Liberals, who majorly hailed from the middle class believed that concepts or policies like the Universal Suffrage are abrupt and absurd, which lends the “majority the infallibility of God”. According to the liberals, a sovereign parliament would provide better opportunities and look after the interests of the society better than the traditional institutions like the Churches and monarchy. They believed that this new system must have representatives who are professional, own a land, belong to and the mercantile classes, as stated by Camillo Cavour, a Piedmontese politician in 1847. Thus, the liberals believed that sovereignty must rest with the parliament that comprises intellectual middle class and not with the people.
Initially the themes of Communism and Socialismintroduced by Marx and Engelsdid not affect the short-lived revolutions of the countries in Europe but these themes of socialism affected the social as well as political elites nervous about the potentiality of the future revolution. Between 1925 to 30s, the Europe sighted emergence of many trade unions in which the ideology of class factors and wealth gap becameprominent. In the 1840, the continent faced major devastation due to pervasive financial crisis. Thiseffectivelycreated question regardingthe reason of that depressionwhich the concept of socialism answered.
The three nationalist leaders are Giuseppe Mazzini of Italy, Mahatma Gandhi of India and Ho Chi Minh of Vietnam.
Giuseppe Mazzini was a politician who was responsible for the unification of Italy. He made the people of Italy aware with nationalist feelings.Through nationalist ideology he started Italian revolutionary movement. Mahatma Gandhi was responsible to build people’s support for freedom from the British rule in India. Similarly, Ho Chi Minh was a VietnameseCommunistrevolutionary leader who helped the country to win the struggle of free form foreign rule.
Maduro, Miguel Poiares, and Marlene Wind. The Transformation Of Europe.