1. Describe the health concerns of the community.
2. Identify current environmental risk assessment methods which apply to public health issues.
3. Suggest a modifier or new prevention or intervention program based on your research.
4. Create a sample program budget.
5. Complete a SWOT analysis of the proposed program.
The “unwanted visitor” is mosquito-prone dengue, which made headlines in the last summer season after public health officials found that 5% of Key West residents have affected by the recent exposure to the virus. The vector related diseases account for more than seventeen percent of all infectious diseases, causing more than one million deaths annually. Due to alarming effects of such vector-borne diseases, WHO responds strongly and provide the best evidence for controlling vectors and protecting people against infection.
In this report, dengue-related health problem or injuries are going to discuss in the perspective of health-related concerns of USA. The focus will be given to surrounding privacy and security issues for the particular protection of dengue and related information provided by the HIPAA, which protects the confidentiality of patient’s records.
Thesis Statement: The prone vector diseases can be controlled providing enough healthcare facilities and generate more awareness in people’s thought process.
Description of heath concern issues of the community:
For the deadly contagious diseases like dengue, chikungunya, plague, Malaria, Lymphatic filariasis, Japanese encephalitis and many more have erupted in the global world confirms that public health protections and environmental effects needs to be take care more effectively (Dantas-Torres, Chomel & Otranto 2012). With this effort, people can at least survive with the good health. More than two lakh five thousand billion people in over hundred countries are at risk of “contracting dengue alone” (Semenza & Zeller, 2014). The US community is, indeed, concerned about such statistics delivered from the “National Centre for Health Statistics” (Gubler, et al. 2014). But rapid travel in the global world, International Trade and Environmental changes such as climate change and “urbanization” are causing “vectors and vector-prone diseases” to spread beyond borders (Kouadio et al. 2012). Dengue, particularly, is considered as “neglected tropical disease” and 40 percent of the population of US community are at risk for this serious health factor (Simmons, et al. 2012). It is a fastest growing “vector prone disease”. Latin America is mostly affected by this, but it is also a matter of concern in the countries like Africa, where cases are less often diagnosed (Stoddard, et al. 2013).
Present environmental risk assessment methods to deal with related health issue:
The environmental risks to health have now mostly concerned about infectious disease control mechanism as the US has suffered due to the rapid health impact of dengue at an unprecedented rate (Lashari & Zaman 2012). The “Centre for Disease Control and Prevention” have invented dengue vaccine “DENVax”, is recently undergoing “Phase 2 clinical trials” in Singapore, Columbia, Puerto Rico and Thailand. In the year of 2014, Phase 2b/Phase 3 trials have stated their research and the preparations are underway (van den Berg et al. 2012). For prevention of dengue, the CDC have concentrated more on testing department for this disease prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and control (Morin et al. 2014). By developing new environmental risk assessment tools to combat the vectors and fight against the disease have been developed, for instance, insecticide products and spraying technologies (Nelson & Williams 2014). Also, the growing awareness of the people of Latin America by arranging campaigns and promoting issue related concerns is the recent step that has been taken for controlling the indirect cause of this vector related disease. In this way, the risk assessment methods have been applied to deal these health related issues.
Recommendation for new prevention or intervention program based on the above research:
Due to the presence of the vector-related disease, the situation needs to be controlled by implementing new prevention control mechanism into the current healthcare business. To help cope with this increasing threat, it is recommended to implement effective “emergency mosquito control system” and needs to design community base integrated program. This program should mainly focus not only “mosquito control but upon disease prevention”. By the successful implementation of this program, the community will be largely benefitted and restrict the epidemic impact in the healthcare business. Other than that, the proposed program should concentrate more on an integrated management system for developing people’s awareness for dengue-prevention control system in the chosen community. Though, this proposed program might be costly, but the sufficient budget can be useful for successful implementation of this program. The integrated communication system shall be recommended to reach this proposed mosquito control system mechanism in a better way. But the laboratory expenses, cost of epidemiology control effect should be restricted by the organizer so that effective patient care system can be implemented in the selected community. These are the recommendation steps should be followed by the organizers.
(Source: created by author)
Sample program budget:
Cost for Program (US$)
“Portable X ray equipment”
“Intake-output monitoring charts”
“Laboratory test equipments”
“Arterial pressure and Swan-Ganz catheters and monitoring equipment when feasible”
Arrangement of “Therapeutic materials”
“Plasma volume expanders (Dextran 40, plasmanate, fresh/frozen plasma, whole blood where available)”
Expenses for welfare people in this program
Promotional and campaigning event costs
Table-1: Proposed budget
(Source: created by author)
SWOT analysis of the proposed program:
- By the application of proposed mosquito control program, the community can get an identified research-based operational program and will present better healthcare system.
- State level supports will get by the organizer and response will help to generate more awareness in not only one particular community but the global audience as well.
- The minimum amount of active ingredients is required for the successful implementation of this program.
- An effective integrated system of dengue, as well as other vector prone diseases, can be controlled the environmental aspects and vector management system is the key strength of this proposed program.
- This IMC system of dengue will be costly and time taking.
- A large people’s participation is required for the successful implementation of this proposed program.
- The lack of “epidemiological surveillance system” in the public and environmental system of the community can be the cause of failure of this type of control programs.
- Large unemployed people can actively perform in this social welfare program.
- Vector-borne diseases can be prevented from spreading to the large communities.
- Failed social communication system can be a large threat for this proposed program
- Less concerned infectious disease within the community people can be the cause of failure of the proposed program.
By this above report based on the discussion topic, we can quickly conclude that better prevention can largely influence on healthcare society. The alarming impact of vector related disease like dengue is the cause of a large number of people’s death. For mitigating the massive affect of the society, the recommended proposed program can control the dengue effects in the US community. The proposed SWOT analysis is also favorable for the application of mosquito control program into the society. By this successful implementation, the large community people will be diagnosed at the right time and can prevent the disease without spreading it to the other part of the world.
Dantas-Torres, F., Chomel, B.B. & Otranto, D., (2012). Ticks and tick-borne diseases: a One Health perspective. Trends in parasitology, 28(10), 437-446.
Gubler, D.J., Ooi, E.E., Vasudevan, S& eds., (2014). Dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever. CABI.
Kouadio, I.K., Aljunid, S., Kamigaki, T., Hammad, K. & Oshitani, H., (2012). Infectious diseases following natural disasters: prevention and control measures.
Lashari, A.A. & Zaman, G., (2012). Optimal control of a vector borne disease with horizontal transmission. Nonlinear Analysis: Real World Applications, 13(1), 203-212.
Morin, C., Monaghan, A., Crosson, W., Quattrochi, D. & Luvall, J., (2014). Variations in Modeled Dengue Transmission over Puerto Rico Using a Climate Driven Dynamic Model.
Nelson, K.E. & Williams, C.M., (2014). Infectious disease epidemiology: theory and practice. Jones & Bartlett Publishers.
Semenza, J.C. & Zeller, H., (2014). Integrated surveillance for prevention and control of emerging vector-borne diseases in Europe. Euro Surveill,19(13), 20757.
Simmons, C.P., Farrar, J.J., van Vinh Chau, N. & Wills, B., (2012). Dengue.New England Journal of Medicine, 366(15), 1423-1432.
Stoddard, S.T., Forshey, B.M., Morrison, A.C., Paz-Soldan, V.A., Vazquez-Prokopec, G.M., Astete, H., Reiner, R.C., Vilcarromero, S., Elder, J.P., Halsey, E.S. & Kochel, T.J., (2013). House-to-house human movement drives dengue virus transmission. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 110(3), 994-999.
van den Berg, H., Velayudhan, R., Ebol, A., Catbagan, B.H., Turingan, R., Tuso, M. & Hii, J., (2012). Operational efficiency and sustainability of vector control of malaria and dengue: descriptive case studies from the Philippines.Malar J, 11(269), 10-1186.