Discuss about the Health Promotion Substance Abuse.
Substance abuse is a global peril and is a threat to humanity and sustenance of mankind. Substance abuse can affect an individual’s life at any point of time. People have been using drugs and alcohol on a long term basis. Drugs find use in the treatment of ailments within an individual. However, the drugs can be further divided into schedule and no-schedule drugs, which is the main contributor to substance abuse. Drugs and alcohol has been doing harm to the society and deaths by substance abuse are reportedly higher in many developing and developed countries.
Health promotion motivates us to embrace the idea of well-being. Many programs have been initiated worldwide to eliminate the problem of substance abuse, which is often short term and it is concentrated on simple facts and situational analysis. However, the lack of community based approaches hinders the success of much of the programs. The current study discusses in detail in the generic strategy for health promotion, designing an action plan for promotion of the health objectives. The Ottawa charter for health promotion has also been discussed in the current regards.
The ‘generic’ strategy
Health promotion and prevention of disease is two distinct topics and are related. Prevention generally identifies the problem and helps in avoiding similar situations in the future. The focus of prevention in the field of substance abuse is reduction in the drug usage, reduction in the use of alcohol or tobacco.
Health promotion works as a broader level of prevention, which mainly focuses on the all-over well being of the patients (Eldredge et al., 2016). Health promotion targets to reduce the stigma along with addressing the root cause of drug abuse. Health promotion is a process of providing sufficient knowledge and autonomy in the hands of the individuals and community in general for controlling their own health.
Like every other things which makes human “feel good”, the psychotic substances like drugs, alcohol and tobacco changes the way we feel. These psychotic substances have the potential to do both good and bad by taking the charge of life from our hands. The traditional prevention programs focuses on the ways to prevent and treat the negative outcomes of this problem (Neiger et al., 2012). This has led the government to apply many policies and legislation, which restricts the supply of the drugs, alcohol and tobacco. Health promotions does not necessarily seek to protect people from harm, it encourages and enables people to gain control over their health (Soubhi, & Potvin, 2010).
The health promotion interventions always focus on the well-being of the people. Each substance has its associated side effects and produces different symptoms and expressions in an individual; every environment has different cultures, which adds elements of resiliency.
In this respect, porter’s generic strategy model could be used for affective promotion of health objectives within the population. The model was suggested by Michael Porter in 1980 to establish the relation within organizations at the grassroot level and the industry as a whole. The strategy in general believes in maximization of the core capabilities of an organization to provide it with a competitive advantage over other similar market players (Benavides-Vaello, Strode, & Sheeran, 2013). The strategic model can be divided into three different objectives such as – cost leadership, differentiation, differentiation focus, cost focus, stuck- in-the middle. There are some of different aspects of the model which could be elaborated further based upon the requirements and scope of health promotion.
The cost leadership focuses upon designing and promotion of strategies for health promotion which would provide the best –in –class services to the desired section of audiences. In this context, the target audience would be the one suffering from drug abuse. The goal of the health promotion objective would be to provide them with best possible alternatives or medication for management of the side effects of the drug abuse. Therefore designing health promotion campaign where the patients are provided with cost effective medicines such as opoids for pain management and central nervous system depressant such as diazepam and alprazolam can help in the establishment of cost leadership.
The success of the campaign lies in the differentiation of the promotional strategies, which can help in reaching out to the maximum number of audiences. In this respect, using different modes or platforms for promotion such as handmade posters, pamphlets along with large scale online campaign can help in diversification of the audience bases.
The differentiation focus here means drafting out promotional plans and awareness messages for individual audience section. The peril of drug abuse is common within the youth as well as the aged who have suffering from long term addiction ("Lives of Substance - personal stories of addiction", 2017). Therefore, the mode of treatment and strategic promotional plan varies according to the section of audiences being addressed.
The cost focus here refers to the designing and mitigation of cost effective alternate solutions which could help in controlling and regulating the incidence of drug abuse. There is a need to identify the focus group and reach out to them individually, through effective collaboration with multiple state and federal government health channels. As commented by Loss, Lindacher & Curbach (2014), regular blood tests, vaccination, affective medication management along with following a holistic care regimen can reduce the dependence on such illicit sources. The stuck in the middle situation can be encountered in case proper research and evaluation is not done before the implementation of the promotional objectives and campaign.
An example of the strategy in action
The health promotionstrategies, which are specific to a substance, in general, works to reduce the available supply of that substance, it also works to reduce the individual demand of that particular substance. In another way, these strategy works to reduce the potential of harming the individual and the society using it.
The specialty of the health promotion strategies is the works to reduce the risks such a way that the interactions of these risk factors are complex. The substance abuse related health promotion strategies offer many opportunities for the policy change (Bennadi, 2013).
The health promotion strategy discussed here is demand reduction. It works at all three level (individual, community and environmental). The demand reduction comprises intervention in such a way that it also aims on to the reduction of the harmful consequences of using alcohol, tobaccos and drug. The scope of the demand reduction intervention is wide.
The demand reduction health promotion strategies can be applied in two ways. One is through school-basedcampaign, which works by mass education (Onnela et al., 2014). Another is through providing the abused people with drug dependence treatment.
The first approach is focused on the youth. The most effective programs for youth are the one, which are long-term, and comprehensive. The most effective programs can be embedded in the existing curriculum (Kania et al., 2012). It is also necessary to target those people who are not in the school. Therefore, the approach should also be on the street level. The campaigns, which are held in the schools, are often anti-drug.However, through the health promotion approach, it should be pro-heath. These campaigns should emphasize on building self-esteem to the students (Drewitz-Chesney, 2012). However, the first approach could not provide the patients with expected outcome, whereas the second approach is safer and effective.
For example, the treatment for heroin independence using the substitution drugs in structured settings with psychological assistance has shown immensely positive response. The intervention method includes the attraction and retention of the substance abuse patientslong enough to make the treatment work. It can make the drug and alcohol demand for this particular community to decrease gradually. This provision is available and affordable. There are many other benefits of this approach such as reduction in the number of drug overdose death. The majority of people who suffers from the addiction problem like alcohol, tobacco and drugs opt for a detoxification prevention program. Detoxification or detox is one of the safe and comfortable management to treat the withdrawal symptoms (Stafford, Allsop, & Daube, 2014). The Detoxification program cannot be considered as a distinct form of treatment, rather than it can be considered as a prelude to the treatment. However, the drawback of the detoxification program is that, the addicts availing this service can relapse back into the addiction. This makes them in exposure of drug overdose or alcohol overdose.
The heroin users are often treated with supplement drugs such as Methadone. Methadone treatment is the most effective one and is more extensively studied. It reduces deaths by drug overdose, crimes and HIV infection. The main drawback of this treatment is that Methadone is often poorly supervised and is available in the black market. It can be used as another legal medical drug, which can be used again as a substance. The health-promotion strategy approach of using Methadone should be promoted on the community level (Herrman, 2012). The campaign should be focused about letting people know about the bad effect of the drug.
Another campaign, which could raise awareness amongst the common people including the young, is the media campaign. Media campaign is also an effective tool to reduce the drug demand. However, intervention campaign through media is often ineffective.
Best practice I: Planning, evaluation, context
According to the WHO stated health promotion principles, a successful health promotion strategy will involve the population in a whole rather than focusing on the people with one specific disease. It is directed towards the action on the health determinants. An effective Health promotion strategy, combines many complementary methods or approaches. A particularly effective health promotion strategy aims an effective participation and the health professionals who work to the primary healthcare have an important role in enabling the health promotion (Roden, & Jarvis, 2012).
Many approaches of theabove-mentioneddrug demand reduction strategies and intervention has maintained the health promotion principles apart from the closed setting treatment. The media campaign approach is cost-efficient and involves the people in mass, but it does not influence the community as a whole. The youth oriented school based interventions also targets a mass population, but is not always effective.
The interventions using drugs such as Methadone as a substitute along with psychological counseling is the most effective approach involving substance abuse. Counseling and detoxification therapy can be an effective approach together for any people, who are suffering from any kind of substance abuse.
The framework of intervention with many clear goals needs evaluation for effective outcome. Before implementing the framework, consideration of three essential phases needs to be considered. These are, assessment of the strength and framework of the community, planning of the approach and implementation of the approach. To do this connection with the key stakeholders such as school, street, parents is necessary. For planning the approach against substance abuse, nurturing the key partnership among colleagues, peers and community is alsoimportant (Roden, & Jarvis, 2012). Identification and evaluation of the intended outcome of the health promotion strategy is necessary. To develop and evaluate a conceptual framework, engagement of stakeholders in developing and disseminating is necessary.
Best Practice II: Ottawa Charter in action
The Ottawa chartered Health promotion (1986) has been influential in guiding the all over development of the health promotion concept. The Ottawa Chartered can be used at any population settings and the action areas shows more chance of promoting health than when they are in isolation (Woodall, J. R., Warwick-Booth, & Cross, 2012). The Ottawa chartered highlights the potential role of the every organization, system and also the community as well as the individual level.
The problem of substance abuse, such as alcohol and drug abuse is prevalent among the individuals of Australia. The studies revealed that, in recent years there have been many reports, which highlighted more young people, are consuming more alcohol and drugs.
The need of a proper health policy:
Building a healthy public policy is necessary to implement this health promotion framework. A healthy policy ensures that the people are safe. This includes about making a policy about increasing the age limit of using alcohol (Ayo, 2012).
Create a supportive framework:
Creating a supportive framework is important as it ensures the creation of the supportive environment. Misusage of substance is not just affects the young people as it affects the whole community. The supportive environment would help them to be free from the influence of alcohol and psychotic substances.
Strengthen community action:
Strengthening community action includes the involvement of the whole community to the approach, not just in individual level. If the actions are taken at the community level, it will help all the addicted people within the community to kick of the addiction.
Develop personal skills:
Development of personal skills is important as people feels more control over their lives. This can empower a person as they can feel that they are empowered enough to not to be dependent over alcohol, tobacco drugs or any substance.
Reorient health service:
Reorientation of the health care is an important approach as reorienting health service needs that the nurses have an important role in collaboration between the different stakeholders (McPhail-Bell, Fredericks, & Brough, 2013). When they are partnered with the other healthcare providers, the nurses can encourage the positive health practices.
From a perspective of health promotion, developing health literacy is the most important part of the health promotion. A person should develop certain knowledge and skills to manage its influence over substance abuse rather than about lifestyle marketing. The prevention programs should focus on disrupting the harmful pattern of the use of drugs ande alcohol. The intervention programs should empower the patients to select their own goals, which would meet their individual need. The focus of the health promotion should be the development of capacity in bothindividual and community level. Building a proper health policy is important, rather than on fixing the problems.
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