The following report is a health plan review for health and wellbeing of the people of Victoria. It aims at achieving a healthy state free from diseases and injury, for the achievement of high health standards for the citizens of all age cadres. The plan sets out a long term agenda for improving the health and social outcomes of the citizens of Victoria. The plan approaches the health issue in three dimensions that is prevention, health promotion and health protection. The plan capitalizes other rolled out programs and seeks to implement and compliment other strategies which target the health status of the citizens of Victoria. The plan seeks to build consensus with the community, government and sectorial engagement and use a cost effective approach with limited resources. The plan utilised various social and economic determinants. This review will focus on gender roles, norms and expectations determinants and how it affects the ability of the people to protect and promote their health status and well being.
The health plan lays basis on the first health intervention plan of 2011-2015. The plan has a bigger aim of reducing the inequalities in health and well being. The plan lays the responsibility of health on various factors which include the family, community, voluntary people, private sector, education system and all levels of government have the responsibility of improved health. The plan targets all residence of the Victoria region. The plan sets strategic shift for change and bringing out improvements, which focuses on prevention, health promotion and health protection. The plan is being drafted by the government and implemented by the partner agents, government and other stakeholders in the health sector. The plan seeks to eliminate the challenges that affect the Victorians which include increased risks, increasing the impact of chronic disease such as cardiovascular, diabetes, cancer and respiratory diseases, minimises the inequalities associated to health, developing new approaches regarding to health and ensuring environment health protection plan.
The plan aims to improve the health status by setting priorities on key factors associated to health. The health plan is implemented in three major platforms which include, healthy and sustainable environment in this case factors like poor, place based approaches and person centred approaches. The determinants of health is key factor in population health, influences on the social characteristic of the population will play key role on health, socio economic status leads psychological stress gender responsibilities norms and expectations on how people respond on their needs. Monitoring and evaluation of the plan will be achieved through a comprehensive public health and well being outcomes frame work the governance of the plan will be initiated through a yearly forum by the state and key stakeholder in the population health and the Victorian secretariat, which is aimed at giving the oversight role on the state in achieving the plans.
According to Victorian health plan, the priority focus area is on tobacco free living. Tobacco smoking has been a major public health problem worldwide. In Australia smoking rates have reduce significantly over the last 30 years , however from statistics 12% of the citizens still smoke. Worldwide smoking is related to over five million deaths worldwide from the year 1990 to 2015, (Reitsma et al., 2015). Smoking affects the smaller populations highly compared to the general population. In the plan, the aboriginal people are most at risk of smoking compared to that population. One in 8 women is reported to be smoking at pregnancy with 3 times higher among the aboriginal community. Teenage smoking is increased with 4 times compared to women. Further in households 1 in 5 children are living with a smoker in the homestead. Smoking has impacted negative consequence on the health status of the people, 8.5 % of the burden of disease in Australia are caused by smoking. Tobacco smoking accounts to 25% of deaths and is linked to stroke and cardiovascular disease. Stopping of smoking before age 40 avoids 90% of risks later.
The strategic plan of action aiming at reducing smoking rates, measures are utilising legislative and non legislative approaches like cessation campaigns to reduce the trend, with focus at the community level through hospitals and community services. The approach will be targeting the high risks groups for action. The possible measure of outcome is the reduction of the proportion of people who smoke tobacco.
Worldwide the fundamental health outcomes are affected by both by health access and multidimensional factors which vary from social, political, economical, environmental and cultural factors. Factor of human quality and gender related issues play a significant factor. The key determinants of health under this focus include, gender, norms and expectations. Sex and gender are more correlated factors linked to health status for both genders, (UN, 2010, WHO, 2010). Gender roles, behaviour and the norms have high significant factor on how men and women access to health systems and the impacts it has on their health status. The challenges faced by the population, especially the pregnant women in promoting and defending their health need urgent health intervention, (Ministry of women Affairs, 2008). The World Health Organization has identified gender as an important factor in health in two varied forms; unequal gender treatment is associated with increased health risks for both women and girls worldwide, and action on gender norms and roles leads to better knowledge on how identity and skewed balance of power between men and women impact on risks.
Gaining an understanding on gender views on the health system framework so as to address gender related causes of disease and equality differences can have a positive impact on the development of effective health policy system and related services in the health sector.
Increased awareness and understanding of gender role in human health, is beneficial for the overall improvement of the health of the well being of the people. Gender is a factor towards health care access. Respond to drugs regiment and pharmacological process vary according to physiological and differencing the hormones and body composition, (Public health Agency, 2010). Different roles that are given to the gender component affect health. Gender state affect the type of activity ascribed. Feminist is often associated limited physical activities which might have significant physical and mental health benefits on their health, (Goldner, at al., 2012). Thus gender is a social construct and varies with roles, norms and values. Gender norm and expectancies have significant differences on the health of the population among men and women systematically empower one from the other. Societies with higher proportion of inequality often have low health status in comparison, gender has diverse perspective on health, in US, women earn less money compared to men in the same cadre, in Vietnam, higher proportion of men smoke as smoking among women is not traditionally accepted, while in Saudi Arabia, men are given permission while women are prohibited.
Gender factor has displayed itself in the unequal duties to provide family care responsibilities and disparities in nutrition, inequalities factor have an impact in the physical and mental health of millions of women worldwide, WHO, 2010). Action towards gender equity to address the gaps in health access is the most viable solution to minimise health inequities and to utilise effectively the health resources. In addressing the challenges related to women health social determinants, there is need to ensure there is access to services that are supported by adequate mechanisms and assessments of policies which decentralized to rah the common woman at the grassroots level.
This report has highlighted the need for a population health strategy to cushion the population and to achieve disease and injury free burden of diseases. Victoria health plan aims at reducing the associated health inequalities in health and overall well being of the population. The shift to prevention, health promotion and protection of health is aimed improving the outcomes of the population at large. For achievement of these, there is need for a collaborative approach to health issues in order to achieve greater health outcome. Health is affected by various factors like tobacco smocking which has direct adverse effect on the health status of an individual. Reducing the health determinants for health access is key to improving health status of the population. Among women, reduction in gender, corms and expectancies will be a shift on improving the health status of the women globally.
Goldner, E. M., Jenkins, E., Palma, J., & Bilsker, D. (2011). A Concise Introduction to Mental Health in Canada. (Toronto: Canadian Scholars' Press Inc.).
Ministry of Women’s Affairs, (2008). A Fair Share for Women: Cambodia Gender Assessment. Phnom Penh: MoWA.
Public Health Agency of Canada. (2011-05). Sex and Gender-Based Analysis Training Manual. Unpublished.
Reitsma, Marissa B; Fullman, Nancy; Ng, Marie; Salama, Joseph S; Abajobir, Amanuel (April 2017). "Smoking prevalence and attributable disease burden in 195 countries and territories, 1990–2015: a systematic analysis from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015". The Lancet. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(17)30819-X.
UN, 2010.Global Strategy for Women’s and Children’s Health.New York: UN.
WHO, (2010). Gender, Women and Primary Health Care Renewal. Discussion Paper. Geneva: WHO.
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