Lab report on how to make oil in water cream. Using the table and ingredients that's provided.
According to Laura Cassiday, (2014), simple emulsions are either oil that has been suspended in water or water that has been suspended in oil
The suspended droplets in the emulsions may break away since the substances are immiscible. However, to prevent them from breaking away, emulsifiers are used. The emulsifiers function by forming barriers that hinder the droplets from braking away from the emulsion.
Surfactant emulsifier may contain both a hydrophilic head group that is attracted to water and a hydrophobic tail that is repulsed by water. This characteristic makes the emulsifiers to be attracted to both the polar and nonpolar compounds.
To enable the students to use the knowledge of cosmetic ingredients for the formation of a product.
To apply the knowledge of formulation to the formation of the cream.
To apply the knowledge of product stability, potential irritancy and testing to the product`s formation
For phase A, the glycerin and hydroxyethyl cellulose were mixed together until the made a slurry. The slurry mixture was then added to purified water slowly while constantly stirring under low sheer. Afterwards, sodium hydroxide was added to the mixture in order to neutralize and fully hydrate the gum. The contents were thereafter heated until 650C.
For phase B, stearic acid, cetearyl alcohol, dimethicone 350CST, paraffinum liquidium and isopropyl myristate were combined and the contents were heated until 650C. The phase B mixture was then added to phase A gum under low sheer. Thereafter, they were cooled down to 300C while stirring occurred under high sheer. Phase C mixture was prepared by mixing tocopherol, liquid germinal plus, fragrance oil (Almond sweet oil), color and citric acid. The phase C mixture was thereafter added to the 300C mixture of phase A and B, and was mixed while allowing it to cool to 250C.
The pH was then taken and recorded to be 5.2.
Ingredients (INCI Name) CAS Number Percentages Used
Purified Water 7732=18=5 68.0%
Glycerin 56-81-5 6.0%
10% Sodium hydroxide 1310-73-22 3.0%
Stearic Acid 57-11-4 4.0%
Cetearyl alcohol 67762-27-0 3.0%
Dimethicone 350CST 63148-62-9 5.0%
Paraffinum liquidium 8042-47-5 4.1%
Isopropyl myristate 110-27-0 0.9%
Tocopherol 1406-18-4 3.0%
Fragrance oil (Almond sweet) 8007-69-0 0.5%
Liquid Germal Plus 57-55-6 0.1%
Discussion and Conclusion
To increase the stability of the cream, the sufficient quantity of the emulsifiers should be used and secondly, two or more emulsifiers may be combined. Polymer emulsifiers like sepigel 305 or viscoptima SE may be used, the cetearyl alcohol should be paired with 1% sodium stearoyl glutamate to increase the stability. Thickeners and stabilizers may be used to strengthen the oil/water interface and stabilize the emulsion. 0.8% of xanthan gum together with 2% cetyl alcohol may be used as thickener (Making Skin Care, 2018).
Electrolytes such as aloe vera cannot be used in the creams as they will destabilize the emulsion, making it to break away.
Rose oil could be added to the cream in addition with manuka honey. The honey would not only add fragrance but also provide anti-microbial, skin hydrating and anti-inflammatory traits to the cream, making it more marketable.
The target audience for the cream would be ladies who like body creams for their skin nourishment and that is why sweet smelling fruity fragrances are suitable for the cream since women love sweet smelling creams.
Cell culture test which involves studying the effect of the product on cell membranes under a microscope, commercial kits which involves the use of an artificially reconstructed human epidermis to check for redness or edema as a result of the application of the product (Vinardell and Mitjans, 2006).
The product can be packaged in a glass or plastic shaped round cylinder packaging in order to be more appealing to the buyers.: https://www.studio-oeding.com/wp-content/uploads/studio-oeding_nivea_04-768x576.jpg
Liquid germal plus is used as a preservative for broad preservation of the cream.
Isopropyl myristate is a perfume that adds fragrance to the cream and can also act as a skin conditioner in the cream.
Paraffinum liquidium is an antistatic that acts as skin protector by moisturizing the skin through occlusivity.
Dimethicone acts as a skin conditioner and also a skin protector as it has antifoaming and emollient characteristics.
Stearic acid is a surfactant that prevents the emulsion from breaking away and it is also used for cleansing and masking the skin
Glycerin is used as a solvent in the emulsion, it also adds fragrance to the cream and it acts as a denaturant and humectant
Sodium hydroxide is used as a buffer and as a denaturant in the formation of the cream.
Cetearyl alcohol controls the viscosity of the cream and also helps in stabilizing the emulsion.
Essential oils like the Almond oil add fragrance to the cream and color imparts color on the cream to make it more appealing
Cassiday, L. (2014). Emulsions: Making Oil and Water Mix. AOCS. Website Online: https://www.aocs.org/stay-informed/read-inform/featured-articles/emulsions-making-oil-and-water-mix-april-2014 [Retrieved 15 May, 2018].