Describe about the Case Study of Global Business Management for Level on Consumers.
Background of the Company
Coca Cola India is known as one of the leading beverage company of India that is famous for offering healthy, safe and stimulating beverage options to the customers. Coca Cola entered in India in the year of 1993. Since then, they have developed an unmatched portfolio of beverages. Coca Cola along with its bottling associates is touching the lives of millions of Indians through a powerful network of over 2.6 million retail outlets. According to Drumwright and Murphy (2014), Coca Cola is the most favored and most sold beverage in the country. The system of Coca Cola India has already invested USD 2 billion till 2013. The management of the company has stated that they are planning to spend more another USD 5 Billion till the end of 2020. Currently the company has created direct employment for 25,000 people. However, according to Johnston and Finegood (2015), indirectly more than 150,000 people are employed under the organization through its huge procurement, supply and allotment system. One of the major reasons behind this success of the organization is its carefully developed work environment. Work environment of the organization is safe and sustainable creating plentiful chances for people of India. On the other hand the organization is also building sustainable communities in order to reduce environment footprint and improve healthy living. As mentioned by Feldman et al. (2016), Coca Cola’s most important community establishment program is “Support My School” program. Besides, some other useful programs implemented by the organization are “Parivartan” which is retailer guidance curriculum and women empowerment programs which is a part of the global 5BY20 movement.
The research work is solely concerned about determining the key ethical and cultural issues of Coca Cola. In order to do so the researcher has undergone a wide review of the company reports and has thereby determined the associates of the company and the corporate social responsibility of the company towards those associates. The research work is very significant and important as well because in the era of globalization and advancement ethical and cultural aspects of an organization are very important.
The road map of Coca Cola starts with their mission that is enduring. Missions of Coca Cola are to refresh India, to motivate moments of sanguinity and happiness and to develop value and make difference.
Vision of Coca Cola serves as the structure for the road map and guides every feature of company business by recounting what they need to achieve in order to continue gaining sustainable quality growth.
Background of the Issues
In spite of being one of the most famous bands in India, recently the organization is facing several problems regarding its quality, resource utilization, market utilization and price-quality trade-offs. In India, several organizations are challenging Coca Cola for its mistreatment of water resource. As mentioned by ArlauskaitÄ— et al. (2013), Coca Cola has not only affected the quality of available water resources of India, but also affected the quantity of it. On the other hand, because of its waste extracts, Coca Cola was deeply criticized as they were polluting the close by fresh water, ground water and soil. These are considered as cultural issues and ethical issues of Coca Cola. As mentioned by Amaral and Meyers-Levy (2013), this problems developed by Coca Cola are also called as ethical issues as it is extremely affecting human health across the country. Due to the solid waste and water issues, communities living near the bottle plans in India complained about the channel of mire as fertilizer that is causing fitness and ecological damage. On the other hand, due to pesticides is soft drinks are also causing health issues. Another ethical issue was found when the organization was accused for providing dual principles in terms of their products and security events relating to human health with respect to USA, Europe and India.
Coca Cola has always neglected the culture of Indian people which is a major constituent in deciding consumer actions and purchasing patterns. India is a country where people are keener towards the culture. According to Hastings and Domegan (2013), people of India are not so flexible do adopt the sudden change. In India, uncertainty avoidance is indexed at 50 that clearly show that people are sensitive towards exploitation. As a result, in spite of being one of the most famous brands of India, Coca Cola is facing several issues in some parts of the country.
In recent time, due to sheer negligence the organization has faced a ban in the state of Kerala, India. In recent times, Indian Parliament banned the sale of Coke and Pepsi that have hampered the brand image of the organization.
In India Coca Cola was the most famous beverage company. However, in last few years they have lost their leading position in India. As the organization was unable to properly handle cultural and ethical issues, they lost market share in India. First time in the history, they had to close three production units in India. In the first quarter of 2015 they had a 10% of market share. However, till the end of 2015, Coca Cola had only 5% market share in India. It is strongly believed that this decline in market share is the reflection of those issues that Coca Cola is facing in India. Therefore, it was highly important to conduct this research in order to find out a solution for the organization so that they can deal with the issues and can improve their brand image.
Aim of the research is to analyze the cultural issues and ethical issues faced by Coca Cola in India. This research will also serve to find out solutions for Coca Cola so that they can improve their current market position in the country.
- To analyze and point out major cultural and ethical issues of Coca Cola in India
- To figure how the issues are affecting the brand image of the company
- To find out what Coca Cola is doing to deal with these issues and whether those steps are helping or not
- To recommend further solutions to Coca Cola
- What are the major cultural and ethical issues faced by Coca Cola in India?
- How the issues are affecting brand value of the organization in India?
- What are steps taken by the company to deal with these issues?
- What Coca Cola can do further to minimize and eliminate the issues?
How cultural and ethical issues affect MNCs
Each business organizations that are doing business in foreign countries have to be conscious of, and open to the nation’s culture and ethics. Companies that has successfully shown respect and understood the cultural and ethical aspects of a country, has become more successful than their counterparts. According to Lee et al. (2013), finding out the best way to market products and treat customers is the biggest problem faced by multinational companies in foreign markets. As mentioned by Hofstede, culture is defined as a collective programming of the mind that differentiates people of one category from those of another category. On the other hand, culture and ethics are also viewed as a combination of two layers which are visible and hidden. Visible means behaviors that can be seen like clothes and eating habits. On the other hand, hidden factors such ethnicity and national identities which are not overt all the time, but can go wrong sometimes.
Ethical Issues faced by MNCs
Multinational corporations are companies that mostly control or own production or service benefits outside the country that they are based. As a result of vast globalization, many business companies are venturing abroad in order to gain more profitability by taking advantage of cheaper raw materials, larger markets and low labor cost. MNCs operate across several countries where they face different laws, cultures, ethical practices and social standards. According to Metzger (2014), currently there are approximately 45,000 multinational companies that are operating worldwide. Growth of those multinational companies does not only depend on the quality of their products. It is also important that those companies are maintaining the cultural and ethical backgrounds of that country. Most of the multinational ventures fail as they ignore culture and ethics of countries and try to force their own rules and regulations. Some major ethical issues faced by multinational companies are here by mentioned below.
Issues related to remuneration
Whenever a multinational company venture to other countries, does not matter whether that country is underdeveloped, less developed or developed, demand of fair remuneration practices has always been the issue. Famous business organizations such as Nike, Wal-Mart, and Reebok were found accused of such issues in several countries. In the year of 1998, through am investigation that was held into Nike’s subcontracted factories in Vietnam, it was found that employees were paid $1 per day (Singh 2015). Average monthly wage of the employees were only $48 and average yearly income was nearly $600 which is “half the average income in Ho Chi Minh City.” Same thing was happed when Wal-Mart was found providing 31 cents per hour wages to its employees in Honduras
Issues related to environmental damage
An unpublished research done in United Nations has found that world’s biggest MNCs could lose one-third of their total profit if they were asked to pay for pollution and other damages they did to the natural environment. Another study that was conducted by Trucost which is a consultancy located in London found the estimated combined damage done by MNCs which was worth $2.3 trillion. This figure is bigger than the national economics of seven biggest countries in the world. Figure 1 shows clearly how the companies have affected the environment. The biggest problems are faced by less-developed and developing countries. In developed countries rules and regulations related to environment protection are strict (Dolan 2015). It is seen that most of the MNCs that belong from a developed country look to venture in under developed or developing countries because they offer sloppy environmental standards.
Figure 1: Environmental damage by multinational companies
(Source: Gaither and Austin 2016)
Compliance related to employment
Among several business issues, employment compliance is another issue that MNCs faced while doing business in foreign countries. Especially in India, this problem is bigger than any country in the world. Companies that overlooked this issue suffered critical consequences. There are three main reasons that are causing this problem in India. First of all in India there are more jobs that employees. In any business organization, especially in MNCs experienced employees are always welcomed (Mourad et al. 2014). However, there is not enough number of such employees. Besides, in India it is very common that a junior employee starts his career in an MNC and then using this resume booster they quickly get another job. On the other hand, poaching is widespread in India that shows that competitor companies actively solicit best employees of other organizations.
Ethical issues of Coca Cola in other countries
In spite its immense popularity all over the world; it has faced several ethical issues in some countries. All over stock price of the organization was affected several times due to ethical issues that were associated with the company. In the year of 1999, a problem occurred in Belgium when few children fell ill after drinking a Coca Cola product. Countries such as Netherlands recalled all the products (Jackson et al. 2015). In France, nearly hundred people became sick after consuming Coca Cola products. It was found that those products had mold in it. Every single product of Coca Cola was banned in the country until the issue was completely solved. In both of this cases it was seen that Coca Cola management was slow to act and that is why; their reputation was further diminished.
Ethical and cultural issues of Coca Cola in India
According to Shemwell (2016), business organizations that do not learn from their previous mistakes are bound to repeat them in the future. Coca Cola is such an organization that has not learnt anything from Plachimada which is a village in Kerala. In that village, a campaign leg by community people forced the organization to close its plants in the year of 2004. Besides, the organization also faced issues in village Kala Dara, located in Rajasthan.
Kala dara is known as a large village where agriculture is the main source of income. In the year of 2000, Coca Cola established its bottling operations plans in Kala Dara. Within a year of that establishment, the local people started to notice a huge decline in groundwater levels. A place where the agriculture is the main source of income, loss of ground water is equal to loss of income. As a result of this situation, people had to walk 5-6 kilometers to fetch water. That is why; community of the village organized itself to challenge Coca Cola for worsening the water condition in the area. Instead of looking into the matter, the management of Coca Cola denied any wrong doing and blamed outsiders for increasing community antagonism (Powell and Gard 2015).
In this situation, the community Kala Dara along with the villagers of Plachimada and Mehdiganj gained tremendous international support. Mostly the students around the globe came forward to support the villagers. The most successful campaign of that time was conducted in University of Michigan in the US. India Resource Center represented the issues of India and placed Coca Cola on probation. Later, after investigating it was found that Coca Cola in the Kala Dara region overexploited ground water levels (Black 2015). As a result, significant impacts were seen in water situation in the area. After the investigation, four recommendations were provided to Coca Cola which are, transport water from closes aquifer that is not stressed, preserve water from low-stress regions, reestablish the plant to water-surplus area and close the current facility in the area. Response of Coca Cola:
Response of Coca Cola related to this issue was also unethical and dishonest. After the campaigns began, the management of Coca Cola could have stopped the extraction of water. Even after getting the assessment they company did not stopped their operations in the region. With the facts, data and consequences in the hand, the management of Coca Cola decided to continue the operations in the same manner (Austin and Gaither 2016). On the other hand, the organization refused to share the environmental influence report based on the investigation for Kala Dara. They stated they can no share those documents because of legal and strategic confidentiality.
After the assessment, the management of Coca Cola sent a letter to the University of Michigan where they failed to mention the fourth recommendation which was to shut down the bottling plant. In the letter, they mentioned that the plan is meeting their internal standards. However, this claim of the Coca Cola management was diminished when six of their plants were surveyed (Greenfield 2016). None of those plants actually meet the company standards for waste management which is also known as TCCC standards.
Another ethical issue was found when Coca Cola in the letter mentioned that its bottles are in acquiescence with the Indian Government and regulatory agencies. However, it was found that in those six plants, treated effluent discharge levels did not met the standards of Indian Government.
Corporate social responsibility or a scam?
Coca Cola management announced its rainwater harvesting initiatives in India. They also claimed that within few years they will become “water neutral” in India. After the scandals and Kala Dara, the organization announced that it has recharged six times the amount of water that it has exploited. Then the management of Coca Cola was asked to share evidence related to this claim (Taylor 2014). However, they did not provide any data. On the other hand, in the letter to University of Michigan, they said that they will establish measuring devices to show the amount of water they recharged. However, they did not install any device to measure and verify amount of water they recharged. On the other hand, Local communities of Rajasthan are well experienced in rain water harvesting. Most of the communities in Rajasthan are harvesting rain water long before Coca Cola started it. Those communities claimed that Coca Cola’s rain water harvesting structure is useless. They also claimed that the company announced this initiative only to show a response to campaigns against its water mishandling. In the TERI assessment it was clearly mentioned that all the recharge shafts that were visited by the investigation team were in ramshackle situation.
Effect of ethical and cultural issues on brand image
Marketing and business ethics are seen as the sum of consistent behavior to deal with the relationship between the companies and all stakeholders. Marketing and business ethics regulates whether the business operations and activities will bring benefits to customers and society. According to Pendergrast (2013), The Prima Facie Duty Framework is there to dictate marketing and business ethics that includes loyalty, thankfulness, impartiality, self-enhancement and non-maleficence.
Nowadays, customers are more concerned with sustainable behavior of the companies. If a business organization is using unethical ways to run its business which is affecting cultural background of the region or country, then consumers will decline products and services related to that company. For example, in hospitality industry customers carry a long-term vision and wish for environmental issues, sustainable improvement and social accountability. Customers strongly expect that with the expansion of a hotel brand, their decisions should contribute to the sustainable development of the society. Below figure clearly shows that consumers are the essential to study the relationship between marketing and business ethics, customer’s gratification and brand image (De Mooij 2013). Brand reputation helps to develop a good brand image in the minds of the consumers.
Figure 1: Relationship between marketing and business ethics, customer’s gratification and brand image
(Source: Díaz et al. 2013)
In order to understand the relationship between business ethics and brand image, Kottler’s 3i model is described below.
According to Peñaloza et al. (2013), Kottler redefined business marketing as a consonant triangle of brand, positioning and differentiation with the 3i’s brand identity, brand image and brand integrity. Positioning is an aspect that helps consumers to become cautious of an inauthentic brand. On the other hand, Differentiation can be called as DNA of a brand that reflects true integrity of brand. This is considered as strong evidence that an organization is actually delivering what it promised. It is extremely important to deliver the promised products and services for satisfying the company.
The tangible content of brand image
As mentioned by Adekola and Sergi (2016), brand image of an organization mostly depends of tangible content an intangible contents. Tangible contents of brand image includes product image, image related to environment and social image. Because the presentation image recounts with the measure of process and effectiveness of the brand, mainly establishing by sales, proportion of profit to capital and return on assets (ROA), investigating the effects is multifaceted and time-consuming, but also related to monetary confidentiality. However, from the media reports of Meadin ,after the event of “illegal cooking oil” and” unsanitary bed linen”, hotel business has reduced within a certain time. Through the medium of customer, business ethics could influence hotel brand image from the aspects of product issue, environmental issue, social issue and staff issue. To assess the impaction there are many methods, the most operative and straight way is to assess the brand standing. Brand standing is one of the brand powers, meaning the degree of customer’s gratification and faith for the brand.
Cultural issues faced by MNCs in India
Attitude towards authority
Indian society places a high importance on authority and status. It is evident that without understanding valuable insights and suggestions of Indians it is impossible to become successful in Indian markets.
Concept of time
India is known to be a polychromic culture, in other words, people tend to change significances dependent on their importance and methods towards punctuality are relaxing. Most large universal managements require obedience to firm limits and fast decision-making, so they brawl to cope with the idea that when doing business in India, time cannot be measured and is not unconditional (Rowlinson and Hassard, 2014). Cultural consciousness training can help you better comprehend Indian thoughts of time and grow policies for dealing with them.
Adherence to rules
India has a high level broadmindedness to indecision and has fashioned a civilization which runs on the foundation of a set of expectations. It usually receives social protocol and standards in its place of rules and guidelines. Even though rules do exist, the low level of obedience to them generates enormous contests for organizations setting up industry in India who are obligatory to follow a set of home-country guidelines.
The Indian commercial philosophy emphases a lot on relationship and trust building rather than working hard and quick towards detailed business purposes. A Doing Business in India cultural consciousness classification helps you to cultivate approaches to evade the huge hindrance, deferred schemes, failure to reach palpable results and overall clash as a result of different partialities for connections and tasks and procedures (Gopinath and Prasad 2013).
Level of English
Most academy students and Indians living in main metropolitan centers have a very high level of English. Understanding Indian English is extremely stimulating, however, as a result of the dissimilar terminology and vocabularies as well as heavy inflections. Most of the foreigners are uninformed of these variances and expect interactions with Indians to be humble. Instead, many global administrations erroneously understand the Indian English they use to be a result of poor schooling and linguistic abilities. Being conscious of Indian English can help you decrease misapprehensions.
Style of interaction
Indians have a partiality for unintended, high context communication. In other words, Indians fancy to see the whole picture, place a high significance on the impact associations, body language and sentiment have on announcement and will often avoid saying ‘no’. The variances in interaction style can cause a large problem to overcome for somebody who is used to interact in a more straight and low perspective way (Peñaloza and Chávez 2016).
Accepting the cultural variances which exist when doing trade in India is only the first step. Transnational administrations must also comprehend the what, why and how behind them to grow approaches to successfully handle these social differences. “A Doing Business in India-cultural awareness” exercise program will help companies to exploit the enormous occasions and welfares of doing business in India. On the other hand, it will also help to cultivate an intercultural capable labor force that gives the company an enormous benefit in this severely competitive global world.
Where Coca Cola was wrong
Coca Cola management neglected cultural and ethical values in India. However, it is evident that any multinational organization is bound to make mistakes while expanding their business in any other country. Success of that multinational company depends on how they respond to those mistakes. According to Drumwright and Murphy (2014), in such situations leaders of the organizations must take the blame and should communicate directly with the stakeholders. Quick response must be exhibited to solve problems and evidence must be provided that they organization is making changes so that such mistakes never take place again. On the other hand, Coca Cola did neither of these steps. They initially denied the claims of Kala Dara people. Later when it was proved that the company was over exploiting ground water, then the management of Coca Cola made false promises. They claimed that they have recharged the ground water; however, did not provide any evidence of that. In spite of being told to shut down the bottling plants, they continued to operate in the region. Besides, in the name of corporate social responsibility, the company was also running a scam. They were doing nothing to harvest rain water. It was only there to distract people from the fact that Coca Cola neglected each cultural and ethical rules and regulations of India (Johnston and Finegood 2015). That is the only reason that Government of India had to interfere and ordered the company to shut down several of its plants and facilities.
The current chapter is mainly focused on the appropriate selection of techniques and methods in order to carry out the research project. It has been identified that the research methodology plays a very crucial in the success of any research work. It helps to adhere with the current techniques that lead towards the most effective outcomes. It has been observed in various research works that a wrong research methodology has completely turned the research findings toward the wrong direction. In the current context, the research methodology will be most helpful to point out the techniques that would be essential for analyzing the cultural and ethical issues of Coca Cola in India. The major techniques that would be useful to carry out the current research are research philosophy, research approach, research design, sampling size and technique, data collection method and data analysis techniques. In addition to that, the research would be also capable enough to indicate the ethical consideration, limitation as well as future scope of study. Therefore, it is evident that the methodology chapter will be proved most imperative part of entire research.
Figure 2: Research Onion
(Source: Bazeley and Jackson 2013)
Research onion immensely helps the research work in the context of fabricating the proper research methodology with several appropriate stages. The research methodology is based on basically three particular research philosophies which are ontology, epistemology as well as axiology. In order to fabricate the pathway of the research along with carrying out the research work is highly depended on the proper understanding of philosophy. The research philosophy dictates that the methodologies must be selected in a consecutive way. It has revealed that research philosophy is immensely depended on the definition. The selection of the research philosophy thereby initiates the starting point of the selection of the research approach.
According to the research onion, the second step includes the selection of appropriate research approach. The third step of research onion focuses on adopting the most appropriate research strategy. At the same time, the fourth steps of the research onion work on formulating the exact time horizon for the entire research work. The fifth step of the research onion mostly focuses on the identification of the data collection method. Therefore, it can be evidently identified that the research onion creates an impressive set of steps, which determine different sets of data collection.
Research philosophy is one of the most important research methods as it helps the research to maintain a proper perception as well as focus throughout the entire study. There are generally four types of research philosophy, which are mostly used in various research works. These philosophies are interpretivism, realism, pragmatism as well as positivism. Interpretivesm philosophy extensively focuses on the various differences of the respondents and research participants (Flick 2015). At the same time, the realism immensely focuses on the current belief as well as reality in the environment. On the other hand, the pragmatism research philosophy focuses on the effective application ideas of the respondents.
Positivism philosophy helps the research work to maintain a scientific pathway throughout the entire research. It helps to undertake the research activities focusing on the most unbiased research findings so that the research outcomes could not be influenced by the human emotion. In addition to that, positivism philosophy helps the research work to attain most realistic as well as relevant research results which will be most useful in the context of identifying the business opportunities (Panneerselvam 2014). In this context, it is evident that positivism philosophy would be most effective to analyze the cultural and ethical issues of Coca Cola in India. That is why the positivism philosophy will be selected for this particular research work.
Research approach is another major methodology which helps the research work to maintain a proper course of action throughout the study. There are two research approaches which are generally practiced in the academic research sector. These research approaches are deductive approach as well as inductive approach. Deductive approach is highly focused on testing the research hypothesis in order to investigate their relevance against the respective research context. Deductive approach uses the empirical data to identify the true or false nature of any given research hypothesis. This way the research work can identify the correct hypothesis and adhere to them to obtain proper research findings. On the other hand, inductive approach focuses creating new theory from the collected research data. Inductive approach focuses on underlying design and pattern to discover new theory from the research work (Mackey and Gass 2015).
As the current research work has nothing to do with discovery of new theory, it is evident that inductive approach is irrelevant for this particular research work. Therefore, deductive approach will be selected for analyzing the cultural and ethical issues of Coca Cola in India. Moreover, it will help the research work to attain the most realistic research findings by evaluating various business aspects in thorough manner.
Research design is another crucial methodology for any research work with regards to identifying and undertaking the proper set of research activities. This particular research technique also helps to guide the research activities in proper way so as to attain most satisfactory research outcomes. There are three types of research designs, which are highly popular in the academic research field. These research designs are exploratory, explanatory as well as descriptive research design (Lewis 2015). Exploratory research design is mostly used, where the research aim is not mentioned and the research work has to explore the research aim through the research activities.
At the same time, explanatory research work is mostly focused on explaining the confusing and incomplete research aim throughout the entire research work. On the other hand, descriptive research work is practiced for describing the research aim through every research activities. This particular research design prompts the research activities to undertake a descriptive approach to individual course of action. This particular research design helps to attain most descriptive as well as evaluated research findings so that it can provide a detailed understanding of the cultural and ethical issues of Coca Cola in India. Henceforth, descriptive research technique will be used for analyzing the cultural and ethical issues of Coca Cola in India.
Sampling size and Techniques:
Sample refers to the group of selected respondents that reflects exact perception of the population at a whole. There are numerous techniques of sampling used in the research work. However, all of the research techniques are mainly categorized in two basic types, which are probability sampling techniques as well as non-probability sampling techniques. Probability sampling techniques is used for selecting the sample by bias (Cleary et al. 2014). The level of biasness differs from technique to technique. On the other hand, non-probability sampling technique selects its sample through random process so that there are no human influence can contaminate the research findings.
Although, the research work is focused on shunning the human influence, it is observed that the necessary information regarding the cultural and ethical issues of Coca Cola in India, can only be acquired from the employees or managers of Coca Cola. Therefore, it is evident that the research work must choose its sampling technique through non-probability sampling technique. In this context, convenience sampling technique has been used for collecting quantitative data and snowball sampling technique will be used for obtaining qualitative data. There are 65 employees will be selected for the quantitative data collection and 3 managers will be chosen for qualitative data collection.
Data Collection Technique:
There are two types of data that are collected in order to conduct any research work. These data are primary data as well as secondary data. Primary data refers to the information, which are obtained from the fresh source, which reflects the current scenario on the research topic. On the other hand, the secondary data refers to the information, which are collected from past published literature such books, journal articles, newspapers as well as internet. As the primary data can be used for analyzing the cultural and ethical issues of Coca Cola in India, this particular research work will be focused on collecting and interpreting primary data.
At the same time, both the primary data and secondary data can be categorized in two styles, which are quantitative data as well as qualitative data. Quantitative data refers to the information, which are collected focusing on quantity nature (Cleary et al. 2014). These data are usually expressed by rates, percentage as well as ratios. While, on the other hand, the qualitative data refers to the set of information, which are collected focusing on quality attribute. These data reflects the styles, patterns as well as reasons of any given context. The research work will collect both quantitative data as well as qualitative data in order to analyze the cultural and ethical issues of Coca Cola in India. The quantitative data will be collected by survey questionnaire, while the qualitative data will be collected from the interview session.
Data analysis is one of the most important research methodologies that immensely help the research work to acquire the most relevant research findings. The data analysis technique shapes the entire outcome of the research project. That is why the research project must choose most effective data analysis technique (Punch 2013). In the current context, descriptive statistics will be used for interpreting the quantitative data. The descriptive statistics will be highly helpful to interpret the data with the help of central tendency, dispersion as well as variance of the collected dat. On the other hand, the qualitative data will be evaluated by the observational analysis. The observational analysis will be most critical to grasp the gist of the expert opinion that will help to conclude most realistic data findings.
Every research work must maintain several ethical principles that would be helpful to conduct the research work with limited hindrance as well as smooth fashion. In addition to that, ethical consideration is also quite effective to uplift the standard of the study (Gajjar 2013). This particular research work will maintain a respectful as well as friendly environment throughout the research work. Every participant will be treated with proper respect and necessary autonomy. In addition to that, the research project will not use any kind of force or illegal activities during the study. The participants will be only involved when they had given the full consent. Moreover, the respondents will not be asked any personal question. Throughout the survey as well as interview, the research project will be focused to maintain a professional as well as neutral attitude.
In addition to that, the research project will properly abide by the Data Protection Act, 1998, which states that information must be protected from being breached. The research participants will maintain a strict policy with respect to sharing any sensitive research information to the third party. Moreover, the research work will not receive any kind of monetary benefits from the third party. Added to that, the study will not collect any data from the promotional websites.
The above-discussed chapter will be highly useful for identifying the most effective methodologies for the current research work. The research work will be conducted with positivism philosophy, deductive approach as well as descriptive design. At the same time, convenience sampling technique will be used for the quantitative data collection and snowball sampling technique will be used for qualitative data collection. Both of the quantitative and qualitative primary data will be collected to grasp the understanding of the cultural and ethical issues of Coca Cola in India. In addition to that, descriptive statistics will be used for analyzing the quantitative data and observational analysis will be used to evaluate qualitative data. The research project will be able to maintain every ethical consideration with greater attention. These methodologies will be highly useful to develop the appropriate research path. Therefore, it is evident that this particular chapter will be essential for achieving the success for the entire research project.
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