The lifting and deploying of fire hose by the firemen requires a unique way of doing this activities. Numerous biomechanics principles are applied during fire horse lifting which every fireman need to understand while carrying out the duties. However, the fireman well- being and safety is also of an important issue to consider. Thus, it is crucial for firemen to be respectful and well - trained and be disciplined in efficient methods of running fire hose. There are several techniques that were acquired and enables firemen effectively and safely carry fire hoses when they are notified of fire outbreak. In this research, analysis is carried out based on biomechanical issues that are available when carrying process and measures needed to prevent them.
Biomechanics started following the First World War. The study of biomechanics is essential in the physical educator or coach instructing movement techniques and athlete trainer or physical therapist treating injuries through applying biomechanics. Professionals in Kinesiology uses biomechanics principle in solving problems relating to human movement in daily activities.
Biomechanical issues in industrial areas
Biomechanics simply involves the studying of forces acting on the body and their effect on the fluids, tissues and materials in the body and this chapter biometrics literature on the low back and upper extremities
The binary bodies of literatures vary in maturity and the research on the low back is more considerable.
Concept of load tolerance
Load is just a physical stress acting on the body and originates from environment such as power hand tool generated force or voluntary actions such as lifting an object. Tolerance is a word used to describe how the body will respond to those forces either physical response or physiological response. The stress acting on the body includes vibration(oscillatory),motion(kinetic) and force(kinematic).
Acute Trauma Load Tolerance Injury Model
These are injuries that is caused by recognizable event. Some of these injuries include lacerations, fractures and contusions. In case the external loads transmitted through biomechanical loading of the body, surpasses internal tolerances of the tissues affected for mechanical strain, resulting in pain, impairment, disability and discomfort leads to disorder from acute trauma. These are factors that are by individual and also the social setting in which individual is functioning.
Cumulative Trauma Load- Tolerance Model
The complex interaction of events for long period of time causes musculoskeletal disorder. The injuries that results from acute trauma model as a result of effects incurred from the transient of external loads are assumed by cumulative trauma model. Tolerances of tissues internally is experienced when accumulation of loads is done frequently for a long period of time. Cumulative trauma model explains repeating of actions such as working for a long period of time without resting or working many thousands time, causes musculoskeletal disorders caused by work. The capability of a structure to retain loading is represented by internal mechanical tolerance.
Through sustained or repetitive loading causes internal tissues tolerances by themselves. External loads originate from external environment and the loads are transported through biomechanics of the body and the limbs thus creating internal loads on functional structures and tissues. These biochemical structure includes motion, actions forces and position of the body while external loading environmental factors whereby the body receives vibrational and thermal energy. Other individual factors affecting are strength, agility, anthropometry and dexterity.
The physical stress are the basic quantities that constitutes the internal and external loading aspects of energy and work acting on or produced by humans in the working area. They include kinetic, kinematics, thermal energy and oscillatory.
- a) Force (kinetic) measurements
When internal forces are generated from passive action of connective tissues in combination with contraction of active muscles enhances production of voluntary exertion and motion. The transmition of loads through the ligaments, tendons when he generation of forces through the voluntary motion and exertion by the body. Since external forces act against the human body, they produce an external reaction to the voluntary force against the external object. When an external forces are applied to the against the body surface, the force is transmitted back to the internal structures and the body and the localized pressure transmit it through the skin to meet nerves and tendons. The forces of reaction from these stress are spread to underlying structures via the skin
- b) Kinematics (motion) Measurements
This highlights the dislocation of specific body part. Angular displacement, acceleration or velocity are commonly quantified by motion of one segment to another. Full body motion is described when the body segment for each individual is considered together because motion is specific to each joint. Internal stress is caused by when motion imposes loads on the involved tendons or muscles so that it could retain the position and transferring load to blood vessels and underlying nerves.
- C) Oscillatory measurements
The vibration is caused as a result of impulsive motion by an object. In case acceleration of the body parts acts contrary to human body causes human vibration. Physical contact for example from the seat, clutching a vibrating object are the activities that transmit vibration in human body. Responses of metabolic, vascular, endocrine and the nervous are the humans physiological reactions that transmit vibration in humans while transmission of external vibration starts from the distal point of interaction with the body proximal location.
- d) Thermal Measurements
Heat loss takes place when the functioning outdoor, indoor cold environment compress air exhaust. Biomechanical, neurological and physiological functions of the hands are prevented by local peripheral cooling
It is a science that creates mass properties, strength capabilities and physical geometry. It offers data concerning static dimension of the human body in required postures. Anthropometric plays an essential part in in design of place of work, hand tools, clothes and others because the design would consider the body dimension. There are medical challenges faced in case the equipment that was applied does not match with anthropometry of the user and wrong design is as a result of inappropriate poster.
Statistical method of conducting anthropometric data
Sampling of population. This is achievable with large populations such as that of military
Reduction of error. This is attained by carrying out the task repeatedly in each dimension
Standard statistical parameters are calculated ( including mean, various percentile and range) and tabulation of each dimension for all subjects
Discussion On Findings
Biometrics intervention method requires studying and applying them so that to help in achieving the best outcomes. The control of pressure on the water hose is an effective factor which defines the efficiency of the firemen lifting of the water hose
It is recommended that the control of pressure and stress need to be accomplished according to the fireman’s capability to ensure that stress balance is attained. Balancing of the accessible forces is key to certify that the process of lifting process so that it firemen not to experience injury . The recommendation is that the forces available should be analysed and well calculated and this determines at what heights the water hose can lifted by the fireman.
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