- What are the main causes of high employee turnover in hospitality industry?
- What are the impacts of employee turnover on organization’s objectives in hospitality industry.
- What factors and intentions lead to turnover?
Research And Student Learning
According to Poesen, Nachtergaele, Verstraeten and Valentin (2003), research can be defined as analyzing a problem carefully or performing detailed study of a particular issue through utilizing certain specific scientific methods. Research can be performed on a non scientific, IT, scientific or any other topic. For the purpose of doing a research, firstly we need to have an issue or a topic on which research can be performed. The research should have pertinent questions which can be answered. There are certain steps which need to be followed while doing a research like observation, background research, preparation of hypothesis and then conducting simple experiment.
Research is quite essential for students as it aids them in having detailed analysis about everything. Polster (2007) has however stated the following benefits of research to the students:
- Enhances knowledge: When research is done on a topic, the students get detailed knowledge about the topic. Knowledge about the particular topic is directly proportional to the success of the research. Thus, for the purpose of getting a good output, students must perform maximum research.
- Reduces confusion: Research helps in reducing the complicated figures and facts. If a student has any confusion about the topic, he must research and should do a detailed study on it. This will help in removing all kinds of confusion and in getting proper understanding of the subject as well.
- Provides proper understanding of subject: For understanding the subject, students should do in depth study. Just scanning of the content is not adequate for them. Detailed study, full analysis and research are required for learning the subject and for knowing the unknown facts.
- Helps in learning about issues and methods: Current issues and methods can only be learned by finding and reading. Not only current issues, but also previous past issues can be learned in depth by research. Research involves different methods through which all this can be done.
- Helps in understanding published work: Research can also be done by the already published work. The researchers and the experts have already performed some researches which can be used by the students for knowing the vision and idea about those researchers.
Story (2012) has defined learning theories as an organized set of the principles which explains thw way in which individuals retain, recall and acquire knowledge. By knowing and studying the various learning theories, a better learning can be provided to the students. Sincero (2017) had however added that principles of theories can be utilized as the guidelines which can help in selecting the instructional techniques, strategies and tools which promote learning.
According to Quinsey, Harris, Rice and Cormier (2003), following are the learning theories:
- Cognitive Information Processing or Cognitivism
Constructivism is based on thought process behind behavior. This theory is based upon the idea which individuals process the information which they receive, and not just responding to the stimuli. The changes in the behavior are also observed as indicator.
Story (2012) has stated that Cognitive Information Processing is quite helpful while performing a research. It helps in various ways; some of them are as follows:
- It helps in chunking or classifying the information.
- It helps in linking the concepts, i.e., associating the new contents with the things known.
- It also aids in providing structure, i.e., in organizing the research in meaningful and efficient ways.
- It helps in quoting real world examples.
- It helps in performing better discussions, analogies and problem solving.
Research methodology is a detailed and well defined aspect of research evaluation. It helps the researcher in analysing the strategies and techniques which could be adopted in order to enhance research outcomes in a structured and reliable manner. The current study aims at determining the impact of employee turnover on organization’s objectives in hospitality industry. In order to develop a detailed and well defined analysis of the same researcher adopted effective measures and techniques. The topic focuses on evaluating the human perspective while working in the hospitality industry. In order to develop a successful impact of the stated topic on student learning a structured research methodology will be applied (Hon, Chan and 2013). Interpretivism philosophy will has been undertaken for the topic as it focuses on analyzing the social perspective and issues for the researcher. This philosophy will help in developing a detailed and well defined analysis of employee perception in the work place while analyzing different issues and strategies used. The previous analysis reveals that the research topic is critical and has been widely discussed. In order to attain appropriate and reliable results for the analysis inductive research approach has been adopted. This will help in attaining a clear and effective picture of research evaluation. For this, research questions will be developed by the researcher which has created an effective understanding about the subject. The research type for the current study is descriptive which will help in developing a concrete base for the study. It will analyze the theories analyzed and will discuss the same to develop a clear and effective research conclusion. The study will adopt qualitative research technique for the evaluation. It will be significantly helpful in determining the research issue and develop an effective measure to resolve the same. In order to attain effective and significant result for the study, data collection plays a major role. The researcher will adopt effective means of data collection strategies to gain a well defined insight on the research issue and develop effective evaluation for the same. It will also help in minimizing research limitation related to biasness of the study.
There can be many methods which can be adopted by the companies to reduce their employee turnover. The demands and expectations of the workers should be included in the policies of the company. It should be reviewed at regular intervals so as to adapt to the changing needs of the staff members. The strategies which can be adopted by Hilton Hotel to reduce the problem of high turnover are:
Two Factor Theory
This theory helps in identification of factors which are related to job satisfaction and dissatisfaction. Motivating factors include recognition, challenges, responsibility etc. On the other hand, hygiene factors consist of salary, fringe benefits, job security and status. The absence of these elements can lead to dissatisfaction among the employees (Qiu, Haobin, Hung and York, 2015). Along with this, there are extrinsic factors also which affects work such as policies of the company, supervisors and wages. Companies have to ensure that they provide these facilities which increase the satisfaction level of the workers. The HRM policies and practices such as orientation, employee relations, compensation etc, play an important role in developing the attitude and thinking of the workers. Feedback system, training and development programs and performance appraisals can be very useful in providing positive experience to the staff members (Zopiatis, Constanti and Theocharous, 2014). The vision for the business has to be created and it should be shared with the employees. Communication and interaction is essential at this pint of time. Supervisor and manager can play a crucial role in this aspect. They should not force the employees to follow the goals and objectives of the company. Instead, they should be motivated and encouraged so that they can understand and relate it to their own gaols and career objectives (Robinson, Kralj, Solnet and Callan, 2014). Organisations should evaluate their policies and the lessons learned should be documented. It will allow them assess their current settings and they can make changes accordingly. This stored information can be used to anticipate results and for developing better mechanism for employee relations and development. Benchmarking data can be collected and opportunities can be found to take learning initiatives. It will bring positive results for both employees as well as the organisation (Dusek, Ruppel, Yurova and Clarke, 2014). Companies have to make sure that they transfer the knowledge to the staff members because hotel industry has many employees who lack necessary training and skills to perform their job effectively. There is high competition in the hospitality industry which has made it difficult for them to understand and resolve all the queries of the workers. It is been a challenging situation because it is directly linked to the overall effectiveness of the organisation (Nadiri and Tanova, 2010).
Characteristics of The Job
It will allow the management to identify the core competencies and values which have psychological impacts on the work environment as well as the employees (AlBattat and Som, 2013). There are five main characteristic which includes feedback, autonomy, task importance, skills and identity. The psychological impacts related to it are high performance, motivation, satisfaction of job, absenteeism and turnover. The significance of task and identity can be useful in developing intrinsic motivation which can lead to satisfaction of job. Motivation will allow the workers to perform better and they will be able to provide high quality services to the customers (Zopiatis, Constanti and Theocharous, 2014). Manager should ensure that the employees use their skills and they should be given guidance so that they improve their work. Leadership and ineffective supervision has been a problem in the hotel industry. Employees should be given feedback about their performance. It will allow them to identify the potential areas of improvements and they will get more involved in the work. Furthermore, they should be involved in the decision making (Kim, Im and Hwang, 2015). They should be allowed to put forth their views and opinions. It will help them to build strong relations with the company. Hotel industry has many activities and the employees have to take decisions for the benefits of the consumers. Highly committed and loyal workers provide excellent services to the customers. They take decision which is in favor of the visitors. It has long term effects on the end users which increases their satisfaction level. It brings repeat business to the organization. Therefore, it is essential for the managers to create a atmosphere where the workers are given freedom to take decision and use innovative methods to perform their tasks (Tews, Stafford and Michel, 2014). It will develop a positive working environment which will enable the company to achieve their goals and long term objectives. As per….. Highly motivated staff members makes the customer more happy and satisfied. They should be rewarded for they excellent performance. It will motivate them and the others will get influence from it. Hotel industry has long working hours which can also get extended during the peak season. The pay scale of the employees is not as per their satisfaction level. Rewards and recognition can be very beneficial for them to retain them (Bonn,and Forbringer, 1992). The probability of changing job is also reduced with the help of this.
McClelland’s Need Theory
This theory should used by managers to understand the specific requirements of the employees. There are needs which develops over time and change due to life experience. It consists of power, affiliation and achievement. Achievement says that those people who are highly achievement oriented should be given challenging tasks in the organization (Zopiatis, Constanti and Theocharous, 2014). For them monetary benefits are not important but recognition and appreciation is. Affiliation oriented people should be given task which makes them feel above others and important. On the other hand, power oriented people should be given the opportunity to lead other and help in the management of people. It will motivate them and it will solve the problem of the organization which they have been facing due to ineffective leadership. It will help in reducing turnover of the employees.
The current study focuses on determining the impact of employee turnover on organization’s objectives in hospitality industry. Research methods which will adopted in order to attain the stated aim are discussed hence forth.
- Research design: This section of the study plays a significant role in analyzing the research issues and resolving them in a structured manner. Different researches demand different designs to attain the definite solutions to the issues determined. Descriptive, exploratory, experimental, case study, causal etc are the common research designs adopted (Hussain and Asad, 2012). The present study will adopt descriptive research design. This will focus on evaluating the research results in an effective manner. The selected design will help in evaluating the general theories related to the subject and will relate them to the research issue. This will develop a clear insight about the issue thus enhancing research results. Descriptive design will focus on analyzing the research questions and formulate plan accordingly.
- Research type: Researches are segregated into two major aspects which includes qualitative and quantitative. The present study focuses on analyzing the impact of employee turnover of organizational performance in hospitality industry. The stated issue is crucial and critical for the researcher as it focuses on analyzing employee and employee perspective on the critical issue of employee turnover (Isaacs, 2014). Multiple methods will be adopted to attain effective results for the study. Researcher will adopt both qualitative and qualitative measures to resolve the research issue and attain effective results for the study. It will develop reliable aspects for the study proposed.
- Data collection: This is one of the most critical and crucial aspect of undertaking the study. For the present study, researcher will adopt both primary and secondary means of data collection. It will ensure reliability and appropriateness of the research. Secondary data collection focuses on attaining the second hand data for the research (Karatepe and Karadas, 2012). Different sources of data collection will be adopted by the researcher for attaining the past data. It will be collected from the sources which include books, online portals, company reports, journals, magazines etc. For primary data collection survey method will be adopted by the researcher. This will help in attaining the fresh and latest data for the study. In order to collect primary data the employee base of Hilton hotel will be selected. They will contribute in attaining effective evaluation on the topic. Structured questionnaire will be developed for the same. It will consist of both open and closed ended questions. This will be mailed to the consumer base in order to attain specific result for the study.
- Sampling: This part of the study is crucial for attaining reliable research results. Sampling focuses on selecting a representative part of population which will reflect effective research evaluation aspects (Karatepe, 2013). For the present study a sample size of 40 employees will be selected. They will develop a clear and well defined means of research aspects and evaluation for the subject. Also 5 managers will be selected for the study. They will be interviewed for the research. Sampling technique for the both the sample will be reliable and unbiased. For survey, probabilistic sampling technique will be adopted. Researcher will use lottery measure to attain significant results. This technique will help in attaining effective and unbiased sample result because equal chance of selection will be given to every population element. It will help in effective research results as well.
- Data analysis: This section of the evaluation focuses on analyzing the representing the research findings in an effective and reliable manner. Present evaluation will adopt qualitative means of data analysis. it will focus on representing the results through statistical and graphical means which will develop an effective understating of the subject for the researcher. It will also develop a well defined means of evaluation aspect for the study. The researcher will represent the overall results and data in tabular and graphical manner. It will be effective for understanding the employee perspective in a specified manner.
- Ethical issues: Undertaking a research is a challenging aspect for the researcher. Every researcher focuses on attaining clear and reliable aspect for the study. The present analysis will adopted ethical measures to attain research results. The researcher will follow academic guidelines to attain effective results for the study (Polster, 2007). In addition it will be ensures that all the secondary data is attained from authentic and reliable sources. Moreover proper citation and referencing will be done for the data which will ensure that the secondary data is not represented as the own work of the researcher. In addition to this primary data collection will be effectively analyzed. All the respondents of the research will be involved with their free will. It will be ensured that no respondent is pressurized to be the art of the study. Moreover all the data and personal information will be safely stored. It will be used for only research purpose and not for any personal use of the researcher.
Timeline, Budget And Staffing Requirements
The time line for the present study has been clearly determined and discussed below. This will help the researcher in developing effective aspects for the evaluation.
Budget is one of the major constraints of research evaluation. It plays a significant role in the success of the study. The present study will be completed in the budget 3500 AUD. It will focus on all he staffing, resource and travelling need of the researcher. A well defined evaluation of the research results will be attained through this.
Effective staff will be needed to attain the research scope and results for the study. The researcher will hire 3 staff for completing the stated research in a stipulated budget and time. The fellow researchers will contribute in the following tasks for the study:
- Undertaking secondary research
- Helping in data collection
- Data analysis and compiling
The above mentioned tasks will be efficiently distributed with the staff members. It will help in enhancing the speed and quality of the study thus attaining effective and well defined results for the evaluation.
Employees are an asset of a company and they decide its future. They have to be given all the facilities and resources so that they can perform their duties without any constraints. Similarly, their efforts should be appreciated which will boost their morale. They will become more dedicated and loyal towards the organization. Hospitality industry is entirely dependent on their workers and high turnover ratio in the industry has made it difficult for them to accomplish their goals (Bonn,and Forbringer, 1992). The management needs the support of their employees to ensure that the goals and objectives of the company are understood by them. It allows them to perform their tasks in a better manner. They have to be involved in the decision making process. Apart from this, the management should take their feedback and the policies should be changed as per it. Their demands and expectations should be included (Dusek, Ruppel, Yurova and Clarke, 2014). It should be reviewed at regular intervals to adapt to the changing needs of the workers. High turnover has affected the goals and objectives of Hilton hotel. They have not been able to provide excellent services to their customers. he main reason is that workers need time and experience to gain high level of competency and expertise in the work. But when they leave the job the training process has to be repeated to the new member. It not only increases the cost of the company but they are not able to maintain the same level of services (Deery and Jago, 2015). Lack of consistency and quality in the customer services affects the satisfaction level of the customers. They tend to move to other hotels which provide better level of services. They are many hotels in Australia which can provide similar products and services. It creates pressure on the management on Hilton Hotel which starts expecting more from their workers. Employees have to work for long hours so as to achieve the strategies of the company. They are not provided with facilities which they expect from the firm (Tews, Stafford and Michel, 2014). Apparently, the business is not able to achieve their objectives due to their low performance. It affects the reputation and brand image in the market. Business objectives are the measure of performance for a company. It is the ultimate goal which has to be achieved by the management. It will be better for Hilton group to focus on their goals and provide all the facilities to the workers.
The main causes of dissatisfaction and intention of the employees have to be assessed. They have to review their policies and changes have to be made in it to retain the workers. It will allow them to get more close with their workers which will have long term benefits for them (Blomme, Van Rheede and Tromp, 2010). Literature review has been used in the research to gain deeper understanding in improving the relations between the management and employees. All the necessary requirements which will enhance their satisfaction level have to be provided. It will enable the company to focus on their short and long term goals. They will be able to their targets and expectations from the business.
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