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Herzberg Theory Of Motivation And Expectancy Theory Of Motivation

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Briefly Explain and apply Herzberg’s theory of Motivation to help Shirley.



The report will discuss in detail about the case where a manager named Shirley Henderson has got promotion recently and is facing problems with one of the guy. Tony is the efficient employee. However, he is not doing his work for some reasons like he found his work boring and thinks that he doesn't have a say in work. In other words, he just has to follow the order given by Shirley. The report will discuss the situation with the help of two theories, Herzberg's theory of motivation and expectancy theory of motivation. 

Herzberg’s theory of motivation

This theory is based on certain features of work, and they are consistently associated with the elements like job satisfaction, and other factors are related to dissatisfaction with a job (Pepper and Gore, 2015). These factors are mentioned below: -

Factors related to satisfaction: -

  1. Accountability or responsibility
  2. Recognition
  3. Accomplishment
  4. Work
  5. Development

Factors for dissatisfaction

  1. Polices of the organization
  2. Extra supervision
  3. Association with the peers and supervisors (Pepper and Gore, 2015)
  4. Current work conditions
  5. Status
  6. Safety or security
  7. Salary or remuneration

It can be concluded that factors associated with the two elements discussed above are not in complete contrast. It is important to understand the opposite of satisfaction is called as no satisfaction and on the other hand opposite of dissatisfaction is called as no dissatisfaction (Miner, 2015).


Job factors are divided into two categories discussed as below: -

  • Hygiene factors: these are those factors that are crucial for the very existence of the motivation for the organization. These factors never lead to positive kind of satisfaction for a long run. However, these factors are not present at the organization and in this case, this will lead to dissatisfaction. Therefore, these factors are crucial for the job and work culture. Such factors are also extrinsic by nature. These factors can also be termed as dissatisfying factors as it needs to ignore dissatisfaction based factors (Nuttin, 2014).
  • Motivation factors: as per theory, hygiene factors cannot be called as motivators. The factors must help in earning the positive level of satisfaction. Such factors are quite inherent towards the work, and these factors encourage the employees for a higher level of performance, and this is called as satisfiers.

Understand the reasons for Tony’s behavior

The above explanation explains that the fact is the main reason of dissatisfaction will not have the capacity to create any dissatisfaction. It will also not add any features associated with job satisfaction can decrease or diminish the level of job dissatisfaction. When any company has the hostile work culture, promotion or appraisal will not make much difference in the attitude (Nuttin, 2014). It is important to create healthy work culture however at the same time, do not provide members of the team with any factor based on satisfaction and the work that they are doing will not make any difference in the level of satisfaction. Therefore, the same kind of situation happened in the case where Tony was not interested in the work because of the work culture which was impacting his level of motivation to perform better despite job satisfaction and good salary package. The work was losing the thrill to play and work efficiently to affect the performance of the organization (Taylor, 2014).


Advise Shirley how to motivate Tony

Here, it is important for Shirley to keep pay structure in right manner and it should be equal as well as competitive to those elements which are in similar kind of domain. Then there are some policies in a company that must not be too strict or rigid. It is important that they are clear as well as fair. The working hours should be flexible, right dress code, vacations, and breaks (Taylor, 2014). Tony is high performing employee, so he must be offered a number of plans like health care, advantages for the members of the family and many employee help programs. The work culture must be clean, safe and in a proper manner. The work tools must be timely updated and maintained in the right manner. Also, the status of the employees in the company must be well retained and must be familiar. The association with the employees with the peers as well as supervisors must be acceptable, and there must be no flight element (Dörnyei and Ushioda, 2013).

In this case, recognition holds a lot of importance where Tony must be praised for the good work and also must be provided with some achievement by the managers. He must also have a sense of accomplishment, and this depends on the work. Tony must also be provided with opportunities based on development and advancement at work in a company to encourage the employees to work better. The workforce should hold themselves accountable for the labour and Shirley should give then an ownership to work and also reduce the overall control but at the same time retain some level of responsibility (L?z?roiu, 2015).

Expectancy theory of motivation

Other methods are based on the association between the needs internally and the outcome efforts that are expanded to fulfill those needs, but in this theory, the efforts are completely separated which give rise from motivation to results and performance. The expectancy theory is based on the assumption that the outcome of behavior from many conscious alternatives are among the other choices where the motive is to increase the pleasure and reduce the overall pain. Also, the author realized that the performance of the employee is based on many single factors like skills, personality, abilities and much more (L?z?roiu, 2015).  He also discussed that the performance, efforts, and motivation are related to the motivation at a personal level, and one must also utilize different components like Valence, Expectancy and Instrumentality for the same.


Expectancy is based on the belief that rise in the efforts will lead to a rising in performance and one has to work harder to be better. This can be done with the help of a number of methods like having right kind of resources that are present, having right kind of skill set to perform and having all necessary support system to get the work done. While instrumentality is a belief that if an employee performs well that an appreciated result will be accomplished. The level to which an initial level based results will lead to the second level of results. This factor is affected by clarity in understanding the relationship exist between the results and the performance, trusting people who will take right kind of decisions on who achieve the results and transparency in the process that helps in determining who get the results.  In the end, valence is crucial that the particular places are based on expected results (Barron and Hulleman, 2015). To have a positive valence, the person should prefer accomplishing the results not to achieve it. For instance, if money motivates anyone, he might not value offers to the additional amount of time off. The elements in valence are efforts based performance expectancy and performance based result expectancy.

Understand the reasons for Tony’s behavior

Like the theory is based on perceptions. Similarly, in the case, Shirley thinks that she has provided everything right to motivate and even if the work with many people in the organization, it never means that someone will not perceive that it will not work for them. Shirley failed to understand that what Tony wants in reward for doing a good work and whether there will be a belief more on the work that will lead to a particular reward (Barron and Hulleman, 2015).


Advise Shirley how to motivate Tony

Tony is expecting something in return where he will perform to get some recognition and Shirley must do exactly that. She must put more efforts in encouraging his spirit and make work more exciting for him by throwing more challenges at him. It is important to make some associations with people towards some expected results, and the overall contribution must be based on making positive results (Magidson et al., 2014).


To increase the performance and positive results, managers must use a system that can tie the reward closely with the overall performance. Shirley also requires making sure, that they are rewarded appropriately and are deserved and wanted by the employees. This is mainly to improve the efforts based on performance tie (Magidson et al., 2014). To improve the overall tie between efforts and performance, she must engage employees like Tony in training to develop their capacities and also improve the belief that extra efforts will lead to improvement in performance.



Barron, K.E. and Hulleman, C.S., (2015). Expectancy-value-cost model of motivation. International encyclopedia of social and behavioral sciences, pp.261-271.

Dörnyei, Zand Ushioda, E., (2013). Teaching and researching: Motivation. Routledge.

L?z?roiu, G., (2015). Work Motivation and Organizational Behavior. Contemporary Readings in Law and Social Justice, (2), pp.66-75.

Magidson, J.F., Roberts, B.W., Collado-Rodriguez, A. and Lejuez, C.W., (2014). Theory-driven intervention for changing personality: Expectancy value theory, behavioral activation, and conscientiousness. Developmental psychology, 50(5), p.1442.

Miner, J.B., (2015). Organizational behavior 1: Essential theories of motivation and leadership. Routledge.

Nuttin, J., (2014). Future time perspective and motivation: Theory and research method. Psychology Press.

Pepper, A. and Gore, J., (2015). Behavioral agency theory: New foundations for theorizing about executive compensation. Journal of management, 41(4), pp.1045-1068.

Taylor, S., (2014). Anxiety sensitivity: Theory, research, and treatment of the fear of anxiety. Routledge


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