country
$20 Bonus + 25% OFF
Securing Higher Grades Costing Your Pocket? Book Your Assignment at The Lowest Price Now!

Historical Studies Mobility Stratification

tag 0 Download11 Pages / 2,537 Words tag Add in library Click this icon and make it bookmark in your library to refer it later. GOT IT

Question:

Discuss About The Historical Studies Of Mobility Stratification?

 

Answer:

Introduction

In recent times, there have been concerns about the rise in obesity and overweight that poses great risk to a people’s health. However, of importance in this paper, is to look at how socioeconomic status, especially in developed countries increase the potential for such conditions. In particular, this paper focuses on obesity and overweight in diverse socioeconomic status in developed countries. In addition to that, it is important to look at various ways of measuring inequality by use of either socioeconomic status or obesity and overweight (Hill, & Peters,1998). The concerns about the inequality are not new but have spread and continue to widen over the last fifty years.

Thus, there is a trend that is important for one to take note. On the other hand, structural resources help us understand socio-economic inequalities in many ways. Laws, guidelines, and policies exist within given countries which influences socioeconomic status and inequalities of those countries. Thus, what are some of the lobby groups that campaign against inequality in developed countries (Caballero, 2007). By use of various resources such as mainstream media, they will aid in forming explanations for addressing the problem. Last but most importantly, the paper will demonstrate examples of these media outlets that can be useful as far as the case study under discussion is concerned.

 

Overweight/ Obesity about developed countries

Concerns about overweight and obesity cannot be overemphasized. Biologically, it becomes as a result of one having excess intake of energy than the one given out, which leads to deposition of fats and in effect, increase in body weight. One is overweight when he or she has excess body adiposity. By BMI standards, overweight is having a BMI of the range of 25-31. On the other hand, one is described as obese; or rather obesity is having a BMI of more than 30 in both females and males (Finkelstein, Ruhm, & Kosa, 2005).  In developed countries, there is an increase in these two conditions. There are many factors that research attributes to this increase in obesity and overweight in developed countries. These factors include but are not limited to culture, socioeconomic status, policies, rules and regulations among others. Taking socioeconomic status, for instance, it has various implications on how a person lives, what he or she eats and the activities that he or she engages in. All these factors have potential impact, either negatively or positively on his or her health status (Nestle et al.,1998).

In developed countries, there exist three groups that can be categorized as classes. These are the rich, or upper class, also known as the elites. Secondly, there is the middle class, and lastly, there exists the lower class or the poor. The upper class and the rich live relatively well regarding to meeting their basic needs while the lower class or the poor struggle to make ends meet (Hatzenbuehler, Phelan, & Link, 2013). Therefore, living healthy entails many aspects which include being able to purchase healthy foodstuff. Research indicates that cheap goods or foodstuff in developed countries are mostly junky foods  rich in sugar contents that pose serious threat to healthy and proper body weight of a person (Candib, 2007). Thus, the inequality, and in effect, socioeconomic status is a risk factor in lower class of becoming obese and overweight for they are unable to afford expensive and healthy food. On the other hand, this does not suggest that the elite or middle class live any better if recent research is anything to go by (Brownell, & Warner, 2009). It appears that culture does not spare them either as they tend to prefer foods that are not healthy or this is causing an alarming rate of overweight and obese in developed countries.

Measuring Inequality

Inequalities in developed countries or any other society can be measured by use of various indicators. To start with educational attainment, this measure is vital as it represents the position that a person is ranked in society. Additionally, it determines the income and skills that one possesses. Thus, in determining the inequality of a country, it is crucial to look at the education level of her citizens (Diderichsen, Whitehead, & Burström, 2001). Lastly, education level tells of the social class of a person, either among the elites or illiterate, with knowledge come wisdom, and therefore, this is an important element that tells the state of inequality in a country (Van Leeuwen, & Maas, 2010). Another way of measuring inequality is by use of income. It represents the amount of salary or wages one gets and his financial ability. In showing inequality, income is important in dividing people into various groups, that is, those able to live a decent life and those not able to live a decent life. In addition to that, there is also wealth (Boero, 2009). This represents the amount of income or assets that one possesses; inequality and socioeconomic status can also be demonstrated by assets or money in accounts that one has verses those without anything.

Lastly, another way of measuring inequality is by use of poverty indicators. This is vital in the sense that those below the poverty line are of different class from those above the poverty line and the gap comes out clearly when looking at the things that they can afford (Metzl, & Hansen, 2014). On the other hand, obesity and overweight is a condition that is common among people of lower classes and by looking at the number of people suffering from this condition, it can be an indicator in representing inequalities of developed countries.

 

Trend in obesity and inequality in the past 50 years

Obesity and overweight are on the rise for over fifty years in developed nations, and especially in the United States of America. In addition to that, there is also an increase in the gap between the elite and those of lower classes (Pickett, & Wilkinson, 2015). Research indicates that in the last fifty years, there is a trend of people adopting a sedentary kind of lifestyle. Moreover, statistics indicate that young people, especially students engaging in drinking and smoking (NCD Risk Factor Collaboration, 2016). This has seen an increase in obesity and overweight among people in the last fifty years. The World Health Organization has for instance caution the United States that her adults risk being suffering from obesity and overweight in coming years if they do not check on their diet and culture.

Structural Resources

Laws, policies, rules, regulations or guidelines are instrumental in governing any state. They also determine the culture of a particular state and how the society is shaped. As far as the issue in question is concerned, these aspects have a greater influence on the tax of commodities, what is consumed by the society, information and knowledge that people have and affordability of food staff (Robertson, 2014). In addition to that, they also determine socioeconomic classes of her citizens. Thus, they are important to let anyone understand the causes of inequality and what are various ways that can be used to seal loopholes as it is evident that it is giving rise to health concerns.  To start with laws and regulation, they determine tax on goods and people’s income. To increase tax on healthy foodstuff, poor people are not likely to be able to purchase while lowering such taxes and implementing rules favorable to the whole population about healthy foodstuff is synonymous to increasing the health status of a given country (Heuer, McClure, & Puhl, 2011). In addition to that, another way is to put in place laws and regulations that forbid the sale of alcohol or cigarettes to children under the age of 18 years. It is evident that it has a bearing on causing obesity and overweight and putting such measure will see people drinking responsibly at a mature age.

Moreover, regulations can aid in subsidizing the tax levied on goods. This can help the poor to afford in buying healthy foodstuff. Lastly, policies are essential in controlling what a country imports or what it exports. Research indicates that over-processed foods can increase the chances of one being obese or overweight. Putting in place proper regulation will see imports of harmful substances being put at bay to save developed countries against canned and over processed foods. These are some of the ways that structural resources can make us understand and solve the problem.

Influences of lobby groups

To articulate and raise the grievances that are almost becoming a menace in developed nations, lobby groups, that is, industry manufacturers, health food advocacy and the media have a greater role to play in this part. To start with regulations, food industry lobby group can advise the state on how best to put regulations that will see them go through the transition of producing unhealthy foodstuffs to healthy ones. In addition to that, food industries groups can be at the forefront in the implementation of a regulation that advocates for healthy product for all classes by producing goods that are fit for consumption. In addition to that, it can be the responsibility of this industry and groups to educate the public on what is fit for consumption, by not only producing it but also fostering a cultural change. On the other hand, healthy food advocacy lobby groups can help in pointing out all the groups that violate laws that the state puts in place to curb unhealthy habit. Another role of healthy food advocacy is in educating the public on legislation concerning foodstuffs, cultures that are inclusive and healthy to avoid obesity and overweight and also serve and consultants in formulations of rules and regulations. On the other hand, the media personnel’s ought to act in a manner that informs the public on the dangers of one being obese and the guidelines that the government has put in place to rectify inequality.

 

Maintaining Inequality

On the other hand, the three resources may interact to hamper advocacy of equality and rather promote or maintain this trend in developed nations. To start with regulations food industry, an interaction between the two may make it difficult to have a balance in health status. In the sense that, those from the middle and upper class will continue to afford the goods they need, while the lower classes continue to subscribe to cheap and unhealthy foodstuffs. In addition to that, regulation and lobby groups may turn a blind eye, in that, by failing to raise the alarm on increased taxation among the lower classes. Lastly, the media has the responsibility of informing the public, on the right habits, culture that foster integration and healthy living and obtaining knowledge.

 

Conclusion

Thus, it is evident that inequality in developed countries is growing at an alarming rate. However, what is worrying is the rate at which this difference is making people obese and overweight. Over the past 50 years, there has been an increase in inequality that can be demonstrated by socioeconomic status. Some of the aspects that one can use to measure socioeconomic status include educational attainment, income, poverty, and wealth. However, to effectively understand this issue, it is essential to look at structural resources that are in place, this include but are not limited to factors such as rules and regulation, guidelines and policies. On the other hand, lobby groups can play a crucial role in advocating for the widening inequality, for instance, by advising the state, or by suggesting regulation that will lower taxes on goods. Additionally, they can advise the public on the habits that are healthy and do not lead to obesity and overweight. On the other hand, it is possible for some structure to integrate and maintain the inequality, for example, by advocating for laws that promote inequality.

 

References

Boero, N. (2009). Fat kids, working moms, and the “epidemic of obesity”: Race, class, and    mother blame. The fat studies reader, 113-119.

Brownell, K. D., & Warner, K. E. (2009). The perils of ignoring history: Big Tobacco played        dirty and millions died. How similar is Big Food?. The Milbank Quarterly, 87(1), 259-            294.

Caballero, B. (2007). The global epidemic of obesity: an overview. Epidemiologic reviews, 29(1), 1-5.

Candib, L. M. (2007). Obesity and diabetes in vulnerable populations: reflection on proximal and    distal causes. The Annals of Family Medicine, 5(6), 547-556.

Diderichsen, F., Whitehead, M., & Burström, B. (2001). Researching the impact of public policy on inequalities in health. In Understanding health inequalities (pp. 203-218). Open     University Press.

Finkelstein, E. A., Ruhm, C. J., & Kosa, K. M. (2005). Economic causes and consequences of  obesity. Annu. Rev. Public Health, 26, 239-257.

Hatzenbuehler, M. L., Phelan, J. C., & Link, B. G. (2013). Stigma as a fundamental cause of population health inequalities. American journal of public health, 103(5), 813-821.

Heuer, C. A., McClure, K. J., & Puhl, R. M. (2011). Obesity stigma in online news: a visual   content analysis. Journal of health communication, 16(9), 976-987.

Hill, J. O., & Peters, J. C. (1998). Environmental contributions to the obesity  epidemic. Science, 280(5368), 1371-1374.

Metzl, J. M., & Hansen, H. (2014). Structural competency: Theorizing a new medical  engagement with stigma and inequality. Social Science & Medicine, 103, 126-133.

NCD Risk Factor Collaboration. (2016). Trends in adult body-mass index in 200 countries    from 1975 to 2014: a pooled analysis of 1698 population-based measurement studies             with 19· 2 million participants. The Lancet, 387(10026), 1377-1396.

Nestle, M., Wing, R., Birch, L., DiSogra, L., Drewnowski, A., Middleton, S., ... & Economos, C. (1998). Behavioral and social influences on food choice. Nutrition reviews, 56(5), 50-64.

Pickett, K. E., & Wilkinson, R. G. (2015). Income inequality and health: a causal        review. Social Science & Medicine, 128, 316-326.

Robertson, A. (2014). Obesity and inequities. Guidance for addressing inequities in    overweight and obesity.

Van Leeuwen, M. H., & Maas, I. (2010). Historical studies of social mobility and stratification. Annual Review of Sociology, 36, 429-451.

Appendix

Robertson, A. (2014). Obesity and inequities. Guidance for addressing inequities in    overweight and obesity.

Pickett, K. E., & Wilkinson, R. G. (2015). Income inequality and health: a causal        review. Social Science & Medicine, 128, 316-326.

Metzl, J. M., & Hansen, H. (2014). Structural competency: Theorizing a new medical             engagement with stigma and inequality. Social Science & Medicine, 103, 126-133.

NCD Risk Factor Collaboration. (2016). Trends in adult body-mass index in 200 countries    from 1975 to 2014: a pooled analysis of 1698 population-based measurement studies             with 19· 2 million participants. The Lancet, 387(10026), 1377-1396.

Heuer, C. A., McClure, K. J., & Puhl, R. M. (2011). Obesity stigma in online news: a visual   content analysis. Journal of health communication, 16(9), 976-987.

Boero, N. (2009). Fat kids, working moms, and the “epidemic of obesity”: Race, class, and    mother blame. The fat studies reader, 113-119.

OR

Cite This Work

To export a reference to this article please select a referencing stye below:

My Assignment Help. (2018). Historical Studies Mobility Stratification. Retrieved from https://myassignmenthelp.com/free-samples/historical-studies-mobility-stratification.

"Historical Studies Mobility Stratification." My Assignment Help, 2018, https://myassignmenthelp.com/free-samples/historical-studies-mobility-stratification.

My Assignment Help (2018) Historical Studies Mobility Stratification [Online]. Available from: https://myassignmenthelp.com/free-samples/historical-studies-mobility-stratification
[Accessed 26 May 2020].

My Assignment Help. 'Historical Studies Mobility Stratification' (My Assignment Help, 2018) <https://myassignmenthelp.com/free-samples/historical-studies-mobility-stratification> accessed 26 May 2020.

My Assignment Help. Historical Studies Mobility Stratification [Internet]. My Assignment Help. 2018 [cited 26 May 2020]. Available from: https://myassignmenthelp.com/free-samples/historical-studies-mobility-stratification.


At MyAssignmenthelp.com, we are committed to deliver quality assignment assistance in the fastest way possible. To make our service delivery fast, we have hired subject matter experts to work on different subject specific assignments. We have hired experts who owe in-depth knowledge in their respective subjects. As per their expertise, they provide geography assignment help, Physics assignment help, Strategic assignment help, history assignment help, art architecture assignment help and assistance with other subjects as well.

Latest Healthcare Samples

3HL005 Health And Health Behaviour

Download : 0 | Pages : 8
  • Course Code: 3HL005
  • University: University Of Wolverhampton
  • Country: United Kingdom

Answer: Introduction Health behaviour is defined as an activity undertaken by an individual to improve the health status of an individual by promoting and protecting the behaviours related to their health. In this report, the first section focuses on the term health behaviour and the specific behaviour on health and various reasons why it has impacted the health.  The second section focuses on some psychology factors which engage an indi...

Read More arrow

NUR329 Public Health: The Australian Perspective

Downloads : 6 | Pages : 4
  • Course Code: NUR329
  • University: Charles Darwin University
  • Country: Australia

Answer: Health Promotion Project On Dementia What is dementia? Dementia is a brain disorder with broader aspect which results in a long term and gradual decrease in the affected person’s ability to remember things and thereby affects the activities of daily life (Cerejeira, Lagarto & Mukaetova-Ladinska, 2012). The symptoms of dementia includes difficulties in finding words, memory loss, impaired judgment, and the most difficult is th...

Read More arrow

DDHA9100 DHA Research Capstone

Downloads : 2 | Pages : 2

Answer: Improving patient care through Electronic medical record system Studying the paper “Improving patient care through Electronic medical record system” by Soumia Chraibi I was able to learn few important aspects of Electronic Health Record system, and how it can be useful to improve patient care. In the fast growing healthcare sector, a significant issue arises due to errors in manual documentation of patient information, as we...

Read More arrow

CHC50113 Diploma Of Early Childhood Education And Care

Download : 0 | Pages : 3
  • Course Code: CHC50113
  • University: Victoria University
  • Country: Australia

Answer: Guidance: You may talk about how the children have improved in terms of their creative, emotional, physical or social skills. You may also include specific areas of improvement per child or as a group. The focus of this question is to evaluate how effective the learning experience was for the children in terms of improving different areas of their skills. Children’s learning can be described through an integrated aspect. The chi...

Read More arrow

CNA554 Primary Health Care 1

Download : 0 | Pages : 10
  • Course Code: CNA554
  • University: University Of Tasmania
  • Country: Australia

Answer: Primary Health Care (PHC) For Australian Elderly Primary Health Care (PHC) is the essential healthcare based on the scientifically solid and socially acceptable methods and technology making UHC accessible to everyone in a community.  Ensuring full participation of community members and affordable cost of care ensures self-determination and self-reliance development. PHC approaches health beyond the conventional health system whi...

Read More arrow
Next
watch

Save Time & improve Grade

Just share Requriment and get customize Solution.

question
We will use e-mail only for:

arrow Communication regarding your orders

arrow To send you invoices, and other billing info

arrow To provide you with information of offers and other benefits

1,318,775

Orders

4.9/5

Overall Rating

5,074

Experts

Our Amazing Features

delivery

On Time Delivery

Our writers make sure that all orders are submitted, prior to the deadline.

work

Plagiarism Free Work

Using reliable plagiarism detection software, Turnitin.com.We only provide customized 100 percent original papers.

time

24 X 7 Live Help

Feel free to contact our assignment writing services any time via phone, email or live chat.

subject

Services For All Subjects

Our writers can provide you professional writing assistance on any subject at any level.

price

Best Price Guarantee

Our best price guarantee ensures that the features we offer cannot be matched by any of the competitors.

Our Experts

Assignment writing guide
student rating student rating student rating student rating student rating 4/5

3076 Order Completed

99% Response Time

Emily Wei

Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D) in Civil Engineering

Singapore, Singapore

Hire Me
Assignment writing guide
student rating student rating student rating student rating student rating 5/5

2109 Order Completed

99% Response Time

Emma Zhong

Ph.D in Project Management with Specialization in Project Communications Management

Singapore, Singapore

Hire Me
Assignment writing guide
student rating student rating student rating student rating student rating 4/5

248 Order Completed

100% Response Time

Lloyd Bernabe

MSc in Accounting

London, United Kingdom

Hire Me
Assignment writing guide
student rating student rating student rating student rating student rating 5/5

1265 Order Completed

97% Response Time

James Cook

Masters in Management

Wellington, New Zealand

Hire Me

FREE Tools

plagiarism

Plagiarism Checker

Get all your documents checked for plagiarism or duplicacy with us.

essay

Essay Typer

Get different kinds of essays typed in minutes with clicks.

edit

GPA Calculator

Calculate your semester grades and cumulative GPa with our GPA Calculator.

referencing

Chemical Equation Balancer

Balance any chemical equation in minutes just by entering the formula.

calculator

Word Counter & Page Calculator

Calculate the number of words and number of pages of all your academic documents.

Refer Just 5 Friends to Earn More than $2000

Check your estimated earning as per your ability

1

1

1

Your Approx Earning

Live Review

Our Mission Client Satisfaction

Great job and Great experts! The follow up and process was fantastic. Also, communication with the expert was easy.

flag

User Id: 426409 - 25 May 2020

Australia

student rating student rating student rating student rating student rating

The solution was done in time thank you do much for your efforts but please taking care for grammar is needed there was so many mistakes in grammar thank you

flag

User Id: 371975 - 25 May 2020

Australia

student rating student rating student rating student rating student rating

good to do assignment was what I expected and thanks for that one I will use him again

flag

User Id: 241498 - 25 May 2020

Australia

student rating student rating student rating student rating student rating

Great work in completing my assignment on time, was very helpful and great with communicating with the require details. will definitely use them again!

flag

User Id: 285304 - 25 May 2020

Australia

student rating student rating student rating student rating student rating
callback request mobile
Have any Query?