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First Research Project @twenty (20) points: Utilizing our text, library sources, the documents outlined as well as periodical literature; examine the powers and forces that helped shape the nation in the early 19th. Century and the developing Civil War' (oftentimes seen as the second American Revolution.)

Establish the ;ontext of these historical events comparing, contrasting and defining the historical moments linked with each of these documents: 

1) Compromise of 1850

2) Scott v. Sandford

3) Prigg v. Pennsylvania

4) "Uncle Tom's Cabin"

5) Lincoln at Cooper Union

6) American Anti-Slavery Society 

Compromise of 1850

The events that took place in the United States of America in the 19th century shaped what the country looks like today. These forces shaped the nation through a set of events that changed the status quo and forced the nation to take different directions in what had been previously believed (Downs 2016). The war is historical because it is said to pity Americans against their fellow Americans ripping the country into conflict. This was based on differences in economic growth between the North and the South due to differences in the economies of the two regions. The North was a manufacturing and industry region while the South was based on large scale farming that entirely depended on black slave labor (Goldner 2001).  The growing abolition of slavery sentiments and opposition of the North from extension of slavery into new western territories led to major differences between the two sides. Other events followed like the Kansas-Nebraska Act and the Dred Scott case which led to an enormous conflict between different states. The civil war was characterized by several events that took place from the beginning of the civil war up to the end. This essay discusses the powers and forces that shaped the American nation in the early 19th century.

The compromise of 1850 is a set of five laws that were passed in September 1850 dealing with slavery. Through the California request for permission to enter the union as a free state a balance between Free states and slave states was disturbed leading to the need to develop new resolutions that will and compromise the difference ion numbers between the North and the South (Stegmaier 1996). This led to the amendment of the Fugitive Slave Act leading to the abolition of the slave trade in Washington D. C., leading to California entering the state as a Free State and creation of territorial government in Utah.

The events of the compromise delayed the civil war for almost ten years. This is because it allowed a balance between the South and the North allowing equal representation of slave states and non-slave states. This is because it kept the union from splitting through the congressional balance reached through the Missouri Compromise. This is because the application of Missouri as a slave state sparked controversy that led to a series of debates to balance the two regions (Kennedy and Cohen 2012). This led to admission of Missouri as a slave state and Maine as a free state. The events of the compromise led to peace between the two regions where a boundary line was established between the two sides thus leading to a peaceful coexistence and preventing the push for secession from the South.

The Dred Scott case was based on a slave who sue for his freedom, where the case rose up to the Supreme Court although the court denied him the legal rights that he was seeking. The case was based on the Missouri Compromise since the case was intended to be used to settle the issue of slavery. This issue became political which exuberated sectional tensions between the two groups. This is because the classification of slaves as mere property Southern challenges and limitations on slavery (Dred Scott v. Sandford, 1857). This led to political arguments over the legality of free slaves in the country between Lincoln and Douglas. The arguments were based on different opinions that had been read by the judges like the descending opinion of Curtis which suggested that blacks had been free citizens of the country thus their freedom needed to be upheld.

Scott v Sandford

Later when President Abraham Lincoln was elected as president, the issue of slavery was renewed since the Republican Party had an anti-slavery stand. This later triggered the Wilmot Provision in the House of Representatives which sought to ban slavery in Mexican territories. This escalated the tension between the two sides since the South became scared with the Lincoln administration despite the ruling in the Dred Scot case (Downs 2016). Although the compromise had relieved tension between the two sides, the case led to renewed tension when the court ruled that there are no territorial limitations on slave trade. This led to hunting of slaves in Northern Free States making the North angrier.

The case revolves back to the Pennsylvanian legislature law passed in 1788 and 1826 prohibiting slavery and removal of Negroes to enslave them. The law seen as contradicting the section 2 of the fugitive law which allowed supremacy of federal law over state laws (Goldstein 2011). This is because the law was seen to deny slave owners the right to return their slaves under Article IV of the Federal Fugitive law. Therefore, in the Prig v Pennsylvania case the court held that the Pennsylvanian state law violated the slave and thus Prig was right to hunt down Morgan for sale to slave buyers (Prigg v. Pennsylvania 1842).

However, this changed the whole slave scenario since the Pennsylvanian state enacted new personal liberty laws prohibiting state officials from interfering with runaway slaves. This was seen by The Southern States as a violation of the federal laws and unsecured slavery in the South since slaves could run away to Northern states. This led to the Compromise of 1850 which needed a balance between the Northern and The Southern States (Miller 1995). Like the Scott case, Morgan had also lost in a bid to secure freedom through the constitution. However, the liberty laws enacted by the state and election of Lincoln as the president threatened slavery in the South and created high tension since slaves were escaping to Free states in the North.

A second selling book in the 19thcentry highlighted the lives of slaves and the cultural sensation that revolve around slavery. This book had different implications on the attitude of Northerners on slavery through exposing the horrors of slave trade (Hulser 2009). This led to serious demonstrations from Southerners claiming that the book was slanderous thus widening the divisions between the South and the North. Like other events that took place, the South and the slave trade issue was on the spot again over slavery (Williams 2001). This means that the South was ever defending slavery without recognizing the increased rebellion in the country over slavery (Goldner 2001). The only impeding factor was the fugitive slave which was giving the South advantage over slaver. This led to the formation of the new Republican Party which spearheaded abolition. The novel created a political climate for the elections of Abraham Lincoln and publicizing of abolitionary debates.

The writing of Uncle Tom’s Cabin came at a time when the Lincoln’s presidential debate had intensified. The Cooper Union speech is attributed to the victory in the presidential debate due to the stand he had on slavery. This speech was based on foundations of slavery, issues between the Republicans and Democrats and lastly supporting the constitution of the country (Carnes and Garraty 2011). The election of Lincoln election sparked new fears in the South that led to the push for secession by The Southern States. Since Lincoln had antislavery views, the opportunities that existed in both houses threatened the state of slavery in the South leaving The Southern States with no option (Holzer 2004). Although the Missouri compromise controlled the civil war for almost a decade, the ascension to power by Lincoln threatened this compromise making the Southern States disadvantaged.

Prig v Pennsylvania

The society was founded by William Lloyd and Arthur Tappan due to the increased issues that were revolving around slave trade. The North was considering freeing the slaves and resettling back in Africa. The movement led to an uprising that was focused on fighting slavery in the South (Miller 1995). The movement was calling for an end to slavery to slavery and treatment of blacks equally like other people (Dubofsky and Dulles 2005). However, the movement continued and became too radical leading to it splitting into two. Those who did not believe in the radical nature of Garrison formed their own group. This

Conclusion:

The civil war in The United States revolved around the issue of slavery. Northern and The Southern States had different views on how slaves need to be treated. The South was backed by the constitution which recognized slavery and ownership of slaves as objects. On the other hand, the Northern states had an economic system which did not rely on slave trade. The activities that took place from compromise of 1850 and the election of President Abraham Lincoln all contributed to the civil war. Therefore, the civil war was as a result of successive events that could not be avoided making it difficult to control the war. The only way to control the war was for one side to win in the war the way it happened. These events were mostly focused on abolition slave trade rather than protecting it. Despite the fact that the constitution allowed slave trade, the activities led to forces that escalated a rift between the two territories with slavery being the balance between them.

References:

Carnes, Mark, and John A. Garraty. 2011. The American Nation: A History of the United States. 14th. New: AP textbook.

Downs, Gregory P. 2016. "Why the second American Revolution deserves as much attention as the first." The Washington Post, July.

Dred Scott v. Sandford, . 1857. 60 U.S. 393

Dubofsky, Melvyn, and Foster Rhea Dulles. 2005. Labor in America: A History (7th ed.). Harlan Davidson. NewYork: M. E. Sharpe.

Goldner, Ellen. 2001. "Arguing with Pictures: Race, Class and the Formation of Popular Abolitionism Through Uncle Tom's Cabin." Journal of American & Comparative Cultures 24 (1): 71–84.

Goldstein, Leslie Friedman. 2011. "A ‘Triumph of Freedom’ after All? Prigg v. Pennsylvania Re-examined." Law and History Review 29: 763-796.

Holzer, Harold. 2004. "Still a Great Hall After All." American Heritage Magazin, May.

Hulser, Kathleen. 2009. "Reading Uncle Tom's Image: From Anti-slavery Hero to Racial Insult." New-York Journal of American History 65 (1): 75–79.

Kennedy, David M., and Lizabeth Cohen. 2012. The American Pageant: A History of the Republic . Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

Miller, William Lee. 1995. Arguing About Slavery. John Quincy Adams and the Great Battle in the United States Congress. New York: Vintage Books.

Prigg v. Pennsylvania. 1842. 41 U.S. 539

Stegmaier, Mark J. 1996. Texas, New Mexico, and the Compromise of 1850: Boundary Dispute & Sectional Crisis. Kent State University Press.

Williams, Linda. 2001. Playing the Race Card: Melodramas of Black and White from Uncle Tom to O. J. Simpson. Princeton University Press,.

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