

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Critically analyse the Roles, Functions that Managers perform and discuss the Challenges and Risks they have to address in today’s Changing Organisations.



Organizational behavior is the discipline which studies different aspects of humanistic and organization behavior. It is the scientific and theoretical approach to determining the prevalent behavior of any organization and also vice versa.  A number of psychological as well internal organizational policies determine the type of behavior that co-exists between the staff and the organization.  It is a causative effect, which is a reflection of the interaction between the two forces.

In fact, organizational behavior involves the aspects of the human resources that it employs for their appropriate operation. It is the structural framework which is operated by the manpower agents which helps in maintaining and supervising the work force and the policies of the organization. It entails the functions of the manager, employees and the several department of the organization that are involved in operating all the function for the business processing and dealings.


Functions of manager in an organization

Managers are one of the integral parts of the complete structural process, which operates in an organization and has to fulfill a number of roles.  It is multidisciplinary in nature, as they have to coordinate, regulate and critically analyze the situation, which is very significant in nature. Every organizations or institutions need a proper management team to execute their work or target in an organized way without any haphazard. It is the manager of that organization on whom the responsibility to manage the team and work, development of the organization largely depends on. A good manager will help his or her organization or company to reach its pinnacle by performing the basic functions like proper preparation, systematize, recruitment, leading and controlling the plans and staffs. It is the duty of the manager to maintain a proper sketch and map to achieve the desired goals. With the help of several investments, advertisement and improvisation he/she can increase the total revenue earned by the company and increase the sales or profit margin. A manager decides how to execute every step of a plan to make it successful. Proper organization of the plan is the second step for the manager. The manager organizes the team or the material of the work and assigns the team leaders or the staffs their portion of work. He should distribute the work accordingly as every work needs to be finished within the deadline. The two major elements of organizing is assigning work and granting authority (Gehman, Trevino & Garud, 2013).

Staffing is one of the major areas for the manager to focus because it is the work of the manager to recruit eligible staffs and train them so that they can execute the plans well. The human resource department of the companies always works in collaboration with the managers to recruit candidates for their company and always helps in the training period. The work of the manager does not end here. Manager is the leader on which everybody looks upon. The manager must possess some leader like qualities because he /she have to encourage, motivate and communicate with each and every staffs so that they can work well in a friendly atmosphere. The manager works as the coach of the company who guides and assists the employees in each step and understand their problems (Belleflamme & Peitz, 2015).


The manager should check on the results or the outcome of a proposal and plans. The manager is responsible for the functions and departmental structure of every moment and should have control over the project and the staff working over it. It is the manager who directs all the employees on how to work for the particular company and should have control over the work and the team.  The manager also handles the operational and exceptional factors that are important to assess the serious and critical scenarios that often emerge while executing the business procedures. The qualification of the manager involves the strategies which they effectively use it in his team in order to achieve the best of the result that integrates the various factors of the In order to play several roles in the company to achieve the purpose. A good behaved manager is liked by all the employees and staffs who can share their problems to get a solution of that. Their schedule remains clogged as they have to meet with all the associates and the employees for smooth running of the work without any disturbances (Coleman, 2016).

Values, ethics, diversity on organizational culture

Organizational culture is defined as the nature and scientific approach of the values and ethics of the enterprise. Values like the human cultures and the way in which the organization behaves and coordinates helps them in a thorough manner.  The impact of great values, as employment rules without any discrimination include under the value system. On the other hand, there should be no gender discrimination policies followed by the organization. Moreover, for achieving the best effectiveness there can be no limitation or compromise of talent. The impact of shared values, diversity policies, ethical rules and agenda are important to analyze the combine effect on the culture of the organization, which prevail the specific system in the enterprise.  The framework and the regulatory ethics those are prevalent of the operational plane is encoded while formulating the regulatory framework that is incorporated within the culture of the organization. In fact, the diversity of the organization helps in coordinating to accomplish a sound and coherent business for the concern.  The work culture of the organization is the key to the survival of the employees and this involves the values that are integrated within the structure.  Moreover, the acculturation of the culture and the combination of the social tendencies are accounted as the   key points for the management of various diversities that must be incorporated within the structural framework.  The fact that the code of conduct is important for setting the goals and objectives are formulated in all workplace area (Schuler, 2014).

Appropriate research strategies for the appropriate organizational theories

It aids in determining the best of the situations, which is essential for assessing the current statistics and placement of the company in the market. The best research strategies are important for the formulation of the tactics that are necessary in a business set up that involves that style and the functions of the managers. There are a number of organizational theories that are observed which have emerged after all the issues and challenges were identified in a specific scenario.  It has arrived in the way of the managerial decisions. In fact, qualitative approach has been the chosen method for this method as there are a number of structures, which cannot be compared through quantitative values therefore; this subjective instance of reviewing the culture and the diversity can only be compiled with the basic analysis methods and priorities of the risk mitigation strategies.


Qualitative analysis reason for comparing organizational theory with alternative theory

The proposed method of the the organizational theory that have been followed by Apple Inc. is responsible for the best practices of the theory.  According to, CEO Time Cook, “We see diversity as everything that makes an employee who they are. We foster a diverse culture that is inclusive of disability, religious belief, sexual orientation, and service to country” (the Guardian, 2017) .Therefore, this is the reason, which has encouraged following a coherent organizational structure. It concentrates on building the appropriate informational networks both outside and inside the company that enhances the cooperation within the sales team. In case of salary, Apple offers competitive perquisites alongside a base salary and commission. In addition to this, the employees are promised with successive growth and promotional opportunities. The diversity involves the learning involvement and outcome of the practices (Ritchel & Chen, 2013).

Role of ethics and ethical practice in Apple

Apple Inc. is one of the most successful organizations in the world, which has majorly contributed, with some of the best technological apparatus. The introduction of the ‘equal work and equal pay’ as introduced by the company has highlighted the total compensation policies that restrict the proper functioning of the scenarios.  The practices that are followed by Apple Inc. are ethically correct with which they analyzing and realizing the the need for equality in terms of the hiring procedures and the welfare of the employees. The inclusions of the several types of policies, which entail the practices, are found in the statements like, “We’re cultivating diverse leadership and tech talent.” Ethics and ethical practices are important in relation to the work culture as there are many issues, which must be followed as per the rules of the situation (Apple, 2017). There are a number of legit and basic rights, which are mandatory for the working employees and the value of their effort. This will ensure the best outcome in a synchronizing manner that will not decline any laws related to the treatment of the employees (Heracleous, 2016).

The labor laws and regulations must be in accordance with the laws and practices that are relevant for the process of the best working culture. The policies and the regulatory framework of Apple Inc. promotes the association of a diverse set of cultures that are important for the According to the data as presented until 2016, it states that the, “We’ve achieved pay equity in the United States for similar roles and performance. Women earn one dollar for every dollar male employees earn and underrepresented minorities earn one dollar for every dollar white employees earn” (Hogan & Coote, 2015).


There are various types of diversity network associations, which help in creating the best of the practices in thriving the culture of Apple Inc. An ethical practice that is prevalent in the organization aids in coordinating and completes the whole procedures of treating the workers, the employees and the internal factors most importantly the human resource including the staff in the manufacturing unit. The regulatory and internal framework of the employees is the decisive factor of the success and image of the company. Apple Inc has a strong step of rules that have been incorporated in their memorandums, which states the rules to be followed in regards to the employee policies and the possibilities and prohibitions of the impact and its outcome (Apple, 2017).

Role and legitimacy of the management function

The role and importance of the approval of the management regarding to all policies and the decisions of leave, payment structure have a huge impact of the legal rights and concepts of the organizational practices.  The function of the management is necessary to ascertain the impacts and the responses of the types of behavior they have in comprehending the cultural aspects that are incurred in the following manner .The political and social impact of Apple Inc is important in determining the prospect, which have consequence over the business and an insight in their work culture. The two most important aspects of the environmental analysis is the political and socio-cultural scenario, which are introductory in nature as the form the company and regard it as the fundamental of the specific statistics. It is an account of the business operations and the various factors, which determine the orientation of the enterprise in regards to organizational behavior and the practices that are integrally followed by the organization. There are a number of organizational theories that are observed which have emerged after all the issues and challenges were identified in a specific scenario.  It has arrived in the way of the managerial decisions. In fact, qualitative approach has been the chosen method for this method as there are a number of structures, which cannot be compared through quantitative values therefore; this subjective instance of reviewing the culture and the diversity can only be compiled with the basic analysis methods and priorities of the risk mitigation strategies (Apple, 2017).

The establishment and the execution of the market theories have coordinated and the sense of the reaching out with an expensive product is an essential criterion of meeting with the purchasing power of the people. The political scenario is extensive in contributing the coverage and the situation that have caused an impact on the associated nature like its chap production in China and the retail policies of the government of USA where lies the headquarters and operational team.



Alvesson, M., & Sveningsson, S. (2015). Changing organizational culture: Cultural change work in progress. Routledge.

Apple. (2017). Inclusion & Diversity. [online] Available at:

Belleflamme, P., & Peitz, M. (2015). Industrial organization: markets and strategies. Cambridge University Press.

Bourne, H., & Jenkins, M. (2013). Organizational values: A dynamic perspective. Organization Studies, 34(4), 495-514.

Coleman, J. (2013). Six components of a great corporate culture. Harvard Business Review, 5(6), 2013. (2017). How Apple Works: Inside the World's Biggest Startup. [online] Available at:

Gehman, J., Trevino, L. K., & Garud, R. (2013). Values work: A process study of the emergence and performance of organizational values practices. Academy of Management Journal, 56(1), 84-112.

Heracleous, L. (2013). Quantum strategy at Apple Inc. Organizational Dynamics, 42(2), 92-99.

Hogan, S. J., & Coote, L. V. (2014). Organizational culture, innovation, and performance: A test of Schein's model. Journal of Business Research, 67(8), 1609-1621.

Krapfl, J. E., & Kruja, B. (2015). Leadership and culture. Journal of Organizational Behavior Management, 35(1-2), 28-43. (2017). Workplace diversity: Apple employs far more blacks, Hispanics than its tech rivals – The Mercury News. [online]

Richtel, M., & Chen, B. X. (2014). Tim Cook-Making Apple His Own. New York Times, Technology, 15.

Schneider, B., Ehrhart, M. G., & Macey, W. H. (2013). Organizational climate and culture. Annual review of psychology, 64, 361-388.

Schuler, R. S. (2015). The 5-C framework for managing talent. Organizational Dynamics, 44(1), 47-56.

the Guardian. (2017). Apple reports improving racial and gender diversity among employees. [online] Available at:

Waldman, D., & Jensen, E. (2016). Industrial organization: theory and practice. Routledge.


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