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GA33BIO06 Access To Higher Education Diploma

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Question:

Q1. (a) ABO blood groups in human are an example of discontinuous variation, whereas height is an example of continuous variation. Describe how these two examples differ in terms of:

(i)Genetic control (i.e. the number of genes involved).

(ii)The effect of the environment on each characteristic.

(iii)The range of phenotypes.

(b) Give one other example of continuous variation and one other example of discontinuous variation.

  • Continuous
  • Discontinuous

(a)If height were entirely genetically controlled, what concordance would you expect between monozygotic twin pairs? Explain your answer.

(b)Does data for eight-year-old twins suggest that height is largely controlled by genetic factors? Explain you answer.

(c)Suggest an explanation for the low concordance at birth for monozygotic twins.

Q3. (a) Explain the meaning of each of the following terms:

(i)Variation

(ii)Mutation

a.Explain how mutation causes variation. Give examples.

b.Explain how meiosis causes genetic variation in the gametes.

The classical twin study is established as the definitive study design for investigating the relative importance of genetic and environmental factors to traits and diseases in human population.

Monozygotic (identical) twins share all of their genes, while Dizygotic(fraternal) twins share only about 50 percent of them, the same as non-twin siblings. If a researcher compares the similarity between sets of identical twins to that of fraternal twins for a particular trait, then any excess likeness between the identical twins should be due to genes rather than environment.

Write an information leaflet evaluating the benefits and dilemmas in the use of human twin studies to investigate the causes of variation.

You should aim for two sides of A4 with images to make the leaflet engaging.

Q4. Assume eye colour in humans is controlled by a pair of alleles of a gene where the allele giving brown eyes is dominant to the allele giving blue eyes. Both parents of a blue-eyed man, John, were brown-eyed. He married a brown-eyed woman, Sara, whose father had brown eyes and mother blue eyes. Sara had a blue-eyed sister. John and Sara had a brown-eyed child.

1)Fill in the boxes and circles on the family tree below to show the genotype of each individual.

Q6. When Mendel crossed a large number of tall pea plants with short pea plants, all F1 plants were tall. The F2 generation was created by self-pollinating the F1 plants.

(a)Complete a genetic cross of F2 to show the genotypes and phenotypes of the offspring.

(b)State the ratio of phenotypes expected in the F2 offspring.

(c)State Mendel’s First Law of inheritance

(d)State Mendel’s Second Law of inheritance

Q7. Guinea pigs, which were homozygous for long, black hair were crossed with ones which were homozygous for short, white hair. All the F1 offspring had short, black hair.

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