Write an essay on Health and Social Care.
Health and social care is the sector which attempts to make connection within people and the service providers are bound to give their best care services to the service users through effective communication. Therefore, communication is one of the key aspects in the health and social care sector. In this context, it can be said that for providing excellent service to the health and social care users, they should have sufficient skills and knowledge for making an effective communication with the patients (Baillie 2014). It has been revealed that effective communication and interaction within the care providers and care users enhance the efficiency of care processes and make the improvement faster. In this assignment, the major concern is the exploration of communication theories and skills which are used in the health and social care sector for effective communication process (Mårtensson and Hensing 2012). In this context, cultural factors, perceptions, legislations, policies and procedures affecting the health and social care services are also discussed. In addition, the ICT software which is used in the Health and social care sector for enhancing the effective communication would be discussed here.
Exploring communication skills in health and social care
Application of relevant theories of communication to health and social care context
There are different theories which are used for understanding the communication skills used in the health care context. Within these theories, the behaviorist theory, cognitive theory, operant conditioning theory and social learning theories are relevant to the case scenarios of health and social care. According to the behaviorist theory, several environmental stimuli can shape or influence individual’s behavior (Barry and Edgman-Levitan 2012). This theory discusses that behaviors are gained via conditioning and based on the fact it has been highlighted that learning is done through different views. Here, in Anna’s case scenario, Anna felt bad due to the negative behavioral and communication skills of the doctor and nursing professionals. The negative communication also affected her primary health assessment which could be better through a good communication process. The doctor failed to assess her medical history. On the other hand, in Panorama documentary, the elderly patients have been abused as a result of communication deficiency (Lapkin et al. 2012).
According to the social learning theory, the social relationship establishment within nurse, doctor and patients is very important for enhancing the efficiency of social patient’s positive health outcomes. According to this theory, the nurse can be a good role model for the patient who can promote the healthy and positive image of the hospital. Applying the social learning theory for analyzing the case studies in the assignment, it has been revealed that Anna has not been treated with a good communication by the doctor; rather there was no positive communication within the patient and doctor (Coleman et al. 2012). The doctor blamed Anna that she might be drunk and she is wasting their precious time, but he did it by only observing her, health assessment was not prioritized. On the other hand, in Panorama case study, it has been seen that there was a lack of positive relationship development within the elderly patients and nurses due to inconvenience of nursing professional’s care services.
According to the Operant conditioning theory, there are two reinforcement in behavioral aspects. In the positive one, the particular behavioral consequences receive the expected outcomes, in contrast, the negative behavioral aspects results in the removal of unpleasant things. In the current case scenario, Anna’s doctor made her husband feel bad by reinforcing negative behavior; he did not provided required health care serviced needed by the patient at that situation. In spite of completing his duty of care, he blamed Anna for her physical condition, that she was drunk without analyzing her previous health history. It influenced Ana and her husband’s thought negatively (Guise et al. 2012). Additionally, the Panorama documentary showed negatively that the communication leads to negative communicative effects.
Use of communication skills in the health and social care context
Two way communications is important in the health and social care sector where there would be the involvement of both care user and care providers (Cowles 2012). The important communication skills which are important in the health and social care sector include listening skills paraphrasing, explanation, reflecting, consulting, questioning and consulting. In the context of Anna’s case study, the doctor did not have adequate communication skills. He did not allowed her husband to interact with him properly, on spite of investigating the proper reason behind Anna’s condition, being judgmental; he interpreted Anna’s condition in his own way, thereby showing lack of communication skills in respect to work at any health and social care context. However, I always prioritize positive communication while dealing with my patients in my workplace. I always prefer to allow the patients or patient’s family to express their view and ideas regarding their current status.
After listening to their concern, I always attempt to assess all the information provided by the patient as well as attempt to investigate their previous medical history and analyze those on the basis of their current condition. In the panorama documentary, the elder patients attempted to interact with the nursing professionals regarding their issues for completing ADLs, however, nurses did not show dignity or respect towards the patient, in spite of that they continuously promoted miscommunication by not listening the patient properly and forcing the patient to do some work which is beyond her wish. It decreased the patient satisfaction as well as patient’s positive health outcomes (Glasby and Dickinson 2014.) In this context, I always try to satisfy my patients by providing a supportive environment and prioritizing their needs, both emotional and physical. I always keep myself ready to listen any kinds of my patient’s concern. In contrast to the panorama case scenario, I always prefer to avoid any kind of negative body language while talking with elderly patients and try to keep my pitch low as well as try to make the conversation transparent by questioning the patient about any kinds of problem.
Review of methods for dealing with inappropriate interpersonal communication between individuals in health and social care settings
Interpersonal communication refers to the communication which influences people to manage and strengthen relationship. According to Glasby (2012) pain and other patient’s issues can become less through the prioritization of interpersonal communication. If Anna’s doctor attempts to use effective interpersonal communication skills to establish positive relationship with the patient and family, she might feel better and there might be a chance of her proper health assessment, thereby maximizing her recovery. The uncertainty theory discusses how to deal with inadequate communication. With the help of this theory, it has been seen that in panorama case study, nursing professionals were discussing their personal issues in front of the patient which might reduce her satisfaction and recovery. Inadequate and unprofessional behavior of the nursing staffs can be minimized by providing proper training to the staffs. In addition, proper review system and strict professional regulation can minimize these kinds of inconvenience in workplace. Nurses could then be more concern about avoiding negligence towards patient. After addressing these kinds of activities, immediately observer should report higher authority to undertake strict action (Guise et al. 2012).
Analysis of strategies for supporting users of health and social care services with specific communication needs
For overwhelming the barriers in communication within care givers and users, care givers should be trained adequately for gaining knowledge about different languages and specific needs of diverse class of people. The health care centre should promote the development of a transparent communication strategy which would help the professionals to understand the specific needs of patients (Thompson and McCabe 2012). While assessing the patient, the health care professionals should make eye contact and show respect and dignity towards patient, using appropriate non verbal communication skills is a key aspect to eliminate communication or language barrier in health care sector. In Anna’s case, the doctor could not understood Anna’s body language and did not made eye contact with them, promoting miscommunication.
Understanding the influence of the communication process in health and social care
Influence of values and cultural factors on the communication process
Values and cultures are the pillars of communication and interpersonal relationship within the service users and service providers. According to Ogden (2012) the organizational culture is influenced by the contribution of each members of the organization, therefore, negative consequences in the organizational culture is the result of inadequate values and culture of the nursing staffs in the health care organization. For example, in panorama case study, the nurse’s perception, values and inadequate culture affected the recovery of the elderly patients through abuse. Culture is related to social behavior and perception which is specific for individual communities. Cross cultural communication skills are very important for the health care staffs as they have to deal with patients from different communities and they should use a transparent and understandable language by everyone Griffiths et al. 2012). In this context, some people believe in looking directly into eyes during communication is bad, whereas others influence eye contact during communication.
Sometimes, it has also been seen that patients prefer to be assisted or cared by the professional of same sex, for an example, women has been addressed to take care from a male doctor or nurse (Ting-Toomey and Chung 2012). In this context, professionals should prioritize patient’s demand for satisfaction. In Anna’s case, the professional did not provide value to patient’s condition showing an inefficient culture. Therefore, the doctor should be trained how to deal with sub-cultural patients.
Impact of legislations, charters and codes of practices on the communication process of health and social care
A number of ethical codes and legislations are applied to the activities in health and social care sectors. Data protection Act 1998 is followed by the health and social care organizations for protecting the information provided by the patients about their personal records. Anna’s doctor did not even record her personal information and did not analyze her previous health history which might help him to assess the patient. The organization should follow the Public Health law, 2010 by which government can review the organizational policies and procedures. The disability discrimination Act, 1992 helps to promote equal opportunity to all the disable patients in the health care facilities like other patients (Vardaman et al. 2012). The Anti-Discrimination Act, 1977 helps to avoid any kinds of racial, gender or economic status related discrimination of patients by the care providers through effective communication.
In addition, the ethical and professional codes ensure that the organization and members are complying with their duties, thereby ensuring appropriate use of communication strategies and communication skills. In the panorama case studies, the nurses did not showed patient’s dignity and breached the disability discrimination act as well as data protection act, as they did not comply with their adequate role of assisting the elderly patient (Glasby and Dickinson 2014).
Effectiveness of organizational systems and policies in promoting good communication practices
The health care organization should implement effective organizational tools for promoting effective communication within the professionals and patients. In this context, organization should arrange training programs for newly joined members for improving the communication process via e-mail, internet applications, e-records. These would help to enhance the efficiency good communication processes (Verlinde et al. 2012). Policies according to the promotion of the health and social care legislation helps to manage information, recording, sorting, documenting and keeping the information confidential. In this context, the Data protection Act 1998 helps to protect all the information related aspects for safeguarding patients.
The confidentiality policy implemented in the organization according to the Confidentiality act ensures that the personal information of patients will be kept confidential. The human right act 1998 helps to ensure high quality of care and dignity through the organizational policies and procedures (Vis et al. 2012). All of these policies and procedures help to promote good communication process.
In the panorama case scenario, it has been clearly reviewed that lack of adequate monitoring and reviewing system is the major reason behind the elderly abuse. Thus, frequent assistance is required for developing effective monitoring system in the health and social care organization for reducing these kinds of negligence (Degni et al. 2012).
Suggesting ways to improve communication process in health and social care settings
There are a number of ways by which the communication process in the health and social care settings can be improved. A review team can be established including nurse, doctor, consultant, social worker and managers and the role of this team would be to review day to day improvement in the organizational activities. In addition, this team would review the adherence of the organizational procedures with the health and social care policies and legislations. It would help to improve the performance of each staff by avoiding any kinds of inconvenience in the health care service. Training is very important for strengthening the communication skills and performance of each member. As in the case of elderly abuse and Anna’s physical condition, it has been revealed that due to lack of knowledge about how to communicate with disable or elderly patients, the negative consequences were enhancing, therefore, training can improve the situation (Saleebey 2012).
Exploring the use of information and communication technology (ICT) in health and social care
Accessibility and application of standard ICT software packages in order to provide support work in the health and social care sector
The ICT technologies are nowadays used very frequently in the health and social care sectors for enhancing the efficiency of communication processes. These technologies give the accessibilities of patient’s and other important information via telecommunication applications including wireless network, internet, cell phones and other communication mediums. The information through this software can be protected and distributed thoroughly (Green et al. 2012). In the health and social care sector, a number of software are used including word processing software for formatting and editing text based information including letters, memos, spreadsheet. In addition, the medical software which used in health and social care sector include electronic health record system (EHR), picture archiving and communication system (PACKS), clinical decision support system (CDS) and other important machines like Automated dispensing Machines (ADMS) (Moss 2012).
I have used standard ICT software while working in my organization. I have operated electric diary record and electronic health records for accessing patient’s regular health information. I have always attempted to follow the organizational policy. It helped me to keep the records confidential while updating the records regularly. For accessing the screenshot, I search for vital signs in Google search engine. The machine can efficiently measure pulse rate, blood pressure, SPo2 and temperature. In addition, this machine gives information for setting the care plan for the patients (Moorhead et al. 2013).
Evaluating the advantages of using ICT in the health and social care for users of this services, associated workers and organization
There are a number of advantages of using ICT software in the health and social care sector. Through the use of e-mail, internet and telephone, some important information about patient’s condition can be discussed with the professional at the time of emergency. Through SMS also an important message can be conveyed to others very quickly with quick reply. Through the help of internet and telecommunication, at any situation, patients can consult with doctors about their prescribed medication and other medical help. Sometimes the use of e-medicine gives the information about the drugs, illness based on which the treatment is planned (Mockford et al. 2012). The telehealth is ICT software provides people different options for controlling their daily activities, such as it provides opportunities to dementia patients to be involved in music, selecting audio and tracks and thereby enhancing their satisfaction. The ICT software promotes the involvement of family of patients in care activities which influences the positive environment.
With the help of ICT software the care workers can reduce the medical errors which can help to enhance the quality of care by improving the patient security related aspects with the use of correct information about the service user (Best et al. 2012).
Analysis of the legal considerations regarding the use of ICT effect on health and social care services
A number of legislation is considered in the health and social care sector for using ICT applications in the organization. Using ICT software can involve a number of health related problems in people using the software. Working with the ICT software can cause pain in upper limb along with injury in arms, cramp and repetitive. It also affects eye strength negatively. It can also cause backache. Legislations related to the information protection including the Data protection act 1998 depicts that all the personal information related to the patient and all the medication should be kept confidential, safely stored and distributed with the proper care, thereby ensuring consumer’s protection (Kohorn 2012). The data protection Act 1998 and the act of health and safety of employees’ act 1974, the care givers should be responsible for their legal duties according to appropriate legal and safety framework at the health and social care organization (Mitchell et al. 2012). The electronic database is safer for keeping patient’s data safely than written documents; there is less chance of misplacing data. With the help of Computer Misuse act 1990, the health care operators can minimize the misuse of patient’s personal and health related information in other work, thereby enhancing the quality of service.
In the case study, lack of nurse’s compliance with the legislative framework and codes of professional conducts has been identified which needs strict regulation and monitoring system.
This assignment highlighted the importance communication in the health and social care sector and the role of health care workers in achieving the goals of healthcare. It has been revealed that effective communication and interaction within the care providers and care users enhance the efficiency of care processes and make the improvement faster. In this assignment, the major concern is the exploration of communication theories and skills which are used in the health and social care sector for effective communication process. The use and importance of ICT software in the health and social care sector has also been discussed here.
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