Describe the Management and Organisations in a Global Environment.
The Milgram Experiment
Milgram experiment is one of the most famous Psychology experiment put forward by Stanley Milgram in 1963 (Slater 2016). Through this experiment, he tried to prove that there is some conflict between compliance to the high authority and personal principles. The experiment started just after realizing the accused of the World War 2. He started his experiment first by investigating about the Germans and their behaviour towards their authority. He initiated the experiment by printing advertisement and asking the male students to take part in the experiment. For carrying out the experiment the participants was closed in a room and was tied with electrodes on his arms (Calhoun et. al. 2015). On the other hand, his supervisors were made to sit in the other room with the electric shock control. This was carried out to see whether the student is ready to take any shock or he will not accept to take any risk for his teachers. The experiment used to take place with two students at a time where one played the role of a teacher and the other one is the learner. However, the experiment later proved that about 65 percent of people could do anything to obey their leaders. They can harm anyone just to keep the authority happy (Burger 2014).
According to my experience, such type of experiment was once applied in the La Trobe University in 70s where a lot of student took part in the experiment of testing their obedience for the authority. The experiment that took place in this university is similar to that of Milgram in early 60s. in the university two friend were made to sit in a separate room and one was asked to give a shock to other on the ground that is she doesn’t do it then her friend will be put out of the university. Thus, the other friend gave her friend the shock as her rejection would pay for her friend. However, after she pressed the electric shock machine, all the authority started to laugh saying that the shock was not real and she is not hurt by it. The experiment took place with other students as well and there were many who just thought of obeying the authority rather than thinking about their friends. The experiment ended successfully like that of Milgram in 60s. However, in the end the authority felt sorry about the people who are hurt because of the experiment and would provide them with counselling session. The experiment soon spread all over the world and unlike Milgram; there were university that included both men and women in the experiment (Haslam et. al. 2015).
Linear Programming Word Problems
The activity that took place in week 6 was about Linear Programming and its application in the work problems. Linear programming is a method of obtaining the best outcome in any situation. The outcomes measured in Linear Programming are usually about minimum cost or maximum profit. However, the outcome is obtained by means of a linear equation (Dantzig 2016). It is a part of a mathematical programming model. All the reachable points are displayed on the graph and the point, which shows maximum or minimum points are stated as the result. The programming is given by simple linear equations or as a word problem in which the students needs to form the linear equation themselves using the information given in the problem. There is also a constraint in every problem, which needs to be stated in the beginning. The constraints show that the answer cannot exceed this amount (Coffrin and Van Hentenryck 2014).
The activity that took place in week six taught about the use of linear programming problem to take out the minimum cost of consuming a mixture of fats and protein. The cost of consuming protein and fat was given separately and adding both gave the cost equation. Then to form the constraint two equations was formed, one was with fats and one was protein. This helped to give the maximum amount of fat and protein that can be consumed at a minimum cost (Williams 2013).
Minimum cost C=aX + bY
nX + nY ≥ N
mX + mY ≥ N
Constraint, X ≥ 0, Y ≥ 0
From the above equation, it can be seen that X and Y are the two types of brands. m and y represents protein and fats used by brand X and brand Y respectively. M and N is the total amount of protein and fats. Constraint shows that quantity of fats and protein of any brand cannot exceed zero. The equation shows that it requires minimum cost of consuming fats and protein of both the brands. Here “a” and “b” are the price of consuming fats and protein of both the brands. Thus by solving this equation one can find various values of consumption of fat and protein of both the brands. Thus we need to put each value of X and Y in the cost equation. The points, which give the minimum amount, will be chosen as the result. Thus, this shows that linear programming is an ideal model for calculating the minimum cost and the maximum profit a company can obtain to run successfully. Companies use this model to adjust their cost and profit margin and maintain the revenue. The possible outcomes and pair of both fats and protein consumption are presented on a graph, which makes it easier to analyse the result (Anderson et. al. 2015).
From the above solution, it can be deduced that Milgram model has been successful in proving their point that juniors can do anything to be in the good books of their authority. Maximum of the university received a high rate on it. The shock experiment suggested by Milgram in 60s to prove that students believe in their authority more than their own conscience has proved to be correct.
On the other hand, the second activity is about Linear Programming, which is used to find the maximum and minimum solution of profit and cost respectively. This activity has also been very fruitful as it helps the student to know more on managing the activities of their companies in future and receive the maximum revenue.
Anderson, D.R., Sweeney, D.J., Williams, T.A., Camm, J.D. and Cochran, J.J., 2015. An introduction to management science: quantitative approaches to decision making. Cengage learning.
Burger, J.M., 2014. Situational features in Milgram's experiment that kept his participants shocking. Journal of Social Issues, 70(3), pp.489-500.
Calhoun, A.W., Pian-Smith, M.C., Truog, R.D., Gaba, D.M. and Meyer, E.C., 2015. The Importance of Deception in Simulation: A Response. Simulation in Healthcare, 10(6), pp.387-390.
Coffrin, C. and Van Hentenryck, P., 2014. A linear-programming approximation of AC power flows. INFORMS Journal on Computing, 26(4), pp.718-734.
Dantzig, G., 2016. Linear programming and extensions. Princeton university press.
Haslam, S.A., Reicher, S.D., Millard, K. and McDonald, R., 2015. ‘Happy to have been of service’: The Yale archive as a window into the engaged followership of participants in Milgram's ‘obedience’experiments. British Journal of Social Psychology, 54(1), pp.55-83.
Slater, M., 2016. Exploring Moral Action Using lmmersive Virtual Reality. Universitat de Barcelona Barcelona Spain.
Williams, H.P., 2013. Model building in mathematical programming. John Wiley & Sons.