The aim of the assignment is to discuss the importance of the stakeholders in the tourism development at different levels by substantiating the case studies provided. The detailed discussion has been made which covers the picture of the sustainable development of the tourism and its impact on the future. Against this background, the negative and positive impacts of the tourism have been evaluated along with the concept of sustainable development.
Q1. Discuss the role of major stakeholders in a Sustainable Tourism Project like the one in the Lake District (make sure you discuss Publics/,private sector and voluntary organisation along with locals) (AC 1.1)
The contribution of the public sector is important in terms of administrative and economy, which deals with the good delivery and the services for the government whether local/municipal, or regional (Rio and Nunes 2012). The Government continues to make concerted effort in order to secure the protected areas through the mode of financial support. The lake district is funded directly from DEFRA.
The private sectors’ contribution in the tourism development to achieve economic growth, create a decent job for the people by following CSR(Rio and Nunes 2012).
The voluntary organization is having 200 people who have engaged themselves to work for the Lake district like the rangers, estate and forestry teams, ecologists, archaeologists
Q2. Discuss how stakeholders( at least 3) can benefit from planning of tourism developments? (from large scale , to national , regional and local level) (AC 2.1)
Government benefits at national level are, that this sector is getting 35% of tax from the tourism and this in turn leading to the growth in the economy. At the Regional level, the government can focus on regional development by focussing on infrastructural growth such as schools, roads, markets and so forth and from there the Government can income money (Weiermair and Peters 2012). At the local level, the benefits can be enhancing the interaction with the tourism agencies through the government and employment of the local people in the tourism industry.
Private sector at national level can form partnership with the public sector and contribute to the national growth. At the regional level, the private sector can benefit financially from the point of view of tourism. If the private sector builds up tourist sectors in the context of natural beauty, it can definitely attract tourists and make the region popular. In the local level, the private sectors for the purpose of the tourism development, can hire people from the locality and train them accordingly to serve the tourists. This would further increase of the employees in the private sector. (Weiermair and Peters 2012).
Voluntary organizations at a national level would profit by cooperating with the government and helping out the tourists. However, their contribution in national level is not significant (Weiermair and Peters 2012). At the regional level, the voluntary organization can benefit by providing help to the tourists and receiving commission for them so that they can visit any nearby tourist spots. In the local level, the organizations can receive help while operating with the harmony in local government, culture and community and can get financial benefits from them (Weiermair and Peters 2012).
Q3. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages (at Least 3) of public/private sector tourism planning partnerships.(AC 1.2)
The public private partnerships together bring improvements in the tourism sector. It renders help to frame designs, business plans and take monetary assistance from the private ownership. With PPPs, the government might able to include the cost economy in maintaining and operating services.
However, the private partners might suffer labour issues, monetary problems out of this public private relationship. If Public Private partnership is not properly framed, the contracts of PPP might result in reducing quality of the services, lack or inefficiency of suitable maintenance of the installation (Weiermair and Peters 2012).
Q4. Explain the importance of interactive planning systems and processes in tourism development. What are the pros and cons of having such a system for example in the Lake District Case Study context (AC 2.2).
Interactive planning system plays a vital role in the tourism development success. It means that the stakeholders in tourism can provide benefits in the local area promoting particular development environmentally, economically and socially. Planning system in the tourism is regulating the transformation to ensure that the development is achieved in regard to the intentions, rendering environmental, economic advantages to the process of development (Leon 2012). This planning system of tourism has benefitted the Lake District of England profoundly. The Lake District was previously a plotland. When this plotland came under the consideration of the stakeholders, then it became necessary to develop for the tourist attractions. The public, private and the voluntary organizations played a tremendous role to develop the plotland and attract the tourists in their area.
Q5. What is good about the concept of sustainable development? Visit the website below and use the full Charter for Sustainable Tourism to justify your answer https://www.gdrc.org/uem/eco-tour/charter.html (AC 3.1).
The sustainable development of tourism is a good concept as it gives recognition to the tourism as it contributes positively to the cultural and socio-economic zone, on the other hand, it as well recognized tourism, as the contributor to the environmental degradation (Leon 2012). It looks at the pros and cons of the tourism, also at the same time, it takes into consideration to gives protection to the dignity of human of both tourists and local communities. It focuses on the fact that tourism must make its contribution to the sustainable development and be integrated with human, cultural and natural environment. It is ensured that tourism must ensure the acceptance of the evolution in context to its influence on the bio diversity, natural resources and the capacity for the assimilation of any influences and residues produced.
Q6. Investigate the factors that hinder sustainable tourism development in the above context. (AC 3.2).
The factors involved are
With the changes in the global climate, it results in the increasing of temperature, the rise in the level of sea and the occurrence of frequent hurricanes. Weather plays a significant role in the tourism industry. This climate change would negatively affect not only the bio diversity but the natural resources as well. The influence of the rise of sea level on the industry of tourism can be resulted in the increasing erosion in the beach. Violence and crime was also becoming major factor to the achievement of the sustainable development as it affects not only the life of the human beings, but also the economic development.
Q7. Analyse different stages in planning for sustainability in the above context. (AC 3.3).
It is important to define the goals and objectives for the tourism and it makes sure the latter is the sub set of the objectives. The objectives of tourism incorporate the sustainable environment.
Next part of the plan includes identifying the system of tourism is to take them to any tourist sites and make them aware about the environmental degradation and the importance of the environment.
Later recommending them about the steps that are necessary to take for the sustainability of the environment.
Q8. List positive and negative impacts of tourism (at least 3 each) evaluating different methods available to measure tourist impact (Economic, social and environmental measures).(AC 2.3)
From the point of view of economic factors, tourism creates, the development is mainly linked with the economic progress (Griggs et al 2013). Therefore, most often measures that are used in the research of tourism are concerned with the economic impacts, the potential of the tourism can be understood as the total increase in the people’s income located in a specific zone, usually measured in the financial terms. Measures dealing with the direct gains of tourism incorporate the earnings from employment, profits in business and the number of jobs increasing. The economic impacts can be measured with the STEAM model, which measure the number of visitors, the way it is generating incomes and expenditure levels of the visitors. Environmental measures focuses on the ecotourism process in the context of tourism industry through the process implemented by EIA. The planning by EIA includes carrying out exercises by the developers and the other bodies, which allowed the local planning authority to understand the negative impacts of environment. EIA further assesses the ecotourism promotes conservation of natural resources and wildlife as they are considered to be the assets of government. On the other hand, tourism includes threat to the natural and cultural resources to a region such as supply of water, heritage sites and coral. Such threats increase pollution through the emissions of greenhouse gases from traffic and increasing the production of sewage and noise (Griggs et al 2013).
From the social factor, The intensity rate of tourism which includes the visitors per 1000 populations and per square kilometer of the entire area of land is another process to measure the impacts of the developments in local and ultimately HDI used by UN. The improvements of the infrastructure results from tourism provide benefit to the local community. Tourism encourages the preservation of the occidental customs, festivals and handicrafts (Griggs et al 2013). However, on the other hand, the behavior of the visitors can have a detrimental effect on the environment. Such as alcohol problems, drug abuse and the increasing levels of crimes can occur.
- Suggest and examine methods of resolving a conflict of interests between the various stakeholders to ensure the future well-being of Okavango delta as a tourism destination and discuss the pros and cons. (AC 4.1)
Okavango Delta is a wetland Zone includes a wildlife habitat for the international interest. There are almost 120,000 people in this area. However, the major problems of this enclave are low incomes limited source of food, unemployment, and periodic crop. In order to bring development in this area, the foreign companies have established tourism business. Tourism is a good way to improve the economy of the regions that has poor development (Naidoo et al. 2017). In Okavango the tourism business has been developed however, there is limited interaction between the stakeholders. The local people are not getting a good job as they are recruited for low skill and low pay occupation. The higher positions are occupied by the foreign employees. Hence, the limited interaction between the visitors and the local people and the issues in occupying good job position highlight on the major conflicts between the stakeholders.
Conducting a forum to reduce the conflict between the stakeholders is a good way. However, this forum enables the authority of the business to arrange a meeting, which allows the stakeholders to express their viewpoints (Saarinen 2017). The meeting should be productive and needs to drive towards the resolution. This will be a good way to minimize the conflicts between the stakeholders in the context of Okavango. This will help the local people of this area to establish a better communication with foreign employees; as a result, cultural tourism will be developed.
The tourism industries need to focus on the cultural heritage and the traditional element in order to develop the service interest for a particular area (Monterrubio et al. 2017). In the context of Okavango, the maximum employees those occupied a higher position in the tourism industry are foreigners. On the other hand, the local people are resisted to get a chance to occupy the good position. Hence, the tourism department in this area needs to provide more concern to the local cultures and the elements to make a collaborative work between the local people and the foreign employees. This may reduce the stakeholder’s conflicts.
The tourism industry in Okavango needs to advocate however, it is important to reduce the favouritism. In order to maintain the human right in the working sector, it is essential to develop policy in the workplace, which will reduce favouritism (Loperena 2017). In the context of Okavango, the local people fail to get the similar right for a job position in comparison to the foreign employees. Hence, reduction of the favouritism will be helpful for these people to reduce conflicts between the stakeholders. On the other hand, state and regional government need to play important role in protecting the human right in Okavango region to minimize the stakeholder’s conflict.
What are the implications of balancing supply and demand in that region. (AC 4.2)
Service is supplied based on the demand of the customers. However, in the tourism industry, they need to make a balance between the supply and the demand of the consumers (Bramwell et al. 2017). In order to supply the service properly, it is important for the tourism industry of Okavango to forecast the demand of the customers in the tourism industry. By making a balance between the demand and supply in the tourism industry the organization is able to satisfy their customers. In the context of Okavango, there is high poverty and development of the seasonal crop. For this reason, providing sufficient amount of food to the tourists is a big challenge for the tourism industry in Okavango. However, the tourist organizations have met these challenges as the main lodges of this region supply food from the South Africa. As a result, a balance has been created between the supply and demand, which increases the number of customers in this region.
In order to make effective sales, it is crucial for the tourism business to keep a balance between the supply and demand (Boley et al. 2017). In the context of Okavango, if the tourism business keeps the balance between the demand and the supply they will be able to reduce the operation cost that usually occurs due to the unplanned promotional activities. The tourism industries have to struggle constantly by keeping the balance between the balance and supply in Okavango as there is poor chance to get food sources and other faculties for the tourists. However, this area is congested with crop failure and high incidence of disease. As a result, the customer service can be hampered in this region (Loperena 2017). Hence, by maintaining equilibrium between the demand and supply the tourism industry will be able to provide delicate service in this enclave, which will enhance their profit margin.
Make a judgement of both positive and negatives aspects of enclave tourism for Okavango Delta (Look at the moral and ethical aspect)(AC 4.3)
Enclave tourism is a process of development of the tourism business in a small geographical region where people can fulfill their travel interest without going outside the country (Boluk et al. 2017). The major positive aspect of enclave tourism is environmental protection. Okavango Delta is wetland zone with wild habitat. Hence, the establishment of the tourism industry in this area will protect the natural resources and wildlife. On the other hand, the infrastructure of such wetland as road, electricity, telecom service and water supply will be improved in order establishes the tourism business. These are beneficial for the local people of such region. On the other hand, the employment rate has increased in Okavango as many people have got a job in the tourism sector. Foreign exchange, cultural preservation, and development of the healthcare service are the major positive aspects of enclave tourism (Monterrubio et al. 2017). In Okavango Delta, many foreign tourism businesses have developed that generate the import of food, which reduces the food scarcity in this area. On the other hand, improvement of the health service for the tourists also helpful for the local people to give them a disease-free life as this region is covered with various diseases.
Cultural destruction is a major negative impact of enclave tourism (Saarinen 2017). In Okavango Delta, there is less interaction between the tourists and the local people, which affects the culture of this region. On the other hand, low benefit like low job security and no work safety are other issues of enclave tourism. The people of Okavango get poor job position due to their low skill and the jobs are not secured. On the other hand, the maximum revenue from the tourism business goes to the outside of this region, which affects the local development.
- Compare current issues associated with tourism development in Thailand and Nepal.(AC 5.1)
Current issues in Nepal incorporate the environmental problems due to the tourism such as pollution, deforestation. Deforestation has become serious problems in the Sagarmantha National Park (Nepal 2013). The tourists there used the firewood to cook and eat due to the absence of sources of energy in that specific area. At the same time, lodging activities are also being encouraged in order to meet the demand of the tourism (Cohen and Cohen 2012).
Even in Thailand, there are some negative impacts made by the tourists such as environmental harm and the pollution. Out of this tourism, there is also an increase of HIV and AIDS which are spreading negative impacts in the country (Sharpley and Telfer 2014; Muzzine and Aparacio 2013).
Evaluate, with recommendations, the future development of tourism in these above 2 destinations (Thailand and Nepal)(AC 5.2)
In Nepal, deforestation took place due to the lack of energy resources and the using of firewood. Government must look into the matter deeply and provide the area with the necessary energy resources so that the tourists do not over utilize the forest resources.
In Thailand, in order to stop Sex tourism, the country can adopt certain measures such as checking the identification of the person and further job descriptions of that person. There should be continuous check on the probable areas where prostitution takes place. If any such incidents are caught then the situation needs to be taken under control immediately.
Thus, it can be stated that sustainable development in the tourism sector is necessary. In this topic, accordingly, the contributions of the stakeholders are being mentioned and their functions at different level in order to promote tourism. Against this background, with the help of the case studies, it became easier to propound the different ideas regarding the tourism development and further recommendations are substantiated in regard to the tourism development in Thailand and China.
Boley, B.B., McGehee, N.G. and Hammett, A.T., 2017. Importance-performance analysis (IPA) of sustainable tourism initiatives: The resident perspective. Tourism Management, 58, pp.66-77.
Boluk, K., Cavaliere, C.T. and Higgins-Desbiolles, F., 2017. Critical thinking to realize sustainability in tourism systems: reflecting on the 2030 sustainable development goals: Guest Editors.
Bramwell, B., Higham, J., Lane, B. and Miller, G., 2017. Twenty-five years of sustainable tourism and the Journal of Sustainable Tourism: looking back and moving forward.
Cohen, E. and Cohen, S.A., 2012. Current sociological theories and issues in tourism. Annals of Tourism Research, 39(4), pp.2177-2202.
de Leon, G.P., Pma Technologies, Llc, 2012. Interactive graphics-based planning systems. U.S. Patent 8,249,906.
Griggs, D., Stafford-Smith, M., Gaffney, O., Rockström, J., Öhman, M.C., Shyamsundar, P., Steffen, W., Glaser, G., Kanie, N. and Noble, I., 2013. Policy: Sustainable development goals for people and planet. Nature, 495(7441), pp.305-307.
Loperena, C.A., 2017. Honduras is open for business: extractivist tourism as sustainable development in the wake of disaster?. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 25(5), pp.618-633.
Monterrubio, C., Osorio, M. and Benítez, J., 2017. Comparing enclave tourism's socioeconomic impacts: A dependency theory approach to three state-planned resorts in Mexico. Journal of Destination Marketing & Management.
Muzzini, E. and Aparicio, G., 2013. Urban growth and spatial transition in Nepal: An initial assessment. World Bank Publications.
Naidoo, P., Pearce, P. and Sharpley, R., 2017. The Contributions of Enclave Tourism to Community Wellbeing in Mauritius: Host Community Perspective. In Balancing Development and Sustainability in Tourism Destinations (pp. 179-188). Springer Singapore.
Nepal, S.K., 2013. Mountain tourism and climate change: Implications for the Nepal Himalaya. Nepal Tourism and Development Review, 1(1), pp.1-14.
Rio, D. and Nunes, L.M., 2012. Monitoring and evaluation tool for tourism destinations. Tourism Management Perspectives, 4, pp.64-66.
Saarinen, J., 2017. Enclavic tourism spaces: territorialization and bordering in tourism destination development and planning. Tourism Geographies, 19(3), pp.425-437.
Sharpley, R. and Telfer, D.J. eds., 2014. Tourism and development: concepts and issues (Vol. 63). Channel View Publications.
Weiermair, K. and Peters, M., 2012. Quality-of-life values among stakeholders in tourism destinations: A tale of converging and diverging interests and conflicts. In Handbook of tourism and quality-of-life research (pp. 463-473). Springer Netherlands.