Discuss about the Global Perspectives On Internet Regulation.
A system that is inter-connected and interlinked computerized mechanisms and digital machines, human beings, that are offered with distinct identifiers and the proficiency of transferring the information over a system without requiring human-to-human or human-to-computerized interactions. The term IOT (internet of things can) also be considered as a computerized mechanism that is used for describing the idea of everyday physical objects that is linked with internet and being to make identification of themselves to the other mechanisms and devices. The concept is also identified with RFID as a mechanism that can be utilized for communication.
The growing industry of the internet technology enabled gizmos and devices IoT is considered significant by approx. 10 of billions of dollars to the economy of Australia in the coming times (Fernández, Renukappa & Suresh, 2018). The IoT has been considered the next industrial revolution and although there are many concerns attached to the IoT wave, the authors say that Australia is trying to capitalize on that budding technology.
Entrepreneurs, researchers, and experts met for a summit which was organized by an industry group and everything about IoT and a bid to increase the pace of change down under. The event was designed to conjoin start-ups and many corporate businesses and put the entire focus on the growing IoT sector in Australia (Giacobbe, Pellegrino, Scarpa & Puliafito, 2018). Answering the question, as to why it is the biggest business transformation in history, the author said that the importance of collaborating in the space cannot be overstated; it has a reputation for not converting the world-class research into commercial services and products.
According to the author, they do things locally and not actually aware of what’s actually happening all around the world. This has been the biggest and the most rapid business transformation in history, the author added. A claim like this is backed by a research which was undertaken by the IoT Alliance Australia which has a belief that the IoT mechanism and systems can bring $116 billion of upside to the Australian economy by 2025.
The cattle had a high death rate and the statistics was hugely aiding in the quick detection of damages and illness of the cattle (Castell et al., 2018). The advances in wireless long-range technology and batteries, the author believes that the company could have begun serving its medium to the farmers at an affordable cost. This is the best time for this kind of technology.
The other IoT new ventures had been given a start by the governing authorities of Australian regions as well. A startup Thinxtra raised $10 million from the government body for investment like Clean Energy Finance Corporation (Ramakrishnan & Ma, 2018). It allows the transmission of information at longer-range along the connected devices and it hoped that its network can bring the efficiency in smart cities and consumer sectors.
IoT is considered to be the largest opportunity in the technical sector to come into the world after decades. There are approx. 5 billion items which are connected to the internet by wireless means. In the coming years, the number is to reach a staggering 50 billion internets connected, and data producing devices. This technology is applicable to a lot of industries and also innovating the products through IoT products.
The author says that the ever since the evolution of botnets is the most significant kind of trends which has happened area of cyber security in last few years (Lobo, Firmenich, Rossi, Defossé & Wimmer, 2017). In 2016, the IoT was the talk of the town, but with the security risks evolving to becoming a practical problem, not only for the consumers but for everyone using the internet. The risks of being vulnerable to attacks were far large than first perceived. The author says that we can no longer depend on the past assumptions that the DDO's can attack from the overseas approach and if consider the local miss-occurrence the traffic has showed an increase. Four times since 2016.
According to the author the first barrier of defense, the Internet security providers the best standards of practice when we talk about the engineering of IoT devices, by building software which can be updated when new attacks rise. The IoT has gone rogue. It is like a hygiene issue which is not in a position to be impacted by the attacks. The recent incidents in the global cyber security had started to initiate the discussions on board level (Mayer, 2017). The geographical distribution of the cyber-attacks meant that the businesses needed an upstream in their defense against the domestic attacks. This needed a substantial upgrade in the site protection more than relying on the ISP’s to protect against the malicious software. We can surely see a shift in how the Australian government has been managing their IT and security issues but still lack a lot of resources which are capable of defending networks. And to address this gap, businesses will have to invest in a specialist who has skills and identify the devices which are feeding this information back to the consumers and ISP’s. Technology is still considered easy, simple and intuitive and encouraged by the bad habits of the users. The Australians have the right attitude when it comes to managing risk and the security is large in imposition. Simple techniques such as default passwords on cameras to mitigate risk and the ability to participate in cybersecurity threats. It is also the duty of the businesses to inform the customers about the security and security language which is not high level. The government agencies are investing in new cloud technologies to provide simple services. The main issue is the idea of devices and objects which are new, and the security has not been considered in the design of the product. They are sold with unpatched systems and software (Croatti & Ricci, 2017). Purchasers fail to change the passwords and when they do they fail to make a strong one. To improve the security the device need to be directly on the internet. The network segment should be monitored carefully. And appropriate action must be taken. Security experts have said that there is the risk of a large number numbered of unsecured devices which are connected to the internet ever since it was introduced in 1990's. As of 2013, a researcher said that 25 percent of the botnet is made up of devices beyond the computer including smart TVs and other household appliances. Although the security breaches have been troubling lately and have been revealed in the CIA documents that all the Internet-connected televisions and could be used for confidential conversations. One should not think that he or she is safe against the attacks of the IoT with approx. 96% of the security professionals expecting an increase in the breaches this year. The author says that you might not suffer personal breaches of the sub-par security of the IoT, the linked devices may be unwitting with the criminals (Mayer, Guinard & Kovatsch, 2017). Cyber-security expert Bruce Schneier concluded saying that both IoT manufacturers and their customers don't bother about the security:
IoT network security- Securing the network which is connected to the IoT devices and the back-end systems on the net. There are various challenges in the security than any traditional approach of safeguarding because of a wide limits of communication procedures, device capabilities and standards and all these pose important issues and complexity (Immaneni, 2018). The key capabilities are traditional endpoints such as antivirus and other features like firewall and intrusion and detection systems. Like Cisco, Darktrace, and Bay shore Networks.
IoT authentication- The capability for the users to validate an IoT tool and handling multiple users for a single device like a linked car from a static password to more difficult verification instruments like two-factor authentication, digital certificates and biometrics (Picard, Colin & Zampunieris, 2018). Not like most companies where the process of authentication may involve human entering credentials and many IoT are machine based without any human interference. Like Covisint, Bailamos and Gemalto.
IoT PKI- It provides a complete X.509 digital certificate and cryptographic lifecycle capabilities, including public and private key generation, management and revocation. The hardware specification for some IoT devices may prevent or limit their ability to utilize PKI. The digital certificate which can be downloaded onto the IoT devices and at the time of manufacture and then a third-party PKI software suite; they should be installed post-manufacture. Like Symantec, Gemalto, and HPE.
IoT security analytics- Monitoring, gathering, combining and regularizing data from IoT tools and mechanisms and giving tortious alerting and reporting on particular practices fall beyond the policies developed (Jacob, 2018). The solutions add to the erudite mechanism knowledge, artificial intellect and many big data mechanism and tools to give more predictive detection but these are still emerging. IoT analytics are required to detect specific attacks and intrusions which are not identified by normal security solutions like firewalls. Like Cisco, SAP, and Kaspersky.
IoT API security- Systems that are making use of recognized REST-based API’s. API security is essential for the integrity of data moving between the edge devices end back-end systems. And this is done to ensure that only the authorized developers can communicate with APIs with detecting the probable threats and attacks (Chen, 2018). Like Akana, WS02, and MuleSoft.
It’s very difficult when the simple things become a part of a vast
network which reaches everywhere. IoT security needs an end-to-end approach, Encryption is a must; for IoT security scenarios to focus on premium scalability. Security analytics is important for solutions. IoT standards are important but they still have time to mature.
By 2022, researchers have said that the IoT security market will reach to $4.4 billion. Various industrial surveys indicate that cyber security is the #1 matter of concern for the IoT users today. The IoT security is the most important for the safe development of the scalable applications and services which connect the real and virtual worlds (Khan, Kureshi, Rehman, Tai & Dahatonde, 2018). The market research for the IoT security has shown that the global spending for the 3rd party solutions is estimated to be $703M by 2022 driven by new regulation and enhancing the IoT adoption. The security tools given by IoT platforms, the IoT market is an average of the start-ups as global manufacturers of chip and infrastructure providers, and software enterprise. There more points of exposure. The number of connected devices, applications and systems and more points of exposure. These devices themselves become the attack vectors. Whenever a device is compromised there is always a higher probability if attacks (Bharati, Thakur & More, 2018). Increased impact of attacks. The more the number of connected devices, especially critical infrastructure apps where it is an increased effect of attacks. It happens for four different layers:
Device- The layer means the hardware level of the IoT solution which is the physical product. The ODM’s and OEMs are integrating the security features for both software and hardware to improve the level of security for the device layer.
Communication- This layer refers to the connectivity of the solutions which is mediums done over which data is transmitted securely or received. Whether a sensitive data is in motion on a physical layer or an application layer (Pappu, Mandviwala & Redkar, 2018). The unsecured channels of communication can be prone to intrusions and man-in-middle attacks.
Lifecycle management- A secure lifecycle approach means the layer which has continuous processes which keep the security of the IoT solution which is up to date i.e. giving enough security levels from the device manufacturer and the disposal of things.
The domains of IoT:
Srinivas and Vanithamani developed an automated library management system which was using an RDIM and GSM module (Mendes, Neto & Calado, 2018). The process included borrowing, return, and maintenance of the library holdings. For quick and fast response the RFID readers were equipped with library and classroom entrances and reference section. Users were to get updated via the notification on their phones about the transaction. The advantage was the automation at a low cost.
Brain, Arockiam, and Malar Selvi developed a library management system using the Neat Fetal Communication (NFC) tags and Local Positioning System (LPS). Apart from the regular library activities, this method gave authentication by fingerprint recognition. Even it's an LPS approach it helped the user to reach the rack, lacked in identifying the exact location too.
Viswanath proposed a model for monitoring the soil moisture and temperature of a greenhouse system. Soil moisture was checked at regular intervals and was reported. For example, dry, semi-dry and wet cases were discussed and relevant actions were taken.
Sreekanth and Nitha proposed an IoT health care system for monitoring a patients' health. Under various scenarios, the devices connected to the patients conveyed the message to the doctors and family members and immediate action were taken saving a patient's life. Like ECG, blood pressure sensor, room temperature sensor, and environment sensor.
Takpor and Atayero proposed an e-health solution to study a student’s health. During the enrolling process in colleges. EMR (electronic medical records) were made with important details and linked with RFID tags (Zhang & Zhu, 2018). During the emergency the healthcare details saved in RFID to help doctors to know more about the patients’ history and provide medical assistance. Quick diagnosis and recovery.
Alfan, 2017) proposed an attendance based intrusion detection system. The approach dealt with developing a monitor system for organizations and educational institutions to detect obstruction in prohibited areas. A Passive Infrared (PIR) sensor was used to detect any human motion in a particular range. The gets activated as soon as the intruders were there.
Fremantle & Aziz, (2018). proposed an automatic smart vehicle parking system. The components of the approach included the centralized camera and navigation system with display devices and user interface. Once the area is captured the parking slot in the server and concerned clients were given appropriate results during surfing the parking area. The administrators were provided with enough things to add and remove from the area.
Challenges faced by the Internet of things.
Security- It is significant segment of Internet and one which ISOC perceives to be equally empirical and one of the biggest and integral issues or barrier for the IoT (Fremantle & Aziz, 2018). If we increase the count of linked tools and gadgets we increase the chances to exploit the vulnerabilities like poorly designed devices, which pose the risk to expose user data for theft by removing data streams inadequately safe in many cases of people’s safety and health.
Many IoT deployments also consist of a collection of similar gadgets. This sameness exemplifies the impact of any security risk to a number of devices which have the same characteristics (Sharma, Rani, Sharma & Nagar, 2018). And to deal with these challenges, a very collaborative approach will be needed, for number of viewers and users, they will need to consider the cost vs. security trade-offs with the mass scale deployment of these devices.
Privacy- Many times go beyond the data privacy issues which exist currently. And much of it stems from the incorporating these devices into the environments without consciously making use of them.
This has become common in relation to the consumer gadgets like tracing the cell phones and automobiles too. Voice recognition or vision features will be aiding continuously in listening to a conversation or watching and selectively transmit the information to the cloud for processing, which includes a third party. t exposes the legal challenges of data protection and a law of privacy (Kokoliou, 2018). In addition, to its various IoT scenarios include device deployments and data collection activities or global scope of cross-cultural boundaries and in order to realize these opportunities, the ISOC suggested techniques that needed to be improved to enhance individual privacy across very broad expectations, while innovating new technologies and techniques.
Standards- Lack of documentation and standards have a greater effect than just restricted the IoT devices (Nguyen, Le & Bhargava, 2018). Without standards to guide developers and manufacturers and design products which operate in many destructive ways without much response to the impact. If it is poorly designed, such devices had negative consequences of networking the resources with the broader internet. It comes down to cost constraints and the necessity of developing a product to release something quicker than the competitors. Adding to the difficulties are configuring the IoT devices, the need for a good design and standardization, methods and tools essential in the future.
Regulation- Just like privacy, there are a lot of legal questions about the IoT devices which need consideration. Legal challenges with the IoT devices are cross-border data flow data retention policies and the legal ability for unintended use, breaches and lapses. The technology is getting advanced with the associated policy. Regulatory analysis of the IoT devices is viewed from a technology-neutral legal lens which is to prevent unfair or deceptive things against the customers.
Development- The scope of the IoT challenges cannot be unique to the industrialized nations. In, a fact it holds an important promise to deliver social and economic benefits for emerging and developing economies (Hahn, Apthorpe & Feamster, 2018). Like the present challenges of this area in the less developed areas which need to address the policy requirements.
ALFAN, M. (2017). Aplikasi android sebagai pengontrol jarak jauh smarthome dengan koneksi jaringan internet (Doctoral dissertation, politeknik negeri sriwijaya).
Ben-Jacob, M. G. (2018). Global Perspectives on Internet Regulation. GSTF Journal on Computing (JoC), 6(1).
Bharati, A., Thakur, R., & More, P. (2018). Disaster and Security Management System for Smart Cities using Internet of Things. International Journal of Global Technology Initiatives, 6(1), A60-A67.
Chen, Y. (2018). Development of a home automation system using Arduino.
Croatti, A., & Ricci, A. (2017, October). Mashing up the physical and augmented reality: The Web of Augmented Things Idea. In Proceedings of the Eighth International Workshop on the Web of Things (pp. 4-7). ACM.
Felici-Castell, S., Pérez-Solano, J. J., Segura-Garcia, J., García-Pineda, M., & Soriano-Asensi, A. (2018). Experimental trade-offs between different strategies for multihop communications evaluated over real deployments of wireless sensor network for environmental monitoring. International Journal of Distributed Sensor Networks, 14(5), 1550147718774465.
Fremantle, P., & Aziz, B. (2018). Cloud-based federated identity for the Internet of Things. Annals of Telecommunications.
Giacobbe, M., Pellegrino, G., Scarpa, M., & Puliafito, A. (2018). An approach to implement the “Smart Office” idea: the# SmartMe Energy system. Journal of Ambient Intelligence and Humanized Computing, 1-19.
Hahn, D., Apthorpe, N., & Feamster, N. (2018). Detecting Compressed Cleartext Traffic from Consumer Internet of Things Devices. arXiv preprint arXiv:1805.02722.
Immaneni, A. (2018). Modelling and Visualizing Selected Molecular Communication Processes in Biological Organisms: A Multi-Layer Perspective.
Khan, M. H. M. H., Kureshi, S. R., Rehman, M. I. A. M., Tai, Y. Y., & Dahatonde, N. (2018). IOT BASED HOME AUTOMATION SYSTEM. International Journal of Global Technology Initiatives, 6(1), B14-B18.
Kokoliou, A. (2018). Security and privacy in Internet of Things.
Lobo, J., Firmenich, S., Rossi, G., Defossé, N., & Wimmer, M. (2017, October). Web of Things Augmentation. In Proceedings of the Eighth International Workshop on the Web of Things (pp. 11-15). ACM.
Mayer, S. (2017, October). Open APIs for the Rest of Us. In Proceedings of the Eighth International Workshop on the Web of Things (pp. 8-10). ACM.
Mayer, S., Guinard, D., & Kovatsch, M. (2017, October). WoT 2017: The Eighth International Workshop on the Web of Things. In Proceedings of the Eighth International Workshop on the Web of Things (pp. 1-3). ACM.
Mendes, M. J., Neto, Í. M., & Calado, J. M. (2018). Fault diagnosis system via internet applied to a Gantry Robot–a proposal for industry 4.0. In 18th IEEE International Conference on Autonomous Robot Systems and Competitions (ICARSC) (pp. 160-166). Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers.
Nguyen, D. T., Le, L. B., & Bhargava, V. (2018). Price-based Resource Allocation for Edge Computing: A Market Equilibrium Approach. arXiv preprint arXiv:1805.02982.
Pappu, S., Mandviwala, J., & Redkar, A. (2018). Applications of Fog Computing in the Internet of Things. International Journal of Global Technology Initiatives, 6(1), A1-A5.
Picard, N., Colin, J. N., & Zampunieris, D. (2018). Context-aware and Attribute-based Access Control Applying Proactive Computing to IoT System. In Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Internet of Things, Big Data and Security (IoTBDS 2018) (pp. 333-339). SCITEPRESS.
Ramakrishnan, P., & Ma, Y. (2018, February). Adaptive Supply Chain Systems: IoT Based Conceptual Framework. In Proceedings of the 2018 International Conference on E-Business and Applications (pp. 62-68). ACM.
Sharma, N., Rani, R., Sharma, N., & Nagar, A. (2018). A contemplated approach for advancing e-administration by applying cloud gauge based condition. Global Journal on Application of Data Science and Internet of Things [ISSN: 2581-4370 (online)], 2(1).
Silverio-Fernández, M., Renukappa, S., & Suresh, S. (2018). What is a smart device?-a conceptualisation within the paradigm of the internet of things. Visualization in Engineering, 6(1).3.
Zhang, J., & Zhu, Y. (2018). Scenario-based trustworthiness verification for systems of internet of things. International Journal of Internet Protocol Technology, 11(1), 51-62.