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HAT203 Hospitality And Tourism Management

tag 0 Download 7 Pages / 1,601 Words tag 05-07-2021


Discuss steps in the strategic management process

Describe foodservice operations in the foodservice industry

Compare and contrast sustainability efforts in foodservice

A system is designed to accomplish an objective.

Subsystems of a system have an established arrangement.

Interrelationships exist among the elements.

Flow of resources through a system is more important than basic elements.

Organization objectives are more important than those of the subsystems.

  • An open system has a number of unique characteristics: Interdependency of parts, leading to integration and synergy; Dynamic equilibrium; Equifinality; Permeable boundaries; Interface of systems and subsystems; Hierarchy of the system.
  • Interdependency is the reciprocal relationship of the parts of a system; each part mutually affects the performance of the others.
  • This characteristic emphasizes the importance of viewing the organization as a whole rather than the parts in isolation.
  • Interaction among units of an organization is implied by interdependency.
  • Units do not operate in a vacuum but continually relate with other units.
  • The result of effective interaction is integration, in which the parts of the system share objectives of the entire organization.
  • Integration leads to synergy, meaning that the units or parts of an organization working together may have greater impact than each of them operating separately.
  • Dynamic equilibrium, or steady state, is the continuous response and adaptation of a system to its internal and external environment, which includes all the conditions, circumstances, and influences affecting the system.
  • The term equifinality is applied to the organization as a system.
  • It means that a same or similar output could be achieved by using different inputs or by varying the transformation processes.
  • In other words, various alternatives may be used to attain similar results.
  • Permeability of boundaries is the characteristic of an open system that allows the system to be penetrated or affected by the changing external environment.
  • Boundaries define the limits of a system, and permeability allows the system to interact with the environment.
  • The area of interdependency between two subsystems or two systems is often referred to as the interface.
  • The overall organizational system has many interfaces with other systems such as suppliers, government agencies, community organizations, and unions.
  • Another characteristic of a system is hierarchy.
  • A system is composed of subsystems of lower order; the system is also part of a larger suprasystem.
  • In fact, the ultimate system is the universe

Strategic thinking is a major component of a process termed strategic management. Managing strategically means developing and implementing strategies that assist an organization in maintaining a competitive advantage that sets it apart from others in the industry.

  • Strategic thinking has the following characteristics:

• Intent focused—has vision for where the organization is/should be going

• Comprehensive—views organization as part of larger system

• Opportunistic—takes advantage of unanticipated opportunities

• Long-term oriented—goes beyond here and now and looks into the future

• Builds on past and present—learns from past; recognizesconstraints of present

• Hypothesis driven—evaluates creative ideas in a sequential process

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