1. You are an audit manager with Clarke & Johnson (CJI). For the past years CJ has been the auditor of luxury Travel Holidays LTD (LTH), a travel company. Geoff, the audit partner, has asked you the to contact Chris, LTH’s CEO, with a view to CJ being re-engaged as the auditor for the upcoming audit of the 30 June 2015 financial report.
Chris stated: ‘The board of directors were impressed with last year’s audit and would like to propose reappointing CJ as the auditor of the 30 June 2015 financial report audit. The board would also like to invite Geoff to give a speech about LTH at the next
travel agency seminar, to assist in promoting LTH’s business to attract more investors. I understand that this is outside CJ’s normal practice; however, the board expressed the view that it will be very difficult for LTH to continue any business engagements
with CJ should Geoff refuse to provide such assistance’.
Chris stated: ‘ To express our sincerity towards CJ and Geoff, and to maintain the good relationship in anticipation of another smooth audit for 2015, LTH would like to present a complimentary 14-day holiday package voucher for four people to the Greek
isles for both Geoff’s and your family. All expenses, including accommodation and travelling cost, will be paid by LTH’.
Michael stated: ‘I am very excited to be part of the audit team. I believe that I will be a valuable asset to the team, as my dad is LTH’s financial controller. He is responsible for the preparation of LTH’s financial report.’
Annette stated: ‘I am glad that I have been allocated to this year’s LTH’s audit team. It’s going to be a very efficient audit this year! I was on a temporary assignment at LTH’s just a month ago, helping LTH with its tax calculations and preparing accounting
entries that will be reflected in the 30 June 2015 financial report, so I don’t think there will be much audit work required around the tax accounts. It will be great to catch up with everybody at LTH again, as they are so easy to work with.’
(a) For each situation, identify and evaluate any threats in relation to auditor independence.
(b) Identify any safeguards to those threats identified above.
2. You are an audit senior with Crampton and Hasaad and you are planning the audit of Mining supplies LTD (MSL) for the year ended 30 June 2015. MSL sells mining equipment and spare parts to mining companies across Australia. MSL has operational centres in Perth, Newcastle, and Mt. Isa. Each operational centre warehouses the equipment and spare parts and provides
sales and maintenance services. MSL’s head office is located in Melbourne where finance, IT and other corporate services are provided.
(a) In relation to the purchasing of equipment and spare parts, describe two business risks to MSL that Crampton and Hasaad will consider in planning the 2015 audit.
(b) For each business risk identified in (a) describe a specific audit risk that could arise.Each responses should include the identification of account balances that are impacted directly by the audit risk.
1. Auditors Independence:
While carrying out the audits, the auditors must conform to the for the most part acknowledged auditing standards. The standards require that the auditors must conduct the audit system with care and target status of mind. The term independence is a reasonable term and is difficult to characterize (Abbott and Lawrence 2015). In addition, the auditors must look after integrity, objectivity, avoid biases and make genuine and reasonable portrayal of his opinion.
(a) Threats in Connection to the Freedom of Auditor
The services that are given by the auditors to his customers out of the extent of audit are known as non-audit service. These may incorporate management services; tax related advice, promotion of customer's business. Non-audit services are given in return to extra income or any non-monetary related favourable position. In any case, offering non-audit services result in independence impairment of auditor in appearance while giving services to the customers (Al Momani and Obeidat 2013). The potential effect of non-audit related services is an essential fragment of concern. Quality of audit is an essential issue as it frequently gets feedback from the stakeholders and regulators. One of the dangers to independence of auditor is the risk of advocacy. This happens when the auditor supports the customer business or supposition to such a point where the general population may feel that the objectivity is being bargained. In this way, if an auditor or audit firm gives advocacy services, there may be the genuine trade off ethics and which thusly, influence the auditor’s independence.
The independence of the auditor is undermined if the auditor or the audit firm gets any money related or non-monetary advantages in any shape other than the expenses endorsed for the audit services. This may emerge from profiting whatever other advantages out of the review engagement understanding (Blay, Allen and Marshall Geiger 2016). For example, in the given case the customer offered holiday package voucher for the individuals from the audit firm. On the occasion that the auditors acknowledge such offer, then the question with respect to his independency will emerge. Advance, the measure of threat to independency increases with the sum of benefits to be attained.
An auditor’s life collaborates, parent, subordinate, non-dependent children are considered as the nearby relatives. The financial premium includes ensure for obligation, possession, short or long term securities that is specifically claimed by the individual, in relationship with other individual or through the intermediary, if the individual takes part or manages in the speculation choice or controls the middle person (Church and Bryan 2017). Here, in the given case, the father of the proposed accountant is the financial controller of the customer's business. In the occasion that Michael acknowledge the offer of being the piece of review group, it will jeopardize the independency of the auditor.
As to the close association with the customer, its workers, and officers and executives, a risk of impact is related with the business condition of the customer. In these conditions, the examiner is imperilled to turn out to be sympathetic and related with the customer. Excessively close association with the customer's business prompt exorbitant trust with the customer and the insufficient representation. Quite possibly the evaluator's portrayal will be influenced as she as of now has some important data of the customer because of her past task with LTH only a month prior (Cohen, Jeffrey, Ganesh Krishnamoorthy and Arnold Wright, 2017). She was completing the services identified with the services of calculations and calculations of tax passages and accounting entries for the year finished 30th June 2015. Additionally, the auditor is not permitted to do the auditor of his own work.
(b) Safeguard to threats
There must be a list of restricted services, that are given to the customers and the auditor should not give any service that will trade off their independence. Different measures that can be inferred to fortify the interdependence of auditors are:
- Rotation of audit partner– the rotational arrangement of significant accomplices kills the danger of over nature and the self-interest and will advance the objectivity perspective without impressive cost. Moreover, the institutional and historical information of the company will be accessible to all the colleagues that will aid keep up the high quality of audit (Dhaliwal and Dan 2015).
- Effective audit committee and wide level of transparency– The proficient audit panel is an essential device for keeping up the independency of the audit. The evaluator must be very much resourced and the individuals from the review group might be exceedingly qualified and autonomous. In addition, as a feature of the audit quality, the audit group must evaluate their objectivity and independence and ought to make the result accessible for people for public.
- Oversight of independent auditor–An auditor, who is autonomous can direct and contribute impressively to the audit quality and audit independency. The significant elements of the proficient oversight of the auditor include independency from political impedance and audit profession. They should give transparency, true and fair in portrayal and must impart and co-work private information to other deliberately (Dhaliwal and Dan 2015).
- Global consistency with the autonomy necessity of the auditor– the independency of the auditor will be reinforce using powerful and solid ethical standards like Auditing models and code of ethics. A globally steady arrangement of high quality independence and ethical norms will decrease the complexities required with the auditing method.
2 (a) Risks included with the spare parts inventory
Management of risk is an urgent component for the management of spare parts inventory, nonetheless, in the majority of the ways it is executed inadequately. The majority of the associations comprehend that the risk management factor and go to wide degree to investigate the risk and take initiatives for moderating those risks in their organizations, however these analysis are all the more regularly constrained to the reputational chance, business chance and energetic identified with safety and wellbeing (Dogui, Kouakou, Olivier Boiral, and Iñaki Heras?Saizarbitoria 2014). Past these risks, there might be downtime chance, which thusly-prompt budgetary loss and the majority of the associations do not consider the usage of advancements identified with risk management of extra management. Among other, the two business risks related with obtaining of extra parts and gear that Crampton and Hasaad must consider while arranging the review are Operational risk and Strategic risk.
Strategic Risks – this risk is not identified with the business approaches and the decision of the association for right or wrong items and market. Strategic risk required with stock administration of extra parts is in regards to how the organization deals with the supply of extra parts. At one degree, the association may choose to be impromptu, that implies spend the things on the buy, utilize no approaches that are formal and connect with the accomplished chiefs to give their judgment on day by day procedural issues. On the other degree, the association may choose to institutionalize the angles for the administration of extra parts in pretty much same path as the money related administration is institutionalized. The suitable approach for the association is relied on the speculation of back in the inventories and the level of hazard related with the plausible misfortune (Feng and Mei 2014). On the off chance that the business can convey the broadened downtime experience and misfortunes related with that or handle the dangers through expansive amounts buy, then specially appointed system might be suitable. Nevertheless, if the organization cannot bear the cost of the augmented downtime and substantial interest in stock, then the association must locate a superior procedure for the administration of extra parts. That implies hunting down option approach to relieve or maintain a strategic distance from the likely misfortunes.
Operational risk – this risk is not the hazard related with the operational downtime. Rather, this hazard is connected with how the picked approach is executed. The greater part of the company has set the vital administration appropriately yet neglect to execute it effectively (Porter, Brenda, Jon Simon and David Hatherly 2014). For example, the association may execute a strategy for stocking for settling on choices identified with institutionalization, in any case, it is distinguished that either the arrangement is not sufficient or not their every day administration approach seeks after the actualized strategies (Knechel, Robert and Steven Salterio 2016). Associations those are not dealing with the operational risk by guaranteeing the appropriate usage of their methodologies are appeared to be not considering their administration of stock important. Management of risk can be expressed as to be more astute with respect to the odds the association takes. With respect to the inventory management of spare parts, management of risk essentially implies guaranteeing to recognize the appropriate things to do additionally to do them accurately.
(b) Types of audit risk and effect on account balance
The risk that is related with the vital risk is the inherent risk. This risk happens because of exclusion or mistake in the monetary report attributable to the variable other than control failure. This risk happens when the way of exchange is overwhelming or the conditions require abnormal state of judgment for the budgetary projections. This risk affects the inventory balance and the measure of account receivables (Li and Chan 2017). Certain accounts, transactions are very connected with inherent risk, for instance, the risk identified with inventory management. It significantly influences the accounting balances relying upon the classes of transactions.
Risks that are related with the operational risk are detection risk. The risk there is likelihood that the auditor will not have the capacity to locate the material misstatement that is related with the financial statement of an association through the examination and substantive tests methods. Detection risks are that risk, which the auditor will finish up as no huge mistake were found amid the technique of audit. Detection risks are more expected when the auditor does not actualize the proper procedures or the methodology are not utilized accurately (Sadgrove, Kit 2016). The identification hazard greatly affects the bookkeeping parity and it is past the evaluation of the bookkeeper. It can influence the accounting balances in light of the transaction and the sum required with the transaction. Primarily the accounts that are more susceptible with this kind of dangers are the purchase account, sales account, revenue account and inventory account.
Abbott and Lawrence J., 2015. Internal audit quality and financial reporting quality: The joint importance of independence and competence. Journal of Accounting Research 54(1), pp. 3-40.
Al Momani, M. A. and Obeidat, M. I., 2013. The effect of auditors' ethics on their detection of creative accounting practices: A field study. International Journal of Business and Management, 8(13), p. 118.
Blay, Allen D., and Marshall A. Geiger, 2016. Auditor fees and auditor independence: Evidence from going concern reporting decisions. Contemporary Accounting Research 30(2), pp. 44-54.
Church and Bryan K., 2017. Auditor independence in fact: Research, regulatory, and practice implications drawn from experimental and archival research. Accounting Horizons, 29(1), pp. 217-238.
Cohen, Jeffrey, Ganesh Krishnamoorthy, and Arnold Wright, 2017. Enterprise risk management and the financial reporting process: The experiences of audit committee members, CFOs, and external auditors. Contemporary Accounting Research, 9(1), pp. 77-88.
Dhaliwal and Dan S., et al., 2015. Management Influence on Auditor Selection and Subsequent Impairments of Auditor Independence during the Post?SOX Period. Contemporary Accounting Research 32(2), pp. 575-607.
Dogui, Kouakou, Olivier Boiral, and Iñaki Heras?Saizarbitoria, 2014. Audit fees and auditor independence: The case of ISO 14001 certification. International Journal of Auditing, 18 (1), pp. 14-26.
Feng and Mei, 2014. Does ineffective internal control over financial reporting affect a firm's operations? Evidence from firms' inventory management. The Accounting Review 90(2), pp. 529-557.
Knechel, W. Robert, and Steven E. Salterio, 2016. Auditing: assurance and risk. Routledge.
Li and Chan, 2017. The effect of ambiguity in an auditing standard on auditor independence: Evidence from nonaudit fees and SOX 404 opinions." Journal of Contemporary Accounting & Economics 13(1), pp. 37-51.
Porter, Brenda, Jon Simon, and David Hatherly, 2014. Principles of external auditing. John Wiley & Sons.
Sadgrove, Kit, 2016. The complete guide to business risk management. Routledge.
Tepalagul, Nopmanee, and Ling Lin, 2015. Auditor independence and audit quality: A literature review. Journal of Accounting, Auditing & Finance 30(1), pp. 89-91.
Yoon, Kyunghee, Lucas Hoogduin, and Li Zhang, 2015. Big data as complementary audit evidence. Accounting Horizons 29(2), pp. 431-438.