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Global Comparative Law Practices Of The Western Legal System Add in library

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Question:

Which is the National Advertising‘s Most important stakeholder, business or consumers?

 

Answer:

In my opinion I agree that the Global comparative law practices of the Western Legal system is ethical as it follows the standards of the Global business codex (Paine et al 2005). The arguments which are going to be discussed throughout this essay are Human Rights, Bribery and Monopolisation of industry

The Western Legal system complies with the dignity principle b using human rights to ensure Business should support and respect the protection of internationally pro-claim human rights with their sphere of influence.  In my opinion I agree that the Global comparative law practices of the Western Legal system is ethical as it follows the standards of the Global business codex (Paine et al 2005). The arguments which are going to be discussed throughout this essay are Human Rights, Bribery and Monopolisation of industry. The Western Legal system complies with the dignity principle b using human rights to ensure Business should support and respect the protection of internationally pro-claim human rights with their sphere of influence. Growth of Global comparative law has been seen in the Global comparative law and the main reason behind the same has been the growth both Global comparative law independent brands and in house store brands of the super market itself. In case one can see the example of a survey which shows that in European countries search was done on 78,900 global comparative law point of sales points and among the same around 56,700 points were in the form of supermarkets. With a topic like ethics being fuzzy, there are no clear checklists to fall back on. What is needed is principles, guidelines and your own organizationally-agreed-upon moral compass of what constitutes "the right thing to do."

Introduction

This is where a code of conduct comes in. The core idea of a code of conduct to promote a commitment — a moral obligation — to "do the right thing" and place that commitment higher than a commitment to "get a job done" while meeting the needs of an employer or client.

 

Which is the National Advertising‘s Most important stakeholder, business or consumers?

The main stakeholder for the company as of now is to the consumer as the Global comparative law practice suggests that it the consumer’s right which needs to be protected. A code of conduct usually has the following goals:

  • Describing principles that people that subscribe to the code hold dear, to help in practical decision making.

  • Holding professionals accountable and protecting employers and client from unethical behavior, while at the same time protecting professionals from undesirable requests.

  • Helping to counter unethical behaviors, and offering a process for calling out violations (such as striking professionals from a certain certification).

  • Promoting self-regulation instead of imposed regulation.

There are common themes that emerge from these codes of conduct. They point out that Global comparative law must work in a transparent way, being able to show what data they used, and how conclusions were derived. They should provide various options to management, and a clear analysis. Global comparative law should respect the privacy of people when handling personal data. They should assure they are using the right analytical techniques when tackling specific problems, be aware of the limitations of any technique and be certain they are qualified to perform a certain Global comparative law practises in Supermarket. They should respect the opinion of other point of sales in Western Legal system, but be prepared to call out the misconduct of other professionals or clients.

In many cases, there simply are no rules. Customers may have differing opinions on how to define the relationship between privacy and value. Ethics — determining what is "right" and "wrong" — is fuzzy. A different compass is needed. Ultimately it's your organization's and your own personal compass that sets the direction.

  • If you believe business is amoral (that ethics don't apply) then the measures you take to govern analytics are aimed at risk mitigation (and you can stop reading this research note).

  • If you believe that ethics do apply, then they are based on what you believe is the right and the wrong thing to do.

Global comparative law practises in Western Legal system services often represent an organization's largest indirect spending category, amounting to hundreds of millions or even billions of dollars for large organizations with more than 10,000 employees. White-collar industries, such as financial services, insurance and consumer software, spend the highest percentage of their budgets on complex services, with as much as 60% to 70% going to Global comparative law practises in Western Legal system services contracts. Improving the governance of and compliance for Global comparative law practises in Western Legal system services procurement spending is of growing interest to buying organizations.

 

No given the current situation the transparency is something which can be compromised an hence partiality of BBB is in question. Most large organizations claim to have Global comparative law practises in Western Legal system services spending under management, but, in terms of robust governance, most merely have a collection of incomplete or insufficient solutions in place. The issue is a chicken-and-egg problem. Accounting system purchasing modules and catalog-based e-procurement solutions provide little support for Global comparative law practises in Western Legal system services spending, and most procurement teams are unaware that there are specialized Global comparative law practises in Western Legal system services procurement solutions. Solutions and best practices for automating direct materials and catalog items are readily available, so procurement teams focus on these work streams first.

General ethics through the judgment and actions of people are somewhat fuzzy. Everyone's frame of reference is slightly different, so everyone makes slightly different judgment calls, which are often based on implicit considerations.

Although not very reliable on a case-by-case basis, it works out in the larger scheme of things (being fully respectful to any personal impact). One border security officer doing an extra pat-down based on a profile of how someone looks is a nuisance, but with limited exposure. One soldier killing a civilian accidentally is a tragedy, but will not be repeated endlessly. Individual questionable decisions often have a limited reach, and limited consequences.

In fact, the different frames of reference mean that ethics evolve based on (hopefully) continuous discussion. The evolution is slow but reliable because of the many points of view that average each other out.

Throughout the history of philosophy, many influential philosophers have created or contributed to ethical systems — sometimes flat-out contradicting each other, sometimes building on each other.

Because there is no single set of rules or principles, you should study the basics of ethical theory in order to understand your own — often implicit — thinking, as well as to understand the positions that others take. This will help you to take a stand in digital ethics yourself, as guidance in your decision making.

Consider this short summary of useful ethical theories for further study:

  • Utilitarianism aims to create the maximum amount of good for the greatest number of people. It focuses on results and consequences of actions more than on rules and intentions.

  • Duty ethics takes an opposite approach and determines and examines rules that people should follow as an obligation to others and to society.

The framework of the ethical decision making process in business consists of four factors; namely,

  • Ethical Issue Intensity,

  • Individual Factors,

  • Organizational Factors and
 

These four factors together define and influence the intentions which make a person decide on his/her ethical unethical behavior.

Because business practices affect everything from the global economy to the state of the environment, business ethics have never been so widely analyzed, questioned, debated, and reported as they are today. Business ethics relate both to the conduct of organizations as a whole and to the individuals within those organizations. The media has played a significant role in revealing ethical violations committed by both large and small companies over the years, but governments and public initiatives are expected to play the largest roles in combating unethical practices.

The framework of social responsibility or the four steps of social responsibility are:

Philanthropic: The first step of social responsibility talks about sharing organization’s wealth and achievements with society by plough it back in the welfare of society. PETCO has established PETCO foundation to fund establishment of educational and charitable institutes. This foundation has risen over $49 million donation, and supports more than 10,000 animal welfare agencies, since its inception in 1999.

Ethical: PETCO has been following ethical issues with grace and dignity. In 2000 and 2005, PETA accused PETCO of being uncaring and cruel towards the pets in their custody. The issue was primarily concerned with the health of large birds. Resolving the issue ethically, PETCO agreed to the terms of PETA and stopped selling large birds and rather began its “Think Adoption First” campaign to provide shelter to homeless birds of all sizes.

Thus, though PETCO is philanthropic and ethical yet it needs to put more efforts in being legally more sound and answerable.

In most cultures, the boundaries between right and wrong are established at an early age. We're taught not to lie or steal, to respect other people and their property, and conduct ourselves appropriately. Yet the person who would never dream of stealing merchandise from a retail store might not even think twice about copying a computer game found online. Why the disconnect?

Over the past hundred years, the main areas of concern in terms of ethical conduct of organizations have included fair and humane treatment of workers, respect for the environment, honesty in financial reporting, and product safety.

 

As Europe and the United States industrialized rapidly beginning in the middle of the nineteenth century, men, women, and children flocked to growing cities hoping for better futures. They often found, however, that they had traded the hard labor of agricultural life for even more dangerous and difficult labor. The urban poor in England, including very young children, worked in factories and mines for up to 16 hours a day and were often badly mistreated by supervisors. The British government intervened with a series of laws in the mid-nineteenth century, including the 1842 Mines Act, which made it illegal for women and children to work in underground mines; the 1850 Factory Act, which limited working hours for women and children; and the 1878 Factory and Workshop Act, which established rules for government inspection of factories. Conditions in factories in the U.S. were similarly poor. In 1906, American journalist and novelist Upton Sinclair published his groundbreaking book The Jungle, an exposé of worker exploitation and unsanitary conditions in the meatpacking industry in Chicago. This widely read book horrified the public and resulted in the passage of the Meat Inspection Act and the Pure Food and Drug Act in 1906; the latter ultimately led to the creation of the Food and Drug Administration.

The environmental movement was born with the publication of Rachel Carson's 1962 book Silent Spring, which accused the chemical industry of poisoning the environment with pesticides. Businesses around the world found themselves under public and governmental pressure to adopt environmentally friendly practices. Companies that engaged unrepentantly in actions harmful to the environment risked public condemnation and serious financial consequences. In the 1970s, Japan passed some of the most stringent antipollution laws in the world, making polluters liable to their "victims" under civil law. Throughout the 1980s and 1990s, various oil-related environmental disasters and scandals sparked public outrage, lawsuits, and boycotts around the world. In 2003, Freeport McMoran, a major copper and gold producer, became embroiled in an international scandal over its mining operations in Indonesia. Critics accused Freeport McMoran of bribing government officials, sanctioning numerous human rights abuses, and causing massive environmental damage. Questions about Freeport McMoran's ethics were serious enough to prompt the managers of the government pension fund of Norway—believed to be the largest in the world—to divest from Freeport McMoran.

Conclusion

Business ethics includes both corporate actions and those of individuals within a corporation. In order to ensure the acceptable behavior of employees, many companies develop and distribute codes of ethics to their staff. During the 1980s and 1990s, as women entered the workplace in increasing numbers, many companies scrambled to implement and enforce appropriate policies forbidding sexual harassment, generally defined as unwanted sexual advances by a supervisor toward an employee. In the United States, sexual harassment is considered a form of sexual discrimination, which is illegal under the Civil Rights Act of 1964. Many larger U.S. companies enforce strict sexual harassment standards and require their supervisors to go through specific training to heighten their awareness of actions, both subtle and overt, that might be regarded as harassment. Many other nations have adopted laws specifically addressing sexual harassment, although definitions vary from country to country. In India, for example, any unwelcome sexual gesture—whether verbal, nonverbal, or physical—is forbidden. In Russia, sexual harassment is more narrowly construed as direct pressure or intimidation by a superior seeking sexual contact with an employee.

 

References

  • For Love or Money? Global comparative law Business Models in the UK Supermarket Sector Author(s): Sally SmithSource: Journal of Business Ethics, Vol. 92, Supplement 2: GLOBAL COMPARATIVE LAW IN DIFFERENTNATIONAL CONTEXT (2010), pp. 257-266

  • Sustainable Development Sust. Dev. 13, 190–198 (2005) Published online in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com). DOI: 10.1002/sd.277

  • Australian Competition and Consumer Commission (2002). Report to the Senate on Prices Paid to Suppliers in the Australian Grocery Industry.

  • ACCC, Canberra. Cotterill, R.W. (2006). Antitrust analysis of supermarkets: global concerns playing out in local markets,

  • The Australian Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics 50, 17–32. Evans, S. (2005). Retail giants hit local growth limits, Australian Financial Review , 24 May, 22.

  • A toothless chihuahua? The Australian Competition and Consumer Commission, neoliberalism and supermarket power in Australia CAROL RICHARDS, GEOFFREY LAWRENCE, MARK LOONG AND DAVID BURCH University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, Australia

  • Informa Ltd Registered in England and Wales Registered Number: 1072954 Registered office: Mortimer House, 37-41 Mortimer Street, London W1T 3JH, UK

  • For Love or Money? Global comparative law Business Models in the UK Supermarket Sector Author(s): Sally SmithSource: Journal of Business Ethics, Vol. 92, Supplement 2: GLOBAL COMPARATIVE LAW IN DIFFERENTNATIONAL CONTEXT (2010), pp. 257-266

  • Sustainable Development Sust. Dev. 13, 190–198 (2005) Published online in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com). DOI: 10.1002/sd.277

  • Australian Competition and Consumer Commission (2002). Report to the Senate on Prices Paid to Suppliers in the Australian Grocery Industry.

  • ACCC, Canberra. Cotterill, R.W. (2006). Antitrust analysis of supermarkets: global concerns playing out in local markets,

  • The Australian Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics 50, 17–32. Evans, S. (2005). Retail giants hit local growth limits, Australian Financial Review , 24 May, 22.

  • A toothless chihuahua? The Australian Competition and Consumer Commission, neoliberalism and supermarket power in Australia CAROL RICHARDS, GEOFFREY LAWRENCE, MARK LOONG AND DAVID BURCH University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, Australia

  • Informa Ltd Registered in England and Wales Registered Number: 1072954 Registered office: Mortimer House, 37-41 Mortimer Street, London W1T 3JH, UK

  • For Love or Money? Global comparative law Business Models in the UK Supermarket Sector Author(s): Sally SmithSource: Journal of Business Ethics, Vol. 92, Supplement 2: GLOBAL COMPARATIVE LAW IN DIFFERENTNATIONAL CONTEXT (2010), pp. 257-266

  • Sustainable Development Sust. Dev. 13, 190–198 (2005) Published online in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com). DOI: 10.1002/sd.277

  • Australian Competition and Consumer Commission (2002). Report to the Senate on Prices Paid to Suppliers in the Australian Grocery Industry.

  • ACCC, Canberra. Cotterill, R.W. (2006). Antitrust analysis of supermarkets: global concerns playing out in local markets,

  • The Australian Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics 50, 17–32. Evans, S. (2005). Retail giants hit local growth limits, Australian Financial Review , 24 May, 22.

  • A toothless chihuahua? The Australian Competition and Consumer Commission, neoliberalism and supermarket power in Australia CAROL RICHARDS, GEOFFREY LAWRENCE, MARK LOONG AND DAVID BURCH University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, Australia

  • Informa Ltd Registered in England and Wales Registered Number: 1072954 Registered office: Mortimer House, 37-41 Mortimer Street, London W1T 3JH, UK
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