Explain the philosophy of primary health care and the principles of wellness.
Primary health refers to the wellbeing of an individual that is achieved by the healing of diseases and promotion of wellness in general. Primary health’s main goal is that everyone in a particular community is able to access healthcare. It focuses on health care beyond the traditional practices and advocates for healthcare that can be equally accessed by all individuals irrespective of their gender, races or social class. Wellness occurs when the physical, mental and spiritual aspects of an individual are met as they have an impact on health and wellbeing of that individual. Primary health care and the health measures undertaken are key and promote the wellness of individuals in society (Australian Nursing Federation, 2009).
What is the difference between primary health and acute health settings?
Acute healthcare refers to the short-term treatment a patient gets due to a severe injury or term of sickness or in the process of recovering from a surgery whereas primary health involves the daily healthcare given and overseen by the healthcare provider who is the first to make contact with the patient.
MrAlexopoulos is an 88-year-old man who has migrated from Greece and lives alone. He speaks very Basic English only. In the past year, he has fallen twice at home, once by tripping over a rug and once when he got up to go to the bathroom at night. He has become increasingly afraid of falling again and tends to restrict his activities in the home. He goes out only when accompanied by his son (applies to HLTEN401B & HLTEN516).
Using the information provided above, outline the biopsychosocial and cultural health care considerations that indicate that Mr. Alexopolous should not live alone in the house.
Mr. Alexopoulos should not live alone because he can succumb to depression due to loneliness and at his age, he is very vulnerable to any disease (Australian Government Department of Health, 2013). He is mainly at a risk of stress and illness. Since he migrated from Greece, there can be differences in cultural practices, beliefs, and circumstances that can make him depressed.
What aspects of MrAlexopoulos’ environment need to be assessed (include internal and external)?
The external factors of MrAlexopoulos environment that should be assessed include foods; because his eating habits might be poor leading him to be constantly falling , his surroundings, his relationship with other people, drugs taken, the water he drinks, the air he breathes, the activities he indulges in and whether he keeps fit or not. His internal environment will involve factors that cannot be controlled or changed. These factors include the fact that MrAlexopolous is aging; he may be undergoing stress as a result of staying alone, his genetic makeup and also his family tendencies that cannot be altered.
Explain specific interventions you would design to ensure MrAlexopoulos’ safety in his home.
I will ensure that Mr.Alexopoulos has a handset with emergency numbers, one of a family member or friend that he can call in case of an emergency and also an emergency number of a health care provider who can be reached easily. I will also ensure that he has can a cane or walker that will aid him while walking in the house and that the rugs on the floor are taped to the floor to prevent them from moving. I will also put rubber mats in the bathtub to ensure that there is no slipping. I will also install grab bars in washrooms to ensure his safety.
What allied would health and community services referrals you suggest assisting MrAlexopoulos to maintain his independence?
I would ensure that MrAlexopoulos enrolls allied and community referrals that major and deal with strength training with the guidance of a professional, falls prevention with the aid of a healthcare provider, joining planned activity groups as a way of preventing loneliness and also home modification with forms of assessment (Australian Primary Health Care Nurses Association,2017).
This theory comprises of a hierarchy of the humans needs beginning from the very basic needs, the psychological needs, and the self-fulfillment needs. The basic needs include; food, water, and clothing, the psychological needs comprises of the feeling of belonging, love needs and esteem needs whereas the self-actualization includes activities that can help a person realize their full potential including recreational activities. At the old age, the elderly may not be able to fend for themselves, so it’s good for them to be provided with the basic needs so as to be healthy. The old people also need company either from family or friends for them to have a sense of belonging and to feel loved and wanted. They should also be listened to so as to feel respected and still important in society. The elderly should also be prevented from abuse and exposure to diseases by offering them safety and also healthcare.
Many countries suffer health inequalities, including Australia – specifically within the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (ATSI) community. In Western societies, social issues continue to emerge as the gap between those with and those without economic resources grows
a. In what ways does an individual’s financial status affect their ability to access health resources?
An individual’s financial status will determine their access to health services. Individuals with low income in Australia go through health problems because of their financial inabilities. For instance, they are not able to access healthcare services more often and when they access it, it is of low quality despite their health issues. Besides, individuals with low income are characterized with low education levels and at times do jobs that do not provide health benefit plans whereas those individuals with high income are provided with medical covers, this brings about variation in access to healthcare between the high and the low-income earners. Therefore, these viewpoints are shaped by the policies of the country that reflect different ideologies in access to healthcare services.
List the social determinants that disadvantage people and create health inequalities. In your answer, include the common health inequalities for the ATSI community
Some of the social determinants of health that disadvantage minority groups like the ATSI community from accessing healthcare service are the social and economic factors, these factors are distributed among these populations, which influence their ability to access health resources.
The federal government funds for those contributions that are made for public health facilities via the Australian Health Care Agreement regardless of whether the funds were provided to territory and State governments for their expenditure on public hospitals. On the other hand, State governments fund for outpatient services and emergency services.
Aged Care - including which tier of Government is responsible for this area and the allocation of funds. Include in your answer the accreditation process
Aged care is funded and regulate by the government with the support of the Territory and State governments for the community and home care, which are provided by charitable, religious, and community organizations and the local governments (White & Hughes, 2013). The funding is through an Aged Care Funding Instrument (ACFI), which was introduced on March 20, 2008, that determines the nature and level of care payments of the individuals in the care homes; this implies that the payments are in accordance with the care needs and individuals with high care needs. The Aged Care package gives a package of care to those individuals with serious care needs but able to live in their homes with the assistance of home care package, these packages are provided in order to ensure the needs of the elderly is taken care of (Australian Human Rights Commission, 2007).
PBS is a program introduced by the Australian government to provide subsidized drugs the Australian population as well as foreigners covered by the healthcare agreement. The aim of the PBS is to ensure Australians access a reliable and affordable range of medicines. The program takes responsibility for the drug costs to communities and patients setting and not when in hospitals which are the responsibility of the State and Territorial governments (Brown and Edwards, 2012).
Brown, D. and Edwards, H. (2012) Lewis’s Medical-surgical Nursing: Assessment and Management of Clinical Problems. (3rd ed.) Sydney, Australia: Elsevier.
Aged Care Crisis. (2015). Accreditation FAQs. Retrieved March 20, 2017 from https://www.agedcarecrisis.com/accreditation/accreditation-faqs
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Australian Human Rights Commission. (2007, April). Social determinants and the health of Indigenous peoples in Australia – a human rights based approach. Paper presented at the International Symposium on the Social Determinants of Indigenous health. Retrieved fromhttps://www.humanrights.gov.au/news/speeches/socialdeterminants-and-health indigenous-peoples-australia-human-rights-based
Australian Government. (2016). A healthy and active Australia. Retrieved March 20, 2017 from https://www.healthyactive.gov.au/
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Australian Nursing and Midwifery Board of Australia. (2016). Standards for practice: Enrolled Nurses.RetrievedMarch20,2017from https://www.nursingmidwiferyboard.gov.au/CodesGuidelinesStatements/Professional-standards.aspx
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Australian Primary Health Care Nurses Association. (2017). What is primary health care nursing? Retrieved March 20, 2017 from https://www.apna.asn.au/profession/whatis-primary-health-care-nursing
Commonwealth of Australia. (2017). About the PBS. Retrieved March 20, 2017 from https://www.pbs.gov.au/info/about-the-pbs
Commonwealth of Australia. (2011). Falls can be prevented: A guide to preventing falls for older people. Canberra, ACT: Author. Retrieved March 20, 2017 fromhttps://www.health.gov.au/internet/main/publishing.nsf/Content/E23F5F7BF8F07264CA257BF00020435/$File/Don't%20fall%20for%20it.pdf
Nursing and Midwifery Board of Australia. (2010). Nursing practice decisions summaryguide. Retrieved March20, 2017 from https://www.nursingmidwiferyboard.gov.au/Search.aspx?q=Nursing%20practice%20decisions
Nursing Theories.(2013).Retrieved March 20, 2017 from https://currentnursing.com/nursing_theory/
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White, J., & Hughes, F. (2013).The healthcare delivery system.In J. Crisp, C. Taylor, C. Douglas & G Rebeiro (Eds.).Potter and Perry’s fundamentals of nursing (4th ed., pp. 19-38). Sydney, NSW: Elsevier.
Wilkinson, R., & Marmot, M. (Eds) (2003). Social determinants of health: The solid facts (2nded.). Copenhagen, Denmark: World Health Organization. Retrieved from https://www.euro.who.int/__data/assets/pdf_file/0005/98438/e81384.pdf
Yarwood, J., &Betany, K. (2013).Health and wellness.In J. Crisp, C. Taylor, C. Douglas & G Rebeiro (Eds.).Potter and Perry’s fundamentals of nursing (4th ed., pp. 302-319). Sydney, NSW: Elsevier.
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