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Higher Education Policy And Management

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In the current age of competitive environment, the development of the leadership is one of the essential requirements that is needed to improve upon the organizational performance. Leadership skill is essential in the context of developing personal growth and that, in turn, will help in a matter of organizational development. The decision implemented by the leader has a strong impact on the growth of individual workers and the performance level. The senior leaders within an organization have the opportunity to deal with major organizational issues, which is mainly possible due to their high level of experience.

The successful business organization is entirely dependent upon the leadership skills of the managers that can help them to provide definite organizational goal. It is also the duty of the effective leader to ensure that the main focus of the organization is dependent upon single operational plan. This is possible by developing high level of coordination within the workers.

The experienced leaders also have the capability to predict all future adverse condition within the business environment of an organization. Hence, it is possible to develop particular skill within the employee, which is necessary to improve upon their working skills. The current study will focus on the literature review that is based on the importance of leadership in matters of organizational development and personal growth.

Statement of Problem

With fast changing business environment in various sectors, one of the major challenges that are encountered by large scale business firms is to bring about organizational change. It is also important to note that due to lack of leadership skill it may not be possible for an organization to bring about easy change. There are also issues related to personal growth of the workers, which is not possible without the help of effective leadership. In many cases, the major issues encountered by organization is due to lack of dominance nature of the leaders. This can have a negative impact on the behavior of the employees.

The main purpose of leadership decision making is to implement creativity within the management activities. The complex nature of an organization can easily be dealt with various types of leadership skills. From the research paper of Ejimabo (2015), leadership is defined as a process, where an individual is able to influence a group of people within an organization to achieve a single organizational goal. It is also one of the important purpose of leadership to influence the people to work together and provide high level of commitment.

Middlehurst (2015), has mentioned one of the effective skill of leaders within an organization is to influence all the stakeholders and convince them about the importance of decision that is being implemented. It is the duty of the leader to gather collective efforts that can help them in the development process of implementing a decision within the management. Leaders have to consider the way of action that is needed to deal with the change that is expected within an organization. It is also one of the major purposes of decision making system to provide commitment of action that can help to provide a discreet and concrete evidence. The decision making capability of a leader determines the rational and concrete phenomena that are involved within a system of rationality.

As mentioned in a research work of Puranik, (2015), the leadership decision making skill can help in the process and making of systemic act. This can have a significant influence on the choice that is being implemented within practice.


Different styles of leadership and their effect

It is important to develop different styles of framework, which is essential in the process of classifying different styles of leadership and their effect. Kurt Lewin has developed an effective framework, which has helped to define three kinds of leadership and their impact in decision making process (Bryman, 2008). The main purpose of the leadership style is to implement different type of solution depending on the situation within the organization. The three major type of leadership style is as follows:

In case of autocratic leadership, the manager within an organization has full control over the choice of division that is being implemented by the team members. The leaders are entirely dependent upon their own experience and judgmental value, before implementing any important decisions. In this case, the leaders, do not take into account of advice of any of other workers within an organization. The group leaders are also responsible for providing all types of working Framework that will be implemented in practice. Jack (2017), has highlighted the fact that in case of autocratic leadership, the workers within an organization to not get the opportunity to express out their thoughts. Hence, there is less chance of resolving issue that is faced by the workers. There is also high chance that the popularity of the leader will not be high among the workers. It is also not possible to properly motivate the workers, which is believed to be one of the main function of leadership. On the other hand, Sandra (2012), has argued that autocratic leadership is Highly Effective in cases of implementing quick process of management decision. Hence, it can easily help to deal with critical situation within the organization, where quick process of decision needs to be implemented. There is also less chance of organizational conflict, as the managers do not take into account any opinions provided by the workers. Hence, it is possible to maintain neutrality among the employees in workplace.

Participative or Democratic: Contrary to the autocratic style of leadership the participative leadership is based upon implementing important managerial decision, which is based upon the opinion and suggestion provided by the employees at every level. Hence, as mentioned by Florida (2015), all the workers get equal opportunity to participate in the decision-making process. The main positive impact of this type of leadership is that it encourages the workers to take further initiative and provide extra effort within the workplace. Moreover, as the workers get the opportunity to express out their opinion, it is possible for the leader to consider every aspect of the organization before implementing any important decision of change. The leaders often conduct survey analysis and meetings, which can also help them to improve their communication with workers at various levels. The major disadvantage of this type of leadership is due to the fact that the managers have to consider opinions of a wide group of people.  This is usually time-consuming process and also increases the chance of implementing ineffective choice. 

Delegative: In this form of leadership the managers of an organization provide direct authority to the members to take and implement important decisions with an organization. However, as mentioned by Owens and Valesky, (2007), this kind of leadership has proved to be high time to consume and less productive. This is mainly due to the fact that the organization is dependent upon inexperienced worker to take important decisions. Nevertheless, Florida (2015), has highlighted the fact that the major positive side of the delegative leadership is due to the fact that it can help to provide full working confidence about the matters related to taking managerial decisions. It is also believed to be one of the most effective ways to implement high level of motivation among the workers. The leaders in the organization provide only simple guidance tool to help out workers in matters of implementing important decisions. The style of leadership is mainly implemented with an organization, where workers have high level of intrinsic dedications within the performance and achievements of organizational goals.


Role of Leaders with respect to organizational Diversity

In context of the multicultural global business environment, it is essential to have culturally diverse workforce in a multinational organization. Tohidi (2011), has highlighted the importance of leadership role that is needed in dealing with the behavior of the culturally diverse workforce. The leaders need to play a bigger role in neutralizing the gaps that exist within the workers due to cultural diversity. Personal training sessions are also an important aspect of developing personal growth of the workers. This can be achieved with the help of improving the communication skills of the workers. As a part of personal training session for personal growth, it is important for the leader to decide upon the communication strategy that needs to be implemented. The communication strategies can be implemented in sharing of important business ideas. 

The organizational policy is also an important component, which helps to encourage about the fact related to organizational diversity. It is also important to consider the facts related to ethical policy that need to be incorporated into organizational strategy. As mentioned by Considine (2011), it is important for the leaders of an organization to ensure that all the ethical strategies are being maintained within the workplace that can help to maintain equality among workers belonging to different cultural background.

The top down support is highly influential in the context of dealing with organizational matters. This provides the opportunity for the leader to properly provide guidance to all categories of workers. 


Emotional intelligence of leadership

As per mentioned in the research paper of Middlehurst (2015), leaders having high level of emotional intelligence seek to have high level of challenges. This is believed to be one of the effective opportunity that can help them to create opportunity for personal and organizational development. Emotional intelligence is believed to be one of the important element that is required in the performance of different types of organization. There are various components of effective emotional intelligence that includes understanding of the emotional and cultural values of other individual people. This can help the leader to consider various factors related with that of the cultural diversity within the workplace of an organization. Self-awareness and self-regulation of the leaders are few of the major components that help them to develop emotional intelligence. It is important for the leader to collect proper and detailed information about the performance capability of individual workers. This will help them in the matter of developing emotional intelligence plan that can be highly specific depending upon individual strength and weakness.

Empathy is also one of the important skill that needs to be incorporated within the leader. This can be achieved with the help of implementing better communication strategy with the employees and understand their issues at the personal level. Hence, it is possible for them to understand the perspective of other stakeholders and thereby implement an effective democratic decision. It is also possible for the leader to identify the weakness of other workers and thereby implement proper intervention strategies. Mittal and Sindhu (2012), have highlighted upon the importance of social skills. This is also believed to be an extended part of the communication skills that can help in the process of developing emotional intelligence within a leader. This can help them to effectively deal with all organizational conflicts, as with high emotional intelligence it is possible to properly evaluate the exact condition of an organizational crisis situation.

Nahavandi (2016), has suggested about the importance of introducing reward system, which is believed to be Highly Effective in providing motivation and encouraging the workers to provide more effort and improve upon individual performance and personal development.


13 Aspects of Effective leadership behavior

The research paper of Tourish (2014), have highlighted the 13 aspects of effective leadership behavior that is aimed to improve the organizational strategy. The effective leadership can be defined as the ability to quickly adapt to the changes that occur in the external business environment.   

  • It is important for the leaders to have clear sense of the organizational goal and thereby help to provide a fixed strategic direction. This behavior is necessary for the context of dealing with long-term goals and development of relationship with the Employees.
  • It is important to implement effective leadership as a part of providing definite direction. It is also important to mention that different style of leadership can be implemented in various departments of an organization, which will depend upon the demand and organizational goal.
  • Being considerate is believed to be one of the effective skills of the workers, which can help them to maintain sustainability in workforce planning. There is also a strong relationship between job satisfaction and considerate skill of a leader.
  • The training skill is also one of the important aspects of the leader, which help them to maintain integrity. With high quality of the training staffs it is possible to generate high level of productivity.
  • Trustworthiness is another essential skill of the leader, which can help them to raise the confidence level of the workers. It is also believing that due to lack of Trust among the organizational leader and workers, there is a high chance of rising organizational conflicts.
  • As the leaders allow the opportunity to the workers to take active participation in decision making process, it can help them to encourage to take part in open conversation and discuss critical issues. As mentioned by ?erne, Jakli? and Škerlavaj (2013), this process is Highly Effective in improving the chance of creating facility within an organization and make best possible use of the human resource.
  • It is the duty of each departmental leader to maintain high level of communication within the workers. This Process can help the departmental leader to track the progress and performance level of individual workers.
  • The interactive communication sessions between the leaders and the workers need to focus on providing particular direction for the workers. This helps the workers to understand the importance of the leader's vision.
  • Dinh et al., (2014), have mentioned about the fact that effective leader needs to act as a role model, which can provide inspiration and motivation to the workers. Hence, it is important for the leaders to have academic credibility, which is a part of the effective leadership.
  • The leaders are also responsible for integrating and creating positive work atmosphere within an organization. As mentioned in the research work of Sandra (2012), it is important to note that ability of the leader to motivate workers in the matter of dealing with Complex situations in workplace.
  • It is the role of the leader of individual department to identify the internal strengths and weaknesses. This can help them to implement proper intervention measures, which is a part of the effective communication strategy.
  • It is also one of the essential features of effective leader to provide proper feedback to every employee depending upon their performance level. This feedback will help in the process of understanding the individual strengths and weakness of workers.
  • It is also one of the effective duty of the leaders to provide proper resources and facilities that are required for individual performance level. An effective leader also needs to take active participation in the matter of taking decisions related to resource allocation.
  • Individual leaders within a department need to appoint effective workers depending upon the job profile. It is also the duty of the leader to properly access capability of individual workers before appointing them within the department.


From the findings of the literature review, it is clear that effective leadership is one of the essential components that can help in the process of organizational and personal development. There are different styles of leadership that can be implicated depending upon the situation and requirement of the organization. The different style of leadership can have highly diverse influence that depends on the organizational situation. The literature also focusses upon the influence of leaders in maintaining a level of cultural diversity that is believed to be highly essential in the context of Global Business. The leadership skill is highly dependent upon the emotional intelligence of the leaders that help them to properly assess the situation. There are various aspects that are also highlighted in the literature review, which is believed to be an effective part of academic leadership skills.



Bryman, A. (2008). Effective Leadership in Higher Education. journal of Studies in Higher Education, 45.

?erne, M., Jakli?, M., & Škerlavaj, M. (2013). Authentic leadership, creativity, and innovation: A multilevel perspective. Leadership, 9(1), 63-85.

Considine, S. (2011). Leadership development seminar. Library Leadership &Management, 34.

Dinh, J. E., Lord, R. G., Gardner, W. L., Meuser, J. D., Liden, R. C., & Hu, J. (2014). Leadership theory and research in the new millennium: Current theoretical trends and changing perspectives. The Leadership Quarterly, 25(1), 36-62.

Ejimabo, N. O. (2015). The Influence of Decision Making in Organizational Leadership and Management Activities. Journal of Entrepreneurship & Organization Management.

Florida, S. (2015). Leaders Influence team Performance and Goal Achievement. journal of entrepreneurship and organization management, 23.

Jack, z. (2017). The Inspiring Leader. Journal of Healthcare contracting, 23.

Middlehurst, R. (2015). leadership and management in higher education. USA.

Mittal, E. V., & Sindhu, E. (2012). Emotional intelligence and leadership. Global Journal of Management and Business Research, 12(16).

Nahavandi, A. (2016). The Art and Science of Leadership -Global Edition. Pearson.

Owens, R., & Valesky, T. (2007). Organizational behavior in education: Adaptive Leadership and School Reform. Boston: MA: Pearson Education Inc.

Puranik, V. (2015). A literature review of Leadership. Journal of Entrepreneurship and Organization management, 10.

Sandra , J. (2012). distributed leadership a collaborative framework for academic executives and professionals in higher education. Journal of higher education policy and management

Tohidi, H. (2011). Teamwork productivity and Effectiveness in Organization. Journal of Economics.

Tourish, D. (2014). Leadership, more or less? A processual, communication perspective on the role of agency in leadership theory. Leadership, 10(1), 79-98.


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