As an environmental consultant to the UN, your role is to provide an outline on issues related to the impact of the climate change and global warming - at various levels - in relation to the environment in general and the living species (including humans) in particular. Analyse and discuss how this kind of environmental threat can be dealt with and how to minimise the impact.
Climate change and Global warming:
Global warming and the climate change are due to emission of the green house gases which results in an average increase of the temperature globally. It is these human activities which act as a primary driver for climate change and increased global temperature (Brugge, 1996). With the wide range of changes in the environment, warming in the climate is evidenced. Rise in the temperature of the planet leads to the change in the climate and which in turn affects the weather, including change in the pattern of rainfall, timing of seasonal events also got changed, agricultural productivity changes and also the glacier retreats. Hence global warming is due to social and environmental changes occur by human activities (DEMIRBAS, 2004).
Image retrived from global warming.
The climate system has been warmed due to many reasons. Human activities contributed a lot in global warming, one of the contribution of the human is burning of fossil fuels which increase the concentration of GHGs in the atmosphere and other activity of sulphur dioxide emission which results in formation of sulfate aerosols in the atmosphere and results in increase in the climate temperature (Hasselmann, 1997). Due to these human induced activities warming is lead on the large scale, irreversible and also acute changes in the physical systems are experienced (96/06588 Depletion of fossil fuels and the impacts of global warming, 1996). A little change happening anytime in the enviornment has always brought about bigger changes in the lifes of not only human being but also creature living under water and in the sky, these changes has negatively impacted the routine and even prolonged and sometimes brought about such lifelong changes that these creatures have never been able to come back to normal. Hence due to this humatarian acts atmosphere is overloaded with the carbon dioxide and other poisnous and harmful gases which furthure threaten the climate with unexpected outcomes.
Impact of climate change and global warming:
A change in climate is such a phenomenon which is so complex and vast and complicated that the outcomes or the results of such cannot be predicted or prejudged on a short span of time. These climate changes and global warming has a vital social impact on the society, which is directly related to public heath, increase in the movement of population, reducing state capacity, enviormental damages and hinderance to development of the human race. The harmful pollutants like carbon dioxide are getting collected in the atmosphere as a thick blanket, which traps the sunheats and results in the warming up of the planet. According to the scientist climate change has an adverse effect on our economy, health and communities in many different ways and if these changes in the climates donot stop, the outcomes will be disastrous (Kerr, 2002). As the changing climate effects all water resources, energy supplier resources, ecosytems, it also poses a serious challange to the human health by the following ways:
- It brings about increase in ill health and even in some cases death due to extreme heat.
- Increase in transmission ofsome diseases through food, water and insects.
- Group of people, including children, old age people and the poor people are more likely to be affected by the climate realted health problems. All these changes in the climate resulted with a great impact on the economy and the society.
The warming oceans and the changing climates resulted in the changes in weather patterns and these changes in the weather give rise to some new and re-emerging infectious diseases. Each year increased temperature in the weather is in itself a proof of present unstable climate. Two most important effects which this change in climate have are warming and variability of weather, which means that thousands and millions of people in the world face a risk of getting seriously infected by dangerous diseases. This change of weather ofthen results into floods and spread of world wide diseases. Almost all the diseases which are mosquito borne are infact the most hillarius threat and danger to humanity, these consisits of malaria, yellow fever, dengue, elephantiasis, etc. Near the oceans as the temperature increases, risk of multiplication of mosquitoes and their other disease causing breeds enhances and thus risk of an epedemic malaria increases by many folds into the developed universe.
Climate change and the species:
This increase of global temperature in the climate has disrupted the ecosystem and results in the extinsion of the species which cannot adapt themselves into the change climate. In a survey it is expected that this continous rise in the temperature will result into extinction of around one million species till 2050. Around 2000 of species which includes plants and animals have discovered to have made a movement towards the south pole and north pole areas of the world, at an expected average of 3.9 miles for every 10 years, Also there latest report in the US for change in climate states that 25-35 % of species which are in existence till date shall be at a risk of getting finished if such a change or increase in temperature results in 2.7 to 4.5 degrees enhansement in years to come. Some of the species which are sea habitat ones like the penguins , have shrunk by around 30-35 % due to this rise in temperature and decline in winters sea ice, also sea animals like fishes, etc have started being affected by the acidic water which the normal water has changed into as a result of mixing of carbon di oxide into it, The speech less species has been on the edge of getting very highly effected and surely our children or their childrens shall not at all be in a position to see such beautiful creatures and they shall become history, Many polar bears are sinking into the water because they have to tarvel a long distance swimming to reach ice areas, Some important and world level studies has revealed that almost 2/3rd of the polar bear population shall by extinct as a result of fast melting ice at the arctic areas, these polar bear are loosing their grounds for hunting and as a result are fast dying because of starvation(Crossman, Bryan and Summers, 2011). The changed climate has also affected locations where the creatures used to brught up their young ones, the most important example of such affected animals are swans and ducks, these animals now rarely get a moist place for their survival. The global warming and life and death of so many creature are directly propotional to each other, With acute change in climate the life span and life cycle of the wild life is greatly affected(Matawal and Maton, 2013). Global warming has resulted into droughts inthe wetter areas and floods in the areas which are normally dry, these climatic changes are found to be destructive and disturb the plant life which inturn affects the wildlife depending on the plants for their food. These floods not only destroy the habitiat of the animals but also the food sources on which the animals depends (Cvijanovic and Caldeira, 2015).
How to deal with climate change:
Climate change and global warming are contributed by both natural and the complex public issues, but human beings can contribute a lot to deal with these climate change issues. As climate change is a global problem, so had to be handled on an international level many steps to be taken for greenhouse gas emission, forest conservation and to help the poorer countries to adapt the impacts of global warming. Following are the few steps which helps to deal with this climate change:
Mitigation: The greenhouse gases which are responsible for climate change, emission of such gases is reduced and helps in less change in the climate. Mitigation is happening on local and personal levels. U.S cities and states are committied to reduce the effect of greenhouse gases in the comming decades. This can happen by using the hybrid vehicles, using Led light saving bulbs and to grow a business and organisation which is carbon neutral (Fearnside, 2009).
Adaptation: Adaptation helps to deals with the consequences of climate change, such as extreme changes in the weather conditions. Through the process of adaption the farmers are changing there harvesting and planting schedules, and are giving exposure to the dought resisitant plant by planting them in large numbers (Feddema and Freire, 2001).
Business as usual: Its also helps to deal with climate change by saving expenditure on the mitigation in near term and is also risked with higher cost for adaptaion to the wild life, infrastructure, human populations and economics (Global warming – Problem with environmental and economical impacts, 2013).
Already there are changes in the climate and the other changes in the climate are still to be adapted by the oceans, society and atmosphere. Hence for preventing extreme change to happen mtigation is required. And to deal with this climate change situation democratic societies have to find balance between mitigation, adaptation and the social and economic concerns.
Reduce the impact of global warming:
Human beings can do a lot of things to minimise the impact of global warming and climate change on the enviornment. Reduction in the use of fossil fuels helps a lot in decreasing the level of green house gases (Perry, 1992). Usage of non polluting energy sources like solar energy and wind energy, in daily life and less energy consumption by using energy efficient appliances, compact led light bulbs and reduction in gasoline use will help in decreasing the emission of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere and will give healthy enviornment to live in. Carbon dioxide gas is the main source of greenhouse gas, hence planting of more trees helps in to slow down or stop the global warming. As Plants inhales the carbon dioxide and relases the oxygen. Tropical rainforest contributes upto 20 percent to the worlds carbon dioxide emisssion, hence steps to be taken to reduce deforestation. Recycling of the waste material helps in minimising the green house gases effect. Garbage production directly or indirectly contributes to the global warming, reduction in the consumption patterns and recycling the waste helps to minimise our carbon footprints in the enviornment (Singh and Purohit, 2014). Recycling of waste material such as metal, plastic, glass and paper helps in lowering the emission of green house gases, since energy used for recycling is lesser as compared to energy used for manufacturing items from scratch. Conservation of water also plays an important role in the greenhouse gas emission, as lot of energy is used for purifing the water, hence water saving reduces the energy consumption.
The National Renewable energy laboratory of USA act as a hub for the research and development of the renewable energy, which includes fuel from Biomass, wind, photovolatics and to save energy from technology used for vehicle fuel, electric infrastructure systems and constructing buildings. In an online research 23,900,000 results were found for renewable energy which is a clear indication that solution for fossil fuel is hunted globally. Many colleges and universities are also focusing on the research of renewable energy, which includes UCARs member and international afilliated universities(Tol, 2010).
In 1994 united states with many other countries has originated the UNFCCC (United Nations Framework Convetion on Climate Change), which recognised that climate change and global warming has no boundaries and all the nation should cooperate at international level to find solution for the problems originated due to the green house gases. The Kyoto protocol policy was the first democratic process emerged from the UNFCCC process and this protocol sets the targets for reducing green house gases emissions.
It is the human activities which contributes a lot to the global warming, hence “Think global act local” is the strongest idea for green movement, collective and global measures or steps must be taken and that too in a very serious mode all together among people of all countries of the world to tackle with this alarming situtaion or be ready for unbelivable consequences which would result into distinction of almost all the species of this planet sooner or later. This mother earth of ours shall no more be a place to live in if this global warming and climate change continues at the same speed its going on (Clery, 2006).
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