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Explain how Mao Zedonq tried to consolidate the power of the communist state in China after 1949. 
• To understand Mao Zedong s political objectives and strategies you must understand China's violent history since the collapse of the Manchu Empire as explained in Study Unit 6. 
• Discuss the economic problems that faced the new communist state in China from 1949. 
• Focus on Mao Zedongis attempts to create a new type of society by revolutionary means. 
• Summarise the main points of your argument in the conclusion. 

The violent situations in the republic of China

Violence in the state of China

The republic of China had been facing several problems that had led to the violent situations within the country. The communists were being largely tortured and the economic problems were very much common in this time as well. A lot of tumultuous situations had been going on within the spheres of the country since the inter-state violence was a very common thing during that time. The Northern Expedition of the KMT leader Chiang Kai-Shek in the year 1928 was also an addition in this list. The torture on the communists came upon in Shanghai and this was the wakeup call for the communists in the country. The central government was being overthrown in the year 1928 and Chiang Kai-Shek had established the nationalist government in Nanjing. The armed rebellion also came up in this context and the Chinese Civil War had begun. Amidst this chaos it was very important for the people of China to get a government that could establish the peace in the country. The situation had even become worse since Japan had launched attack on China and it was time for China to revert back to Japan. The Imperial Japanese Army had then invaded China in the year 1937 and all went out of hand indeed. Thus the fall of the Manchu Empire had brought in a series of mishaps in the country of China and this had been the result for the major upset that the people were suffering.

Political objectives and strategies of Mao Zedong

The revolutionary changes that have been brought in by Mao Zedong in the Chinese society have been exemplary indeed. The guerilla tactics that had been employed by Mao Zedong were much important to save the people of China. Mao was a born revolutionary and he always stressed on the fact that both life and warfare were the same thing. This is why it was very important to convince the Chinese people that they really had to get out of that situation as soon as possible. According to some critics, the Chinese way of thinking could be applied to this situation indeed. The life for the Maoists could be full of hardships, transactions, various encounters or problems being created between the two unequal sides. These things indeed are very much important for the organization and this would be highly interesting for the benefit of the Chinese people who have been living in the chaotic country environments. The thinking process or the logic of Mao Zedong and this is completely different from that of the Western countries indeed. As per Lenin, Mao believed in the fact that ‘War is a continuation of politics’. 

Mao Zedong had believed in the war that could cause bloodshed to the enemies. His believe was the fact if someone wants to survive in this earth, he or she will have to drop the blood of their enemies. He hated the very idea of the capitalist society just like Karl Marx. The terms of war and peace will be determined by some important situations that would come up regarding the shaping of the society. Mao Zedong has described these factors by the doctrine he calls the algebra of revolution. The struggle would have to be done to overcome the threats of capitalism and imperialism. His only intention was to keep the state of China away from the grasp of imperialism. Mao Zedong has always put his emphasis on improving the physical fitness of the people in the country. This will surely enable them to build the strong protests against the grasps of imperialism and capitalism.

The Northern Expedition of the KMT leader Chiang Kai-Shek

Economic problems of China after 1949

From the very advent of the rise of the state of China, the economic problems have been the daily problems in the country. This is why the people have suffered many problems as well. The two main participants involved in this revolution were the Guomindang (KMD) and the Communist Party of China. The Communist Party of China was led by none other than the great Mao Zedong. One of the major socio-economic problems was the food shortage within the country and the high prices of the foods. The Communist Party of China (CPC) was in the charge of power in Beijing where the KMD had to go to island of Taiwan to show their strength. This proved that CPC was gaining more power within the state of China. 

Hence, it was only matter of time that the country would be facing some deep economic crisis in terms of gross domestic output of the country. The inflation rate had gone so high and there were no such jobs indeed. The population of the state of China had been increasing and this had caused a huge problem in the country. The attainment of the social stability also had been a huge problem after the initial years in the state of China. The rural direct producers were running at a loss and this had been a huge problem for the economic development. In this situation, the members of the Communist party led by Mao had planned to improve the situation by producing the agricultural goods in larger quantities. This will surely improve the economic condition.

Mao Zedong’s attempts to create a new society

The leadership of Mao Zedong has been exemplary and it had given a new shape to the state of China in the best manner. The task of Mao Zedong along with the several Communists in China had indeed been huge. It was on his shoulders to protect the people of China from all the odds. The torture of the imperialists and the reactionaries within the country had been very much important in this aspect. This is why he had dreamt of a country where he would not let the concept of capitalism enter. According to some of the critics, the communist state of China had many mistakes and this had been the most important reason for their downfall. The country was being blocked from the economic aspects by the United States of America and the Soviet Union. This is why it would be very much problematic for them to build up an independent economy. However, they never lost the hope under the leadership of Mao. 

The 6000 mile Long March by Mao and his followers leading to Yenan had built the stepping stone for the future success of the nation. They had finally built up an independent economy that had led to the improvement of the living standards of the people. Mao Zedong had been a revolutionary himself and he had realized that the poor peasants had that guts within them that would prove them to be the revolutionaries indeed. This is why it would be highly important to note that Mao also focused on making the Chinese people know about the history of their own country. He believed if the Chinese countrymen had the belief in themselves and contributed to the welfare of the country they could very easily create a far developed society.

Conclusion:

After the thorough discussion on the topic of the contribution and struggle of Mao Zedong, it can be concluded that Mao had been their true leader in guiding them to build up a proper economy that would be independent from the grasps of the imperialism. His attempts to create a new and improved society had been quite successful from many aspects however he had many mistakes as well. His ideals had been very true but somehow he was not being able to implement them properly as well.

The purpose of the following essay is to determine the various issues in the middle of the twentieth century when Mao Zedong took the responsibility of refurbishing the social, political and economical condition of China through the latent ideals of communism. The state of China had emerged as one of the most powerful states in the world and its rise was as a communist state indeed. The communist state of China had faced some economic problems after the year 1949. The ways Mao Zedong wanted to create a proper revolutionary society will be discussed in this paper. The political history of the state of China had been much violent since the fall of the Manchu Empire. Mao Zedong did his best to add a new shape to the state of China after 1949. The power politics had been the most important factor in this scenario indeed.

Reference:

Cohen, Benjamin J. "The Yuan’s Long March." In Power in a Changing World Economy, pp. 158-174. Routledge, 2013.

Dreyer, Edward L. China at War 1901-1949. Routledge, 2014.

Mackerras, Colin. China in transformation: 1900-1949. Routledge, 2014.

Manion, Melanie. Retirement of revolutionaries in China: Public policies, social norms, private interests. Vol. 258. Princeton University Press, 2014.

Mao, Zedong, and Stuart Schram. Mao's Road to Power: Revolutionary Writings, 1912-49: v. 4: The Rise and Fall of the Chinese Soviet Republic, 1931-34: Revolutionary Writings, 1912-49. Routledge, 2016.

Moise, Edwin E. Modern China. Routledge, 2013.

Perry, Elizabeth. Proletarian power: Shanghai in the cultural revolution. Routledge, 2018.

Pieke, Frank N. "The Communist Party and social management in China." China Information 26, no. 2 (2012): 149-165.

Schoenhals, Michael. China's Cultural Revolution, 1966-69: Not a Dinner Party: Not a Dinner Party. Routledge, 2015.

Selden, Mark. China in Revolution: Yenan Way Revisited: Yenan Way Revisited. Routledge, 2016.

Teiwes, Frederick C. Leadership, legitimacy, and conflict in China: From a charismatic Mao to the politics of succession. Routledge, 2017.

Xizhe, Wang. "Mao Zedong and the Cultural Revolution." On Socialist Democracy and the Chinese Legal System (Armonk, NY: ME Sharpe, 1985) (2015): 177-259.

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