Discussion: The process of global change
Discuss about the History Of The Origin Of Globalisation.
Globalisation is referred to a totalitarian representation of any system that is shaped in order to vigorously reconstruct the environmental, economic, cultural and political factors for the betterment of the humanity. Still, throughout the process of globalisation, a new scheme has evolved. Globalisation triggered a fixed and unchanged current prevailing in between the slow and the fast paced world. One where excellent advantageous incentives are given to the rich and prosperous countries, the unfortunate and the poor countries are hence kept underprivileged. As stated by Najam, Runnalls and Halle (2010), the process of globalisation has spurred the immense growth and development of the affluent countries instead of the ones who are the most in need of the same, the ones which are less prosperous ones. This paper is going to elaborate on the quote of Knox and Marston (2014), “The structures and flows of globalisation are variously embraced, resisted, subverted, and exploited as they make contact with specific places and specific communities. In the process, places and regions are reconstructed rather than effaced”. It will shed light on the primary process of global change and their historical and geographical context along with presenting the role of the space and place in the current global processed of political, cultural, social and economic change. Furthermore, the paper will also outline and suggest explanations on the uneven geographic outcomes of the global changes as well as the connections or disconnections in between the places around the world. Lastly, it will also focus on the work of geographers in this context.
The history of the origin of globalisation has long been an ongoing debate. There are scholars who consider the origin of this phenomenon to be in the modern period, while there are also many who regard globalisation with a long history. Crystal (2013) has argued that the process of globalisation is led by the modern age where wide number of development took place in the field of both connectivity and infrastructure all around the globe. This has led to more connection and interaction in between different nations and sharing of the culture, idea and tradition in this way took place. All these changes have put a very direct and intense impact on the globalization process. In terms of economy, more number of trade links took place in between the nations on a global scale and this has influenced both the domestic as well as global economies to a large extent.
Role of the space and place in the current global processed of political, cultural, social and economic change
On the other hand, some of the scholars point out that the origin of globalisation could be traced back to the ancient civilisations. Farmer, Sproat and Witzel (2016) has stated in this context that one of the most significant earliest examples that proves this point is that of the trade links in between the Indus valley Civilisation and the Sumerian Civilisation in the third millennium B.C. In fact, there are numerous other instances where the trade links were established in between different nations such as Greece, India, Roman Empire and Egypt. Zhaoming (2014) too has argued that there were business links in between the Roman Empire, Han Dynasty and the Parthian Empire and that too on a regular basis. Such a popularity of the trade relations has led to the emergence of different trade routed such as the Silk Route.
The globalisation in the current sense of term has come up into existence after the World War II. One of the major factors for this was the plan of the world leaders for breaking down the prevailing borders in order to foster trade relations in between nations. It is also in this modern period that countries such as Indonesia, Sri Lanka and India have gained independence. The emergence of the UNO (United Nations Organisation) was also one among the major steps in this context.
Place and space together define the nature of geography. They help in understanding the relationships in between the people and the environment at every scales. They also help the geographers to consider the active roles of the individuals, social structures and groups that play their role in creating the environment in which people work, play and live together. The concept of the place and the space highlights the ways in which they are produced through both the small and the large scale political, social and economic practices and also to offer new ways to think about the way how people engage in the environment in various diverse ways.
The social geographers considers the place as more than that of a dot on a map. They regard it as it is concerned with the hanging and historical characteristics of the locales, consisting of the economic, demographic, cultural, political, linguistic, geological and physical characteristics. Furthermore, they focus on the sociocultural spaces that is defined in the part by their “local histories and traditions, population features, economic characteristics (especially employment patterns), cultural/linguistic diversity, child and family well-being indices, and their adjoining territories” (Lawson 2016). As such, the social geography “presents neighbourhoods, hamlets, towns, suburbs, cities, counties, regions, provinces/states and nations as dynamic entities, ones that are endlessly socially constructed and constituted”. Importantly, these contexts are consequential in the ways in which social and educational policies play out in actual daily lives.
Uneven geographic outcomes of the global changes
Together, the place and the space are the cornerstone of social geography as well as are the central to sociology and as such, they are very relevant to how the process of education is conducted within the different communities. However, Vainikka (2015) suggests “everything in society is spatially and historically constituted. There are no spheres, realms, systems, perspectives, rationalities, relations, ideologies, identities, etc. that are spatial” Recognizing these spatial dimension of the geography education tends towards an enhanced and in-depth understanding of the interplay of structures, materials, and environments, both in the outside and inside of the specific spaces.
Even the world has been transformed from the colonial period where the futures of most of the laces were under the control of the others to a period of neoliberal globalisation where every place is responsible for its own well-being, the process of globalisation has led to geographical inequalities in livelihood and income chances persisting in all the scales. Researchers are examining the political and economic process that are underling these unevenness and inequalities. Globalisation has been implicated in the reproduction and production of inequality across the geography. Delgado Wise, Marquez Covarrubias and Puentes (2013) in this context have stated that globalisation has caused a global division of labours in between the developed and the developing countries. In most of the developing countries, females tend to work in the sectors where they are paid less. They work hard as the producers of food and hence, they are playing a very significant role in the food security but the importers and the exporters take its advantage as the women belonging from the poor countries do not know enough regarding the latest technologies and the new markets. The massive entry of females into the workforce all around the world is the major aspect of globalisation. In one hand, the women belonging from the poor countries are crowded into low paying jobs and on the other hand, the women in the rich countries are working in air-conditioned offices, working there with a handsome amount of money. Similarly, there is also a notable difference in terms of ethnicity and culture as well.
Globalisation has greatly contributed in the development of several countries including India and China through developing economic interdependence among them with different nations. The openness to the foreign trade and the investments have explained the intense growth and development of India. Ever since the government of the country has adopted the economic liberation policies in the year 1990, the situation of employment in India has improved notably. As according to the ILO (International Labour Organisation), the sum of Indians in the workforce has been increased by 80 million in the past one decade. The substantial reduction of the issue of unemployment in India has reduced the poverty level of the country (Di Cesare et al. 2013). Hence, growing urban middle-class families have begun to emerge in India. An increasing number of Indians now can afford to buy better and latest consumer services and goods as because of the stable revenue. With the same, as more number of people start to possess a good income some of them decides to use their money for running their own businesses and in fact, the entrepreneurs in India are generally the youngsters who are able to make their fortune through conceiving low cost solutions to the inconveniences of all types. The Foreign companies have brought in their technologies to India, which in turn is influencing the young Indians to dispose the prevailing social order.
Places that have been reconstructed by the structures and flow of globalisation
Globalisation has also positively influenced the economic growth of China as well. As according to the statistics, of 2003 the country has made near about 1413 billion dollars that has made it to stand in the sixth position in the world (Stirling 2016). Also, as per the index that is shown by the human development, the country has ranked number 94th in the world. After the adaptation of globalisation, China too has experienced a significant change in its total strength of poverty. At present, only 11.2% of the total population of China is in poverty and this is continuously decreasing (Yu 2013). Also, there is a great improvement in the field of tourism, export and improvement in the country as well. With the same, like India, with the increase in globalisation, the rate of unemployment in the country has also decreased.
In this globalised world, the connection for the cities and for this large sum of populations within them is a very crucial factor. The broad international trends and the common urban forms are developing but the future of every city would base on how these trends are localised, how the ICTs are taken into consideration within the city and what are the connections that are built by them. Internationally, the challenge is to make sure that the slow spaces are not locked out of these networks and are not left with insufficient resources in order to create better urban conditions (Rohrer et al. 2013). Domestically, the challenge is to make sure that the segregation of both the connected as well as the disconnected is restricted and limited are that they are neither allowed to inflame the urban inequalities nor challenge the quality of the city as a tolerant place of extreme coexistence and social mixture in between different groups.
The geographers are responsible to study the Earth and the various distribution of its features, lands and inhabitants. They examine the cultural and the political structures and studies the human and physical geographic characteristics of the different regions ranging in the scale of local to international. They gather various geographical data by field observations, maps, satellites censuses, imagery and different photographs. They conduct research through interviews, focus groups and surveys. They create as well as modify the maps and other visual geographic data representations. They analyse geographic distribution of the cultural and physical characteristics and the occurrences. They make use of different technologies in their work like the remote sensing, GIS and GPS.
Hence, it can be concluded that the three of the most significant factors that the current society bases the development on are the religious standards, economical standards and the environmental standards. Globalisation has manipulated each of the every factors mentioned and instead it turns them against mankind. It is through these three manipulative aspects that the globalisation has set a destructive and bad impact on the current society. However, it is also concluded from the above discussion that it is through globalisation only that the barriers among the nation are been diminishing to a large extent, which is indeed a positive impact. Hence, it is also led out a very positive impact on the economies of today and it is also expected to develop in the coming years as well.
Crystal, D., 2013. A global language. In English in the World (pp. 163-208).
Delgado Wise, R., Marquez Covarrubias, H. and Puentes, R., 2013. Reframing the debate on migration, development and human rights. Population, space and place, 19(4), pp.430-443.
Di Cesare, M., Khang, Y.H., Asaria, P., Blakely, T., Cowan, M.J., Farzadfar, F., Guerrero, R., Ikeda, N., Kyobutungi, C., Msyamboza, K.P. and Oum, S., 2013. Inequalities in non-communicable diseases and effective responses. The Lancet, 381(9866), pp.585-597.
Farmer, S., Sproat, R. and Witzel, M., 2016. The collapse of the Indus-script thesis: The myth of a literate Harappan civilization. Electronic Journal of Vedic Studies, 11(2), pp.19-57.
Lawson, H.A., 2016. Categories, boundaries, and bridges: The social geography of schooling and the need for new institutional designs.
Najam, A., Runnalls, D. and Halle, M., 2016. Environment and Globalization: Five Propositions (2010). The Globalization and Environment Reader, p.94.
Rohrer, J., Mugo, M., Joubert-Ceci, B., Khan, S., Eisenstein, Z., Nusair, I., Enloe, C., Davis, A., Hyndman, J., McFadden, P. and Carty, L., 2013. Feminism and war: Confronting US imperialism. Zed Books Ltd..
Stirling, M., 2016. Convulsive Flurry: Conspiracy, Consensus, Motivation: A Corollary to Lewandowsky et al (2015).
Vainikka, J., 2015. Identities and regions: Exploring spatial narratives, legacies and practices with civic organizations in England and Finland. Nordia Geographical Publications, 44(3), pp.172-172.
Yu, J., 2013. Multidimensional poverty in China: Findings based on the CHNS. Social indicators research, 112(2), pp.315-336.
Zhaoming, X., 2014. The Hepu Han tombs and the maritime Silk Road of the Han Dynasty. Antiquity, 88(342), pp.1229-1243.
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