Bipolar disorder is found in plenty of people but it is not identified at the right time. It is very important for people for understand the symptoms of bipolar depression so that they can take initiatives accordingly. Apart from bipolar disorder, this assignment will take about smoking. Due to smoking, an individual can face plenty of health concerns. The governments of many countries are putting in efforts to help people to understand the side effects of smoking so that they can lead a healthy life.
(1) Bipolar Depression can be stated as a mental state wherein an individual is under depression and they are forced to go for medical treatment. Stress is something that cannot be controlled in many situations and this is when an individual may realize that they are falling target to various health concerns like bipolar disorder and maniac depression. The biggest problem with manic depression is that no one will understand the severity of the issue because most of the people, their friends and relatives will be under the impression that the mood swings due to situations and not any health concern. The statistics of bipolar disorder is shared below.
(2) Social economic factors that causes bipolar disorder
Plenty of studies have been undertaken but there isn’t any study that proves the relationship between the socioeconomic class and the presence of bipolar disorder. In fact, looking at the statistics, it can be said that bipolar disorder is spread equally throughout the different social class and education levels. Few of the studies states that bipolar disorder is strongly linked with the financial status of an individual. If an individual’s household income is lower than what he needs to take care of the basic needs then the individual is highly prone to problems like mental disorder, maniac depression and also bipolar disorder.
Few of the studies in the past stated that higher level of education means an individual has been stressed for quite some time and hence, there are possibilities that they might suffer from bipolar disorder and other mental disorder. Research states something contradictory to this as people with more than one educational degree was analyzed. It was seen that the education level and bipolar disorder wasn’t connected to each other (Chavis 2010).
There is no denying to the fact that the education level, the social class and also the occupation of an individual creates an impact on the later life of the individual but this doesn’t prove that the higher or lower education or social class leads to mental disorders like bipolar disorder. Apart from these factors, few of the factors which can be included while talking about social class would be marital status and also the income of the individual but again, there was no proof to comment on its connectivity to bipolar disorder. Marital status can create an impact on the stress level that one is having but there is no proven evidence of any connectivity. Similarly, lower income creates stress but yes, that doesn’t prove that people with lower income are prone to mental disorders like bipolar disorder (Eid 2013).
(3) Relevance of government sources in reporting on inequalities of health
The government of UK is putting in efforts to understand the inequalities of health that is spread out in the society. It is very important for the government to understand these areas wherein there are plenty of health concerns so that the issue can be addressed at the right time rather than that of being ignorant during the initial stages. It is very important for any government to analyze the news reports so that they can understand the issues that are going on in the country.
The UK government officials along with doctors are continuously on the move so that they can identify the people who need health care and also the people who are facing problems which aren’t yet identified by the people in the group. The UK government can go through plenty of news articles and news bulletin so that they can understand the reason for which plenty of health concerns are being seen in particular. Most of the news papers may do the analysis also by themselves and hence, the government officials will have to put in efforts to follow the articles which talks about bipolar disorder and other concerns (NSMC n.d.).
(4) Barriers to accessing healthcare
There are plenty of reasons due to which people are restraining themselves from visiting the healthcare centers when they actually need treatment. There are plenty of reasons associated with the ignorance by people for the health concerns that they are facing. Few of the reasons for barriers to accessing healthcare as discussed below.
The attitude and psychologies factors are one of the first reasons due to which people are ignorant to healthcare. The people will have to understand the signs and symptoms of the health concern that they are facing. Many people don’t understand the problems that they are facing and hence, they are ignorant about going to healthcare centre. If an individual is suffering from bipolar disorder then they may think that they are facing mood swings so they need to control their emotions rather than that of visiting a doctor. This is not ignorance but people don’t understand to the fact that they need medical treatment and hence, they don’t medical help at the right time.
Physical and geographical barriers are also a barrier that stops people from getting accessing to healthcare services. People who are old or people who are disabled may not be able to visit the hospital for healthcare. Secondly, even today there are plenty of villages in the UK wherein the accessibility to healthcare centers is very difficult or even impossible. There isn’t much of connectivity between those villages and places wherein the healthcare is located. Most of the public transport that connects these villages to healthcare may be very expensive and hence, these people are forced to stay back at home with any health concern rather than that of taking appropriate treatment.
Lack of resources is also one of the problems which need to be addressed so that people can get access to healthcare. In many hospitals, it is seen that the waiting time in the hospital is high and hence, the patients will go to hospitals only when they think that they cannot bear with the pain. There are also hospitals which don’t have proper access to machines and people aren’t financially fit to sponsor the equipments required by the hospital.
Financial barriers cannot be ignored at any cost because in case of lack of financial resources, one will avoid going to the hospital as people will not have sufficient to pay doctor’s fees. Primary healthcare may not be affected while taking the financial barrier into consideration but if an elderly man is bedridden for long then financial barriers comes into picture.
Cultural and language barriers will also create an impact on the accessibility to healthcare. The people from the villages may find it difficult to understand what the doctors say and hence, they may avoid communication with the doctors. Similarly, people who don’t have access to healthcare in their village will have to communicate with doctors who may be speaking different language and hence, they may avoid visiting healthcare (4 learning n.d.).
(1) Government initiatives and models of health promotion
As a part of government initiative, the health promotion starts from school. The health care professionals use to meet up with the school students so that the intensity of the problem can be understood by the students. The government people will hire few people who are willing to take to the students about the problems that one may face due to smoking. There are various disadvantages of useful of tobacco but most of the people aren’t aware of the problems that they may face in the near future.
Apart from talking to the students in the school, the government also understands that there are people in the community who aren’t aware of the problems that they face due to smoking so community classes are undertaken. This community classes will talk about the impact of smoking on the individual’s health and also the impact that it creates on people in the society.
Economic regulatory activities are also undertaken by the government. Many governments also undertake various activities that can reduce the sale of cigarettes in public. The reduction in sales of cigarettes will mean that the people who will be consuming cigarettes will be reduced. Government laws don’t allow the smoking in public so this reduces the cigarette sale. The sale of cigarette in public stores is also banned and hence, one cannot get access to cigarettes at a cheap price. Lastly, an individual who is below the age of 18 cannot be smoked and hence, the number of smokers has reduced (CDC n.d.).
(2) Role of healthcare professionals
The role of healthcare professionals is to help the government in implementing the existing policies or come up with policies that can be helpful for the government to achieve the protocol. The healthcare professionals are associated at different levels. At each level, they play a different role. Few of the role that is played by healthcare professionals and the responsibilities that they handle to control smoking are discussed below.
Few of the professionals will be associated with the government at the level of organizational development. Over here, the professionals will look for organizations that aren’t aware of the problems that may arise due to smoking. The schools and workplaces are one of the most common places wherein the lectures are conducted by professionals so that the students and employees get to know about the problems that may arise due to smoking.
The professionals are also associated with the government for the purpose of community development. There are different communities and the people from each community may be bind together. In this situation, a professional from the same community will come up with the problems that one may face due to smoking and this will help the community to be better, by way of saying no.
Strategy development team will help the government to have a strategy in place so that the smokers in the society can be reduced. These professionals will help the government to come up with news initiative to reduce smoking and at the same time, they will also come up with various marketing strategies that will motivate people to quit or reduce smoking.
Many professionals also interact with the people at the ground level. They meet up the people in person and this helps them to understand the reason for which they smoke. Apart from this, the professional will also come up with ways to help the individual to quit smoking. This will help the patient to stop smoking so that their personal life can be enhanced.
Many professionals believe that the message by them may not taken seriously by the people in the community and hence, they tie-up with people in the community. These people will communicate with others regarding the potential harms of smoking. This will help people to personally with the one who is preaching regarding the smoke practices.
Health management is also undertaken by the professionals. The professionals will collect information at the community level so that the smoking habits, alcohol consumption and the eating patterns of people in that particular community can be understood. These professionals believe that studying the community will help the people in the society to take preventive measures rather than that of looking for a treatment when the problem arises.
There are plenty of projects launched by the government so that people in the society can be safeguarded from problematic habits like that of smoking. These projects can be implemented successfully only when the project management team understands the project and implements it. Every project will have its share of problems so in this situation, the problems will be identified and sorted with the help of the project management team (NHS n.d.).
(3) Importance of routines for healthy living
There are various advantages of having a fixed routine for healthy living and hence, it is highly recommended to have a proper routine. Few of the advantages of having proper routines are discussed below.
Talking about routines, sleep is something that cannot be missed at any cost. It is very important for any individual to have proper sleep at proper time. Sleeping everyday at the same time will help the individual’s body to react in a particular manner. If the sleep patterns are disturbed then it will create an impact on the mental state of the individual. Due to the disturbance in mental state, the stress level increases and this leads to excess smoking. An individual will have to manage their sleep so that they can have a balanced life.
Just like medications, the meals also need to be taken on time. If the meal time is skipped then the body will not be able to understand the way by which they can take energy. To overcome this problem, the individual may develop an urge to drink or smoke.
Having adequate breakfast is one of the best things that anyone can add to their regular routine. Breakfast will help the brain to work faster than what it usually does. It is very important for you to have proper meal at proper time. This will help as a fuel for your brain and in case of absence of fuel, a smoker may feel that a smoke will make them feel better.
Overall, it can be said that in the absence of appropriate routines, one may feel that the stress level in life is increasing. If an individual sticks to proper routines then they will never feel the pressure and irritating and hence, the urge in them to curb the carving for smoking can be controlled to a large extent. Initially quitting cigarette may seem to be a difficult task to achieve but that would not be the case if the smoker follows a routine. The stress, frustration, anger and irritation will reduce and hence, the smoker will automatically be involved in plenty of other productive tasks rather than just smoking and spoiling their health (Healthskills n.d.).
(1) Health belief model
Health belief model are based on certain assumptions that will help the individual to make decisions that are related to the benefits of an individual to stop smoking. First and foremost, an individual will stop smoking only when he feels that stoppage of cigarette will help to avoid unwanted health issues. If an individual stops smoking then he can reduce the chances of him getting problems like lung cancer. Secondly, the individual will also expect some good positive things to take place in his life. If an individual has been into body building for quite some time then they will notice that their body mass has increased due to the quitting of cigarette. Thirdly, the person should be confident enough that he can quit smoking. An individual will not be able to take this decision on his own but it is the responsibility of the doctors and healthcare professionals to help people to quit smoking. The table below will give a detailed view on the health belief model with regards to stopping smoking.
(2) Possible effects of potential conflicts with local industry on health promotion
There are always conflicts between the health promotion and the local industry that is into existence. Few of the conflicts that aren’t allowing the countries to ban cigarettes completely are discussed below.
First and foremost, the government officials are dependent on the income that they receive from the sale of cigarettes and other tobacco products. In spite of the efforts that the government is putting in to stop the flow of cigarettes in the country, the revenue generated by the sale of cigarettes is high than that of the other products which are sold. Apart from that, the increasing price or tax on products like cigarettes doesn’t help the government in reducing the consumption level and hence, the monetary benefits that the government earns are very high (Do 2009).
Secondly, most of the countries may not be manufacturing cigarettes in their country and they can be getting it imported so that the demand of people in the country can be fulfilled. If the government stops the sale of these cigarettes then the import from a particular country will also be stopped and this will spoil the relationship between two countries. To maintain a coordinal relationship, one may be importing cigarettes, in spite of the health concerns that may come up (Patient n.d.).
(3) The importance of providing health information to the public
There are various advantages of providing health information to the public and hence, the government of each nation is motivated to provide appropriate health information to the people. Few of the advantages of providing health information to the public are discussed below.
Stop smoking messages will help the people to be aware of the problems that they may come across if they are involved in excess smoking. This may seem to be something that is useless but that’s not true as even today, there are people who aren’t aware of the problems that they may arise due to smoking. Few of the government officials may think that the packaging of cigarettes itself states that smoking is injurious to health but most of the people may not even pay attention to the packaging. Apart from that, there are few people who may not be able to read and write. In such a situation, an advertisement will help them to understand the problems that they may come across.
The government of the country can be rest assured that the audiences are making an informed decision. If the posters of “smoking kills” are put across at different corners then the possibilities of people missing it may be less and hence, the government can be rest assured that the people are aware of the problem that may arise due to smoking and at the same time, the smokers are also ready to deal with the results.
Lastly, many people think that smoking is a way by which one can express their socioeconomic status. It is the responsibility of the government to help people understand that a stick that can be a way to plenty of diseases cannot be considered as a socioeconomic status. This advertisement will help people to quit smoking and live a healthy life (British Columbia n.d.).
(4) Health promotion campaign to meet the specific objectives
A health promotion campaign to stop smoking will be undertaken. Plenty of activities will be undertaken in the campaign so that the people involved can get to know about the problems that they may face due to excess smoking. Few of the activities that will be undertaken in the campaign to motivate people to stop smoking are as follows: -
(5) The ultimate purpose of the health promotion campaign is to help people understand the problem that may arise due to the smoking. With the help of the campaign, the smokers will be sent an alert and at the same time, their family members will also be made aware of the problem that their loved ones can face in the future.
Bipolar depression can be fought with the help of proper education. People should be educated about the symptoms and this will help them to take medical help at the right time. The government should take initiatives to help people. Smoking is another problem which is creating an impact on the society as a whole. The government should plan the marketing campaign smartly so that the people can make efforts to stop smoking. There are plenty of advertising campaigns but they aren’t effective enough and hence, an alternate option is the best way to help.
4 Learning, Barriers to accessing health care, Viewed on January 13, 2015, https://www.channel4learning.com/sites/gcsease/health_social/1_10_detail2.html
British Columbia, Public health in B.C. Viewed on January 13, 2015, https://www.health.gov.bc.ca/pho/why-public-health-important.html
CDC, Quitting smoking, Viewed on January 13, 2015, https://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/data_statistics/fact_sheets/cessation/quitting/
Chavis, S, 2010, Bipolar Linked to Lower Socioeconomic Status, Viewed on January 13, 2014, https://psychcentral.com/news/2010/09/25/bipolar-linked-to-lower-socioeconomic-status/18728.html
Do, Y, 2009, Local governments’ dependence on tobacco tax revenue: a deterrent to tobacco control in the Republic of Korea, Viewed on January 13, 2015, https://www.who.int/bulletin/volumes/87/9/08-056051/en/
Eid, L, 2013, Bipolar disorder and socioeconomic status: what is the nature of this relationship? Viewed on January 13, 2015, https://www.journalbipolardisorders.com/content/1/1/9
Healthskills, DAILY ROUTINES: A FRAMEWORK FOR HEALTHY LIVING, Viewed on January 13, 2015, https://healthskills.wordpress.com/2011/04/14/daily-routines-a-framework-for-healthy-living/
NSMC, Reporting health inequalities in the British print media, Accessed on January 13, 2015, https://www.thensmc.com/sites/default/files/Health%2BInequalities%2BReport%2BFinal_0.pdf
NHS, 2012, Smokefree marketing campaign strategy: 2012-2015, Accessed on January 13, 2014, https://resources.smokefree.nhs.uk/wp-content/uploads/2012/10/2900211_TobaccoControl_acc.pdf
NHS, Health promotion specialist, Viewed on January 13, 2015, https://www.nhscareers.nhs.uk/explore-by-career/wider-healthcare-team/careers-in-the-wider-healthcare-team/corporate-services/health-promotion-specialist/
Patient, Promoting Prevention - and Barriers to Prevention, Viewed on January 13, 2015, https://www.patient.co.uk/doctor/promoting-prevention-and-barriers-to-prevention
University of Twente, Health belief model, Viewed on January 13, 2015, https://www.utwente.nl/cw/theorieenoverzicht/Theory%20Clusters/Health%20Communication/Health_Belief_Model/
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